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   2013| April-June  | Volume 5 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 15, 2013

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Immune-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of Curcuma longa extract and its polysaccharide fraction
Chinampudur V Chandrasekaran, Kannan Sundarajan, Jothie R Edwin, Giligar M Gururaja, Deepak Mundkinajeddu, Amit Agarwal
April-June 2013, 5(2):71-79
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.110527  PMID:23798880
Background: While curcuminoids have been reported to possess diverse biological activities, the anti-inflammatory activity of polar extracts (devoid of curcuminoids) of Curcuma longa (C. longa) has seldom been studied. In this study, we have investigated immune-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of an aqueous based extract of C. longa (NR-INF-02) and its fractions in presence and absence of mitogens. Materials and Methods: Effects of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin TM , Natural Remedies Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, India) on proliferation, nitric oxide (NO), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukins (ILs) and prostaglandin (PGE 2 ) levels of mouse splenocytes and mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) cells were determined. Results: NR-INF-02 increased splenocytes number in presence and absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or concanavalin A. Treatment of NR-INF-02 showed a significant increase of NO, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, interferon (IFN) gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and MCP-1 production in unstimulated mouse splenocytes and mouse macrophages. Interestingly, NR-INF-02 showed potent inhibitory effect towards release of PGE 2 and IL-12 levels in LPS stimulated mouse splenocytes. Further, NR-INF-02 was fractionated into polysaccharide fraction (F1) and mother liquor (F2) to study their immune-modulatory effects. F1 was found to be more potent than F2 toward inhibiting PGE 2 and IL-12 in LPS stimulated splenocytes. Conclusion: Present findings revealed the novel anti-inflammatory property of NR-INF-02 and its polysaccharide fraction by inhibiting the secretion of IL-12 and PGE 2 in vitro.
  18 5,126 176
The heavy metal contents of some selected medicinal plants sampled from different geographical locations
Kofi Annan, Rita A Dickson, Isaac K Amponsah, Isaac K Nooni
April-June 2013, 5(2):103-108
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.110539  PMID:23798884
Background: The levels of 5 minerals namely; lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, and aluminum were assessed in 10 medicinal plants sampled from 5 different geographical locations to determine the effect of location on the plants' mineral content. Materials and Methods: Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (wet digestion) was used for the analyzes, and content of the minerals per sample was expressed as μg/g. The levels of minerals were compared to their limit specification for herbs and daily total intake of these minerals. A two-way analysis of variance, which tends to look at the effect of the location and the medicinal plant itself on the plants mineral content, was used in the statistical analysis. Results: Lead (Pb) was present in all plant species examined, except Ocimum gratissimum. One plant exceeded the maximum safety limit for lead. Cadmium was also detected in some of the medicinal plant species (44%) whilst majority were below the detection limit (0.002) representing 56%. 40% of the plant species exceeded the limit for cadmium. Mercury and arsenic in all the plant species were below the detection limit (0.001). Significant variation existed in mineral content for the various locations ( P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The findings generally suggest the variation in mineral levels for the various locations. Thus, our study has shown that same species of medicinal plants, growing in different environments, accumulates different levels of heavy metals.
  9 3,967 138
Anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) in Sprague Dawley rats
R Ramesh Petchi, C Vijaya, S Parasuraman
April-June 2013, 5(2):113-117
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.110541  PMID:23798886
Objective: To determine the anti-arthritic effect of whole plant ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats using the Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) model. Materials and Methods: The plant was collected from different regions of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, and the phytoconstituents were identified through chemical tests. Ethanol (95%) was used to obtain the whole plant extraction through Soxhlet extractor. Female SD rats were used for anti-arthritic screening. Arthritis was induced using FCA, and the anti-arthritic effect of the ethanolic extract of T. procumbens was studied at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. The effects were compared with those of indomethacin (10 mg/kg). At the end of the study, the liver enzyme levels were determined and a radiological examination was carried out. Result: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of T. procumbens indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. T. procumbens at 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited the FCA-induced arthritis in the rats. This was manifested by as a decrease in the paw volume. The arthritic control animals exhibited a significant decrease in body weight compared with control animals without arthritis. T. procumbens animals showed dose dependent reduction in decrees in body weight and arthritis. At the same time, T. procumbens significantly altered the biochemical and haematological changes induced by FCA ( P < 0.05). The anti-arthritic effect of T. procumbens was comparable with that of indomethacin. Conclusion: The whole plant extract of T. procumbens showed significant anti-arthritic activity against FCA-induced arthritis in female SD rats.
