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   2009| September-October  | Volume 1 | Issue 5  
    Online since January 2, 2010

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Antioxidant activity of Aquilaria malaccensis (thymelaeaceae) leaves
A.W.N Huda, M.A.S Munira, SD Fitrya, M Salmah
September-October 2009, 1(5):270-273
The phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Aquilaria malaccensis leaves were investigated. The sequential maceration extraction methods utilizing solvents with different polarities namely hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol yielded the corresponding crude extract. The extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, triterpenoids, steroids and saponins. The phytochemical screening suggests that flavanoids present in this species might provide a great value of antioxidant activity. Preliminary screenings of the free radical scavenging activity on the extracts of the plants with 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were tested and showed positive result. Quarcetine was used as reference standard. The extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity radical scavenging activity with IC 50 value of 8.0 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 1.6 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 1.4 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 30.0 μg/ml and 3.33 μg/ ml for hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate, methanol and quarcetine respectively.
  8,687 292 -
Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity of Hydroalcoholic and Aqueous Extracts from Bauhinia divaricata and Bougainvillea spectabilis Using the DPPH Assay
L Chaires-Martinez, E Monroy-Reyes, A Bautista-Bringas, HA Jimenez-Avalos, G Sepulveda-Jimenez
September-October 2009, 1(5):238-244
Bauhinia divaricata and Bougainvillea spectabilis are medicinal plants widely distributed in Mexico and they are used because of its potential hypoglycemic action; however, no free radical scavenging activity (RSA) studies over these plants are known. Thus, aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts from leaf and stem samples were evaluated for their RSA using 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH). Total phenolics and flavