Home | About PR | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |   Reader Login
Pharmacognosy Magazine
Search Article 
Advanced search 
Export selected to
Reference Manager
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2015| October-December  | Volume 7 | Issue 4  
    Online since October 22, 2015

  Archives   Previous Issue   Next Issue   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Viewed PDF Cited
Bioactive compounds from Carissa opaca roots and xanthine oxidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of their methanolic extract and its fractions in different solvents
Ramsha Saeed, Dildar Ahmed
October-December 2015, 7(4):295-301
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.158440  PMID:26692741
Background: Carissa opaca is known for its many ethnomedicinal uses. There was a need to study its bioactivities and identify its phytochemicals. Objective: The objective was to isolate and identify phytochemicals from roots of C. opaca and to evaluate xanthine oxidase (XO) and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of their methanolic extract and its fractions. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of finely divided powder of roots of C. opaca was obtained by cold maceration, followed by its fractionation to obtain hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic, and aqueous fractions. Phytochemicals screening was done by standard protocols. XO and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of the methanolic extract and its fractions were studied. The most active ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to the column and thin layer chromatography to isolate its compounds, which were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography comparison. Results: Methanolic extract displayed significant activity against both the enzymes with IC 50 of 156.0 mg/mL and 5.6 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Ethyl acetate fraction showed highest activity against both the enzymes with IC 50 of 129 mg/mL and 4.9 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Chloroform fraction had IC 50 of 154.2 mg/mL and 5.5 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Aqueous fraction exhibited significant efficacy against alpha-amylase (IC 50 5.0 mg/mL). Hexane fraction showed good activity against alpha-amylase in a dose-dependent manner but exhibited opposite trend against XO. The compounds isolated from ethyl acetate fraction included limonene, vanillin, lupeol, rutin, quercetin, b-sitosterol, Vitamin E, 2-hydroxyacetophenone, naphthalenone, 2,3,3-trimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)-6-methylenecyclohexanone, and 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester. Conclusions: Moderately polar phytochemicals of C. opaca roots possess exploitable inhibitory activity against both the enzymes.
  4,069 119 1
Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of a methanol extract from Vitellaria paradoxa stem bark
Harquin Simplice Foyet, David Emery Tsala, JC Zogo Essono Bodo, Azanfack Name Carine, Lissia Toussoumna Heroyne, Eyong Kenneth Oben
October-December 2015, 7(4):367-377
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.159569  PMID:26692752
Background: Vitellaria paradoxa is a traditional medicinal plant of Cameroon. Several studies on this plant have focused on the cosmetic profile of its fruits. The present study focuses on the anti-inflammatory potency of stem barks extract of this plant. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of V. paradoxa (VPME) stem barks on inflammatory response in rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory effects of VPME were evaluated in acute and chronic (28 days) inflammation induced in Wistar albino rats. The effects on hyperalgesia and locomotors activity were also quantified. The relative weight of lymphoid organs was obtained as well as some hematological parameters. Results: In the carrageenan-induced inflammation, VPME (75 mg/kg) exhibited a significant (66.67%) inhibition after 1 h. On the complete Freund's adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis, VPME showed a significant protective effect with 8.12% inflammation against 25.00% for the control group after 2 days of the treatment. The extract (75 and 150 mg/kg) significantly reduced the score of arthritis with a maximum obtained on day 19 th of the experimentation. There was a significant increase in the reaction time of rats on the hot plate as well as the exploratory activities of the animals in the open field. This extract significantly prevented weight, hemoglobin and red blood cells losses, and spleen hypertrophy. A protective action against skin destruction and cartilage erosion was evident. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the extract revealed the presence of catechins. Conclusions: These findings suggested that V. paradoxa may contribute to the reduction of the inflammatory response.