  6 4,243 81
Secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Albizia anthelmintica
Tahia K Mohamed, Mahmoud I Nassar, Ahmed H Gaara, Walaa A El-Kashak, Ińaki Brouard, Sayed A El-Toumy
April-June 2013, 5(2):80-85
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.110530  PMID:23798881
Background: Albizia species are rich in phenolics and terpenes in the different plant organs. They are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. So this study investigated the phytochemical and biological activities of Albizia Anthelmintica. Materials and Methods: Column chromatography has been performed for the isolation of compounds. Bioactivity studies of A. anthelmintica leaves were carried out on aqueous ethanol extract and some pure compounds were tested for their antioxidant activities. Results: Eight compounds have been isolated for the first time from A. anthelmintica. The aqueous ethanol extract of A. anthelmintica showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity and significant for both analgesic and antioxidant activities. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-(6β-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-(6β-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside) exhibited potent antioxidant scavenging activity towards diphenyl-picrylhydrazine.
  6 3,930 58
Isolation and identification of bacterial endophytes from pharmaceutical agarwood-producing Aquilaria species
Subhash J Bhore, Jagadesan Preveena, Kodi I Kandasamy
April-June 2013, 5(2):134-137
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.110545  PMID:23798890
Background: Resins and gums are used in traditional medicine and do have potential applications in pharmacy and medicine. Agarwood is the fragrant resinous wood, which is an important commodity from Aquilaria species and has been used as a sedative, analgesic, and digestive in traditional medicine. Endophytic bacteria are potentially important in producing pharmaceutical compounds found in the plants. Hence, it was important to understand which types of endophytic bacteria are associated with pharmaceutical agarwood-producing Aquilaria species. Objective: This study was undertaken to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria associated with agarwood-producing seven (7) Aquilaria species from Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Botanical samples of seven Aquilaria species were collected, and endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized-tissue samples. The 16S rRNA gene fragments were amplified using PCR method, and endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity based method. Results: Culturable, 77 EBIs were analyzed, and results of 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis suggest that 18 different types of endophytic bacteria are associated with (seven) Aquilaria species. From 77 EBIs, majority (36.4%) of the isolates were of Bacillus pumilus. Conclusion: These findings indicate that agarwood-producing Aquilaria species are harboring 18 different types of culturable endophytic bacteria.
  5 4,079 99
Anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic activities of Acanthopanax trifoliatus (L) Merr leaves
Roslida Abdul Hamid, Teoh Hui Kee, Fezah Othman
April-June 2013, 5(2):129-133
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.110544  PMID:23798889
Context: Acanthopanax trifoliatus is a ginseng-like plant, which has been widely used to treat various diseases including inflammatory-related diseases. Aims: The present study has been designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects of various fractions of Acanthopanax trifoliatus leaves ethanolic extract in rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was studied by using carrageenan-induced edema on rat paw whilst anti-hyperalgesic was assessed by using carrageenan-evoked thermal hyperalgesia on plantar test. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using Student t-test to compare with control.Multiple comparisons for difference between control and extract-treated groups were evaluated by Tukey HSD (Honestly Significant Difference) test. P values less than 0.05 (P < 0.05) is considered significant. Results: Among three different fractions i.e., hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol tested, methanolic fraction displayed the most potent fraction amongst those three. It gave significant anti-inflammatory effect at highest dose, 500 mg/kg, with 77.24% of inhibition. Whilst for anti-hyperalgesic activity, methanolic fraction showed the highest efficacy at 375 mg/kg. Administration of methanolic fraction of Acanthopanax trifoliatus inhibited paw edema in a dose- dependent manner. The inhibition for both activities might be due to possible composition of polar compounds, which are flavonoids and phenolics content. Conclusions: Methanol fraction of Acanthopanax trifoliatus leaves has potential effect as anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesia in acute inflammation model.
  4 2,680 60
Anti-arthritic activity of root bark of Oroxylum indicum (L.) vent against adjuvant-induced arthritis
Mamatha Karnati, Rodda H Chandra, Ciddi Veeresham, Bookya Kishan
April-June 2013, 5(2):121-128
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.110543  PMID:23798888
Background: Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae) also known as Sonapatha is an indigenous medicinal plant widely used in Ayurvedic medicine for over thousands of years. It is an active ingredient of well-known Ayurvedic formulations such as Chyawanprash and Dasamula. Root bark of this plant has tonic and astringent properties and it is also used in rheumatism. Objective: The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of different extracts of root bark of Oroxylum indicum against adjuvant - induced arthritis in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were used in this study. Arthritis was induced by injecting 0.1 ml Freund's complete adjuvant intra-dermally into the left hind paw of the rats. The paw volume, hematological, biochemical, radiographic and histopathological aspects were evaluated. Results: The relative percentage inhibition potential of paw volume in rats treated with various extracts of Oroxylum indicum was found to be ethyl acetate extract (67.69%) >chloroform extract (64.61%) >n-butanol extract (58.46%) respectively. The hematological parameters like RBC count, hemoglobin content showed significant increase while there was a significant decrease in total WBC count and ESR in all the groups of animals pretreated with root bark extracts. The biochemical parameters such as catalase, glutathione contents showed a significant increase while the lipid peroxide and Cathepsin-D content decreased significantly only in case of ethyl acetate pretreated rats when compared to others. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of root bark of Oroxylum indicum exhibit anti-arthritic activity. The order of activity of extracts was found to be ethyl acetate >chloroform >n-butanol respectively.