  4,006 169 2
Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms
Munirah Haron, Sabariah Ismail
October-December 2015, 7(4):341-349
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.159580  PMID:26692748
Background: Glucuronidation catalyzed by uridine 5'- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) is a major phase II drug metabolism reaction which facilitates drug elimination. Inhibition of UGT activity can cause drug-drug interaction. Therefore, it is important to determine the inhibitory potentials of drugs on glucuronidation. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the inhibitory potentials of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, ketamine and buprenorphine, respectively on 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation in rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes and recombinant human UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 isoforms. Materials and Methods: The effects of the above four compounds on the formation of 4-MU glucuronide from 4-MU by rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes, recombinant human UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 isoforms were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Results: For rat liver microsomes, ketamine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC 50 value of 6.21 ± 1.51 mM followed by buprenorphine with an IC 50 value of 73.22 ± 1.63 mM. For human liver microsomes, buprenorphine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC 50 value of 6.32 ± 1.39 mM. For human UGT1A1 isoform, 7-hydroxymitragynine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC 50 value of 7.13 ± 1.16 mM. For human UGT2B7 isoform, buprenorphine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation followed by 7-hydroxymitragynine and ketamine with respective IC 50 values of 5.14 ± 1.30, 26.44 ± 1.31, and 27.28 ± 1.18 mM. Conclusions: These data indicate the possibility of drug-drug interaction if 7-hydroxymitragynine, ketamine, and buprenorphine are co-administered with drugs that are UGT2B7 substrates since these three compounds showed significant inhibition on UGT2B7 activity. In addition, if 7-hydroxymitragynine is to be taken with other drugs that are highly metabolized by UGT1A1, there is a possibility of drug-drug interaction to occur.
  3,964 97 1
Preclinical screening of phyllanthus amarus ethanolic extract for its analgesic and antimicrobial activity
S Sham Bhat, K Sundeep Hegde, Sharath Chandrashekhar, SN Rao, Shyamjith Manikkoth
October-December 2015, 7(4):378-384
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.159577  PMID:26692753
Background: To discover a new agent which possesses dual property of analgesic and antimicrobial activity, thereby reducing the burden of polypharmacy. Phyllanthus amarus was screened for its analgesic and antimicrobial activities. Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the analgesic and antimicrobial activity, of P. amarus ethanolic extract (PAEE). Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of P. amarus was prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. An in vivo study using Swiss albino mice was done to screen the central and peripheral analgesic activity of P. amarus extract. The extract was administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight orally. The peripheral analgesic activity was assessed using acetic acid induced writhing test. The central analgesic activity was assessed using Eddy's hot plate apparatus. An in vitro study was carried out to study the antimicrobial activity of the above extract using selected species of Streptococcus mutans, and S. salivarius. The antimicrobial activities were determined using the agar well method. Results: The ethanolic extract of P. amarus showed significant (P < 0.05) peripheral and central analgesic activity. In vitro antimicrobial screening indicated that the ethanolic extract had shown a zone of inhibition against S. mutans and S. salivarius in the agar wells. Conclusion: This study showed that PAEE exhibited significant analgesic and antimicrobial activities.
  3,889 137 -
Seasonal variation in the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic content of Artemisia absinthium essential oils
A Mohammadi, T Ahmadzadeh Sani, AA Ameri, M Imani, E Golmakani, H Kamali
October-December 2015, 7(4):329-334
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.158441  PMID:26692746
Background: The genus Artemisia belonging to the Compositae (Asteraceae) family and many traditional uses from the Artemisia species were reported. Artemisia absinthium is one of the species in this genus and commonly used in the food industry in the preparation of aperitifs, bitters, and spirits. Objective: Evaluation of the effect of different harvesting stages on the composition of essential oil and antioxidant capacity of A. absinthium. Materials and Methods: Essential oils from the aerial parts of A. absinthium, collected in three stages (preflowering, flowering, and after-flowering) from plants grown in the North Khorasan province of Iran were obtained by steam distillation and the chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were determined by 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method. Results: Analysis of the isolated oils revealed the presence of 44 compounds, mainly alpha-pinene, sabinene, beta-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, p-cymene and chamazulene. Alpha-phellandrene, and chamazulene were major compounds in preflowering stage, but beta-pinene and alpha-phellandrene were major in flowering and past-flowering stages. Flowering stage had highest yield and after flowering stage had lowest yield. The essential oil of preflowering stage had the highest amount of antioxidant compound (chamazulene). Preflowering stage with highest amount of phenolic compounds had the strongest antioxidant activity with the lowest amount of EC 50 . Conclusion: This study showed that the harvesting stage had significant effects on chemical composition and antioxidant properties of essential oils, and chamazulene is main compound for antioxidant activity in A. absinthium.
  3,810 107 4
Beliefs, attitudes and self-use of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy medicines among senior pharmacy students: An exploratory insight from Andhra Pradesh, India
Akram Ahmad, Muhammad Umair Khan, Bandari Deepak Kumar, Gogikar Sudhir Kumar, Stephanie Perez Rodriguez, Isha Patel
October-December 2015, 7(4):302-308
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.158438  PMID:26692742
Objectives: To assess the beliefs, attitudes and self-use of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) medicines among senior pharmacy students. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among pharmacy students in four pharmacy schools located in Andhra Pradesh in South India. This study was conducted from the August to September 2014. The study population included all pharmacy students enrolled in Doctor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Pharmacy and Diploma in Pharmacy programs in studied pharmacy schools. The pretested AYUSH survey had 8 questions on AYUSH related beliefs and 8 question on AYUSH related attitudes. The survey also asked participants about AYUSH related knowledge, frequency of use of AYUSH and the reason for using AYUSH. The data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test were employed to study the association between the independent and dependent variables. Results: A total of 428 pharmacy students participated in the survey. 32.2% of the study population was females and 32.5% of the population resided in rural areas. Males were more likely to have positive beliefs about AYUSH when compared to females (odd ratio [OR] = 4.62, confidence interval [CI] = 2.37−8.99, P < 0.001). Similarly, students living in hostels were more positive in their beliefs about AYUSH compared with students living at home (OR = 2.14, CI = 1.12−4.07, P < 0.05). Students living in hostel also had a positive attitude about AYUSH use (OR = 1.74, CI = 1.03−2.93, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Pharmacy students held favorable attitude and beliefs about AYUSH use. This baseline survey provides important information about the pharmacy student's perception about AYUSH. Further research is needed to explore the reasons that shape the pharmacy student's beliefs and attitudes about AYUSH.
  3,695 141 -
Cholesterol esterase inhibitory activity of bioactives from leaves of Mangifera indica L
GM Gururaja, Deepak Mundkinajeddu, Shekhar M Dethe, Gopala K Sangli, K Abhilash, Amit Agarwal
October-December 2015, 7(4):355-362
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.159578  PMID:26692750
Background: In the earlier studies, methanolic extract of Mangifera indica L leaf was exhibited hypocholesterol activity. However, the bioactive compounds responsible for the same are not reported so far. Objective: To isolate the bioactive compounds with hypocholesterol activity from the leaf extract using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay which can be used for the standardization of extract. Materials and Methods: The leaf methanolic extract of M. indica (Sindoora variety) was partitioned with ethyl acetate and chromatographed on silica gel to yield twelve fractions and the activity was monitored by using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. Active fractions were re-chromatographed to yield individual compounds. Results and Discussion: A major compound mangiferin present in the extract was screened along with other varieties of mango leaves for cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. However, the result indicates that compounds other than mangiferin may be active in the extract. Invitro pancreatic cholesterol esterase inhibition assay was used for bioactivity guided fractionation (BAGF) to yield bioactive compound for standardization of extract. Bioactivity guided fractionation afford the active fraction containing 3b-taraxerol with an IC50 value of 0.86μg/ml.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that M.indica methanol extract of leaf have significant hypocholesterol activity which is standardized with 3b-taraxerol, a standardized extract for hypocholesterol activity resulted in development of dietary supplement from leaves of Mangifera indica.
  3,622 148 -
Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder and alternative medicine therapies among dentists of North India: A descriptive study
Devanand Gupta, Amit Mathur, Gaurav I Patil, Harshad K Tippanawar, Ankita Jain, Namita Jaggi, Rajendra Kumar Gupta, Purnima Garg
October-December 2015, 7(4):350-354
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157810  PMID:26692749
Aim: Health professionals especially the dental professional are the frequent targets of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) can be of some help in managing these MSD especially in. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of CAM therapies as a treatment modality for MSD management among dental professionals of north India. Materials and Methods: Registered dentist of North Indian origin, India (n = 3598) were included in the study. The questionnaire was sent to all the dentists which consisted of the demographic profile, MSD in the past year, CAM therapies utilization and opinion about CAM therapies. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21 and data were presented in tabular and graphic form. Test of significance was done using chi-square statistics with P < 0.05 considered as significant. Results: A response rate of 80% (n = 2879) was obtained, and all complained of MDS in some or the other part of their life. The use of CAM was reported among 70% (n = 2015) of the dentist who suffered from MSD. Other dentists either used conventional treatment or did not use anything. Conclusion: As the name implies, alternative medical systems is a category that extends beyond a single modality and refers to an entire system of theory and practice that developed separately from conventional medicine. CAM should be subject to rigorous scientific inquiry so that interventions that work are systematically distinguished from those that do not. In addition, the use of CAM treatments should be based on evidence of effectiveness and safety as demonstrated in randomized clinical trials.