  3 3,451 71
The triterpenoid fraction from Trichosanthes dioica root exhibits in vitro antileishmanial effect against Leishmania donovani promastigotes
Sanjib Bhattacharya, Moulisha Biswas, Pallab K Haldar
April-June 2013, 5(2):109-112
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.110540  PMID:23798885
Background: Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae), called pointed gourd in English is a dioecious climber found wild throughout the plains of the Indian subcontinent and traditionally used in India for several medicinal purposes. Objective: The present study was aimed at the evaluation of in vitro antileishmanial effect of triterpenoid fraction from T. dioica root (CETD). Materials and Methods: The antileishmanial activity of CETD was evaluated against Leishmania donovani (strain MHOM/IN/83/AG83)) promastigotes by in vitro promastigote cell toxicity assay by using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide). Potassium antimonyl tartrate was used as reference. Results: Here, CETD markedly inhibited the growth of L. donovani promastigotes in vitro in a concentration dependent manner and demonstrated IC 50 value of 18.75 μg/ml. The reference drug potassium antimonyl tartrate exhibited IC 50 of 7.52 μg/ml. Conclusion: From the present study it can be inferred that the triterpenoid fraction of T. dioica root exhibited remarkable antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes in vitro.
  3 2,629 54
Insulin secretion enhancing activity of roselle calyx extract in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Eamruthai Wisetmuen, Patchareewan Pannangpetch, Bunkerd Kongyingyoes, Upa Kukongviriyapan, Wiboonchai Yutanawiboonchai, Arunporn Itharat
April-June 2013, 5(2):65-70
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.110520  PMID:23798879
Background and Objective: Our recent study revealed the antihyperglycemic activity of an ethanolic extract of roselle calyxes (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in diabetic rats. The present study had, therefore, an objective to investigate the mechanism underlying this activity. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were induced to be diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Normal rats as well as diabetic rats were administered with the ethanolic extract of H. sabdariffa calyxes (HS-EE) at 0.1 and 1.0 g/kg/day, respectively, for 6 weeks. Then, blood glucose and insulin levels, at basal and glucose-stimulated secretions, were measured. The pancreas was dissected to examine histologically. Results: HS-EE 1.0 g/kg/day significantly decreased the blood glucose level by 38 ± 12% in diabetic rats but not in normal rats. In normal rats, treatment with 1.0 g/kg HS-EE increased the basal insulin level significantly as compared with control normal rats (1.28 ± 0.25 and 0.55 ± 0.05 ng/ml, respectively). Interestingly, diabetic rats treated with 1.0 g/kg HS-EE also showed a significant increase in basal insulin level as compared with the control diabetic rats (0.30 ± 0.05 and 0.15 ± 0.01 ng/ml, respectively). Concerning microscopic histological examination, HS-EE 1.0 g/kg significantly increased the number of islets of Langerhans in both normal rats (1.2 ± 0.1 and 2.0 ± 0.1 islet number/10 low-power fields (LPF) for control and HS-EE treated group, respectively) and diabetic rats (1.0 ± 0.3 and 3.9 ± 0.6 islet number/10 LPF for control and HS-EE treated group, respectively). Conclusion: The antidiabetic activity of HS-EE may be partially mediated via the stimulating effect on insulin secretion.
  2 4,063 65
Production of podophyllotoxin from roots and plantlets of Hyptis suaveolens cultivated in vitro
Rafael A Velóz, Alexandre Cardoso-Taketa, María Luisa Villarreal
April-June 2013, 5(2):93-102
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.110538  PMID:23798883
Background: Hyptis suaveolens was an important source of food and medicines in pre-hispanic Mιxico and is actually used popularly to treat respiratory and skin diseases, fever, pain, and cramps, between other ailments. In 2008 the presence of podophyllotoxin (PTOX) was reported in this plant. Objective: To establish in vitro cultures of H. suaveolens able to produce PTOX. Materials and Methods: Explants of H. suaveolens were cultivated in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of the phytohormones 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and kinetin (Kin), in order to induce the production of podophyllotoxin. Root cultures without hormones were also established and the quantification of PTOX was performed by HPLC analysis. Results: The presence of growth regulators during in vitro cultivation of H. suaveolens, provoked morphological variations in explants, and induced the accumulation of different levels of PTOX. Roots grown without phytohormones accumulated PTOX at 0.013% dry weight (DW), while in three of the callus cultures cell lines growing together with roots, PTOX accumulated at concentrations of 0.003, 0.005 and 0.006% DW when NAA was combined with either Kin or BAP. In wild plant material PTOX was present in trace amounts in the aerial parts, while in the roots it was found at 0.005% DW. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that although it is possible to obtain PTOX in a variety of in vitro cultures of H. suaveolens, in vitro roots grown without the addition of growth regulators were better producers of PTOX.