  3,541 121 -
Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity and sterol composition of the marine algae, Sargassum glaucescens
Nasrin Payghami, Shahla Jamili, Abdolhossein Rustaiyan, Soodabeh Saeidnia, Marjan Nikan, Ahmad Reza Gohari
October-December 2015, 7(4):314-321
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.167893  PMID:26692744
Background: Sargassum species (phaeophyceae) are economically important brown algae in southern parts of Iran. Sargassum is mainly harvested as a row material in alginate production industries and is a source of plant foods or plant bio-stimulants even a component of animal foods. Objective: In this study, Sargassum glaucescens, collected from the seashore of Chabahar, was employed for phytochemical and biological evaluations. Materials and Methods: For that purpose, the dried algae was extracted by methanol and subjected to different chromatographic separation methods. Results: Six sterols, fucosterol (1), 24(S)-hydroxy-24-vinylcholesterol (2), 24(R)-hydroxy-24-vinylcholesterol (3), stigmasterol (4), β-sitosterol (5) and cholesterol (6) were identified by spectroscopic methods including 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR and mass spectroscopy. In vitro alpha-amylase inhibitory test was performed on the methanolic extract and the results revealed a potent inhibition (IC 50 = 8.9 ± 2.4 mg/mL) of the enzyme compared to acarbose as a positive control. Conclusion: Various biological activities and distribution of sterols in Sargassum genus have been critically reviewed here. The results concluded that these algae are a good candidate for further anti-diabetic investigations in animals and human.
  3,498 148 1
Ammi Visnaga in treatment of urolithiasis and hypertriglyceridemia
Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Ahed Jumah Mahmoud Al-Khatib, Asim Ahmed Elnour, Naama MS AlKalbani, Abdulla Shehab
October-December 2015, 7(4):397-400
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.167894  PMID:26692756
Ammi visnaga is a widely distributed Ancient Egyptian medicinal plant used for treatment of several diseases including urolithiasis (kidney stones). The active chemical constituents' khellin and visnagin obtained from the A. visnaga seeds have activity of antilithiogenic and pleiotropic. However, little is known about its activity on hypertriglyceridemia. The main aim of this review is to explore the use of A. visnaga in urolithiasis and to present a case of relevancy. We highlighted a case of a patient who has recurrent urethral stones and hypertriglyceridemia. The patient was treated with A. visnaga seeds, has recovered completely from ureteral stones and his high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol low levels retained to normal after using of A. visnaga seeds for 10 days. The present case of A. visnaga seeds being local medicinal plant has shown the effect in treating urolithiasis with extended effect on raising HDL-cholesterol. These results may provide insights for in vitro studies for isolation of these biologically active compounds for potential in raising HDL-cholesterol. Whether or not the later effect can have clinical utility remains to be explored.
  3,483 138 -
Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity and phytochemical study of Zhumeria majdae Rech. f. and Wendelbo
Behnaz Mirshafie, Najmeh Mokhber-Dezfouli, Azadeh Manayi, Soodabeh Saeidnia, Yousef Ajani, Ahmad Reza Gohari
October-December 2015, 7(4):309-313
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.158442  PMID:26692743
Background: Zhumeria majdae (Lamiaceae) is an endemic species growing in the South parts of Iran especially Hormozgan province. The plant is so-called Mohrekhosh locally and widely used for medicinal purposes including stomachache and dysmenorrhea. Objective: In order to separation and identification of the main flavonoid glycosides of the plant (aerial parts including leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits were used) and evaluation of its alpha-amylase inhibitory (AAI) activity, methanolic extract was prepared and fractionated to botanolic portion. Materials and Methods: Isolation of the main compounds of the butanol extract of the plant have been performed using different column chromatography methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography (C 18 column) and Sephadex LH-20 as well. The isolated compounds were identified by Hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance and Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and comparison with those reported in previous literature. Moreover, inhibitory activity of the butanolic extract of the plant against alpha-amylase enzyme was examined in different concentrations (15-30 mg/mL), where acarbose used as a positive control. Results: Three flavonoid glycosides: Linarin (1), hispidulin-7-O-(4-O-acetyl-rutinoside) (2), hispidulin-7-O-rutinoside (3) were successfully identified in the extract. The activity of alpha amylase enzyme was dose-dependently suppressed by the butanol extract. The extract exhibited the highest inhibition at 30 mg/mL toward enzyme (77.9 ± 2.1%), while acarbose inhibited the enzyme at 20 mg/mL by 73.9 ± 1.9%. The inhibitory concentrations of 50% for the extract and acarbose were calculated at 24.5 ± 2.1 and 6.6 ± 3.1 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Z. majdae contains glycosylated flavones and could be a good candidate for anti-diabetic evaluations in animal and clinical trials due to possessing AAI activity.
  3,424 57 -
Antiproliferative evaluation of terpenoids and terpenoid coumarins from Ferulago macrocarpa (Fenzl) Boiss. fruits
Seyed-Ebrahim Sajjadi, Maryam Jamali, Yalda Shokoohinia, Gisya Abdi, Behzad Shahbazi, Ali Fattahi
October-December 2015, 7(4):322-328
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.158437  PMID:26692745
Background: Ferulago macrocarpa is a plant used as flavoring agent and protectant in the food industry and as a folk medicinal plant in Iran with no available information on its chemical identity. Ferulago spp. showed to contain biologically terpenoids and coumarins. Objective: The objective was to isolate and characterize terpenoids and coumarins from the acetone extract of F. macrocarpa fruits and to evaluate their antiproliferative effects on several cell lines. Materials and Methods: A series of normal and reverse phase gravity and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses were used to purify constituents. Compounds 1-5 and 7 were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects on MCF-7, HT-29 and H-1299 cell lines. Results: Six compounds including bornyl acetate (1), 1,10-di-epi-cubenol (2), stigmasterol (3) and three coumarins grandivittin (4), prantschimgin (5) and 4"-hydroxygrandivittin (7) along with mixtures of feruloyl derivatives (6a-6c) have been purified. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance and MS analyses. Compound 2 showed moderate cytotoxicity effect with IC 50 values of 5.0 and 6.7 mM on MCF-7 and HT-29, respectively. Conclusion: 1,10-di-epi-Cubenol could be considered as a potential proliferation inhibitor of MCF-7 and HT-29 cell lines.
  3,317 137 1
A new Antimicrobial Prenylated Benzo-lactone from the Rhizome of Cissus cornifolia
Aliyu M Musa, Nasir Tajuddeen, Abdullahi Y Idris, Abdurahman Y Rafindadi, Musa I Abdullahi, Abubakar B Aliyu, Mikhail S Abdullahi, Mohammed A Ibrahim
October-December 2015, 7(4):363-366
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.159572  PMID:26692751
Background: Medicinal plants remain one of the largest reservoirs of new bioactive compounds. In this study, a new prenylated benzo-lactone (4, 6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-3-(1, 2, 3, 4, 5-pentahydroxypentyl)-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one) was isolated from the acetone extracts of the rhizome of Cissus cornifolia. The antimicrobial activity of the compound was evaluated against some microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The acetone extracts of the rhizome of C. cornifolia was separated and purified by various chromatographic techniques. The structure of the isolated compound was characterized by analysis of spectral data including one and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: The isolated compound was characterized as (4, 6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-3-(1, 2, 3, 4, 5-pentahydroxypentyl)-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one), it showed activity against 6 out of 10 tested clinical isolates of some microorganisms including S. aureus, S. typhi, and C. albicans. The inhibition zones ranged between 17 mm and 25 mm. The inhibition zones observed compare favorably with the positive control used. Conclusion: The compound could serve as a lead for the development of more potent antimicrobial agent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation and characterization as well as antimicrobial screening of the compound.