  2 2,223 11
Regeneration of multiple shoots from petiole callus of Viola serpens Wall
Umashankar Radheshyam Vishwakarma, Arun Manohar Gurav, Prakash Chandra Sharma
April-June 2013, 5(2):86-92
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.110533  PMID:23798882
Experiments were conducted to develop methodology for in vitro propagation and rapid multiplication of Viola serpens Wall. using petiole explant. The MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D (6.78 μm) was found most suitable for callus induction in petiole explant. The best growth response and higher rate of shoot regeneration from petiole callus was observed on MS medium containing BAP (11.10 μm) as the average number of shoots could be increased to 36.4 on fourth successive subculturing. Higher rooting response with larger number of roots were observed in shoots inoculated on the half-strength MS medium supplemented with IBA (19.68 μm).
  1 2,656 56
Volatile oil of Artemisia santolina decreased morphine withdrawal jumping in mice
Ahmad R Gohari, Mahdieh Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Soodabeh Saeidnia
April-June 2013, 5(2):118-120
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.110542  PMID:23798887
Introduction: Flowered aerial parts of Artemisia santolina Schrenk (Asteraceae), which is found in the central and western regions of Iran were collected from Khorasan province and the volatile oil extracted by hydro distillation. Materials and Methods: The oil (0.5% v/w) was analyzed by GC and GC/MS using DB-5 column. The effect of this oil on the withdrawal syndrome was determined in mice. After induction of dependency by morphine, mice were intraperitoneally administered different concentrations of the oil. Morphine-withdrawal inducing by naloxone was assessed by recording the incidence of escape jumps for 60 min. Results: The results indicated that a significant difference between the essential oil received group (at dose of 3.6 mg/kg) and control group was shown but the lower doses were not effective. Essential oil analysis showed that there were forty-six components, representing 95.4% of the oil. Conclusion: The oil of A. santolina which is rich in oxygenated monoterpenes with the major components, trans-verbenol (34.6%) and p-mentha3-en-8-ol (13.1%), can decreased the number of withdrawal jumping in addicted mice.
  1 2,361 41
The effects of unripe grape extract on systemic blood pressure, nitric oxide production, and response to angiotensin II administration
Mehdi Nematbakhsh, Behzad Zolfaghari, Fatemeh Eshraghi, Tahereh Safari, Zahra Pezeshki, Seyyed Mohammad-Ali Sorooshzadeh
April-June 2013, 5(2):60-64
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.110511  PMID:23798878
Background: Hypertension is the most common disease in the world. In Iranian folk medicine, unripe grape juice has been used as antihypertention remedy, but no data is documented for this popular belief. This study was designed to determine the effect of unripe grape extract (UGE) on blood pressure and the response to angiotensin II in rat. Materials and Methods: Unripe grape was collected, air dried, and extracted and concentrated. Four groups of Wistar rats received single doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of UGE or saline, respectively. The direct blood pressure and the serum nitrite level were measured one hour post UGE administration. The animals also were subjected to the infusion of various angiotensin II concentrations (100, 300, and 1000 μg/kg/min), and blood pressure was determined. Results: Mean arterial, systolic, and diastolic pressures (MAP, SP, and DP) in all UGE treated groups were less than the control group, but only at the dose of 125 mg/kg (Group 1) they were significantly different ( P < 0.05). The level of nitrite in groups 1-3 were significantly greater than the control group ( P < 0.05). No significant differences were detected for the MAP, SP, and DP to different concentrations of angiotensin II among these groups. Conclusion: UGE potentially attenuate MAP, SP, and DP via vasodilatation induced by nitric oxide production.
  - 2,491 49
New triterpenoid acyl derivatives and biological study of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen fruits
Nesrin M Fayek, Azza R Abdel Monem, Mohamed Y Mossa, Meselhy R Meselhy
April-June 2013, 5(2):55-59
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.110505  PMID:23798877
β-amyrin-3-(3'-dimethyl) butyrate, a new natural compound was isolated from the fruits of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen, in addition to lupeol-3-acetate and 4-caffeoylquinic acid (cryptochlorogenic acid). The structures of these compounds were identified using different spectral methods (IR, MS, UV, 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR and 2D-NMR). The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the unripe fruits, in addition to their aqueous homogenate exhibited antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities.
  - 2,808 49