  3,089 131 -
Oleanolic acid prevents increase in blood pressure and nephrotoxicity in nitric oxide dependent type of hypertension in rats
Sagar S Bachhav, Mukesh S Bhutada, Sachin P Patil, Kinjal S Sharma, Savita D Patil
October-December 2015, 7(4):385-392
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.159575  PMID:26692754
Background: Recently, we have reported antihypertensive activity of oleanolic acid (OA) in glucocorticoid-induced hypertension with restoration of nitric oxide (NO) level. However, the involvement of NO-releasing action of OA was unclear. Objective: To explore antihypertensive activity of OA in Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) hypertensive rats wherein NO is completely blocked, which would allow exploring the possibility of involvement of NO-releasing action of OA. Materials and Methods: Five groups of rats were investigated as normal control, L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + enalapril (15 mg/kg/day), L-NAME + l-arginine (100 mg/kg/day), and L-NAME + OA (60 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. The systolic blood pressure, body weight, and heart rate were measured weekly for 4 weeks. Serum nitrate/nitrite (NOx) level, urine electrolytes concentration, cardiac mass index, and serum creatinine level were determined followed by organ histopathology. Results: OA and enalapril delayed the rise in blood pleasure following L-NAME administration. Decreased serum NOx level was not significantly increased with any of the treatment. OA produced a small, though nonsignificant, increase in the NOx level. L-NAME administration did not affect cardiac mass index. There was an increase in serum creatinine upon L-NAME administration which was prevented by OA. Decreased urine volume, urine sodium and potassium were reversed by OA. Conclusion: These results suggest that the antihypertensive effect of OA in L-NAME hypertension is due to diuresis and nephroprotection. However, OA has nonsignificantly affected the NO levels.
  3,081 59 -
Chemical constituents of Phragmanthera austroarabica A. G. Mill and J. A. Nyberg with potent antioxidant activity
Jihan M Badr
October-December 2015, 7(4):335-340
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.158436  PMID:26692747
Background: Phragmanthera austroarabica A.G. Mill. and J. A. Nyberg is a semi parasitic plant belonging to family Loranthaceae. It was collected from Saudi Arabia. It is widely used in folk medicine among the kingdom in treatment of various diseases including diabetes mellitus. Objective: The total alcoholic extract of P. austroarabica collected from Saudi Arabia was investigated for the chemical structure and prominent biological activity of the main constituents. Materials and Methods: Isolation of the active constituents was performed using different chromatographic techniques including column chromatography packed with silica or sephadex and preparative thin layer chromatography. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on different spectroscopic data as mass spectrum, one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation). Results: Phytochemical investigation of the plant resulted in isolation of 12 compounds. The isolated compounds were identified as chrysophanic acid, emodin, chrysophanic acid-8-O-glucoside, emodin-8-O-glucoside, pectolinarigenin, quercetin, dillenetin-3-O-glucoside, catechin, catechin-4'-O-gallate, methyl gallate, lupeol and ursolic acid. All the isolated phenolic compounds revealed significant free radical scavenging activities when tested using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl reagent. Conclusion: The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds can justify the use of P. austroarabica in traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes and verify its possible application as an antihyperglycemic drug.
  3,027 62 2
The evaluation of the activity of medicinal remedies of plant and animal origin on the regeneration of the earthworms' tail segments
Viktor Alexandrovich Bybin, Daevard Iosifovich Stom
October-December 2015, 7(4):393-396
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.159581  PMID:26692755
Now, in the global community there is enough hard recommendation to replace the vertebrate test animals into simpler organisms at the development, testing, and evaluation of the quality pharmaceuticals. The feature of planarian to regenerate in new individual planarian from a piece, which is only 1/7 of the original animal, allowed to create the alternative methods of testing of drugs, dietary supplements, water quality, influence of electromagnetic fields, and other radiations. The tests on planarian can replace the ones that are held today on mammals. However, the lacks of the bioassays based on the planarian regeneration are the need for complex and expensive video equipment for recording the regrowth of worms' body, the difficulties of culturing of flatworms and fairly long period of response. These difficulties can be avoided by using another group of the worms of type Annelida. The new individual can be fully recovered only from the front half of the body in many species of earthworms. Thus, the influence of the pharmaceuticals from earthworms, mummy, and Orthilia secunda on the ability of earthworms to regenerate lost tail segments has been investigated. The relations of the activity of preparations tested with doses and the time of the storage have been revealed. The principal possibility of applicability of the test reaction studied as a way to evaluate the effects and quality of remedies based on medicinal plants and earthworms has been shown.
  2,798 107 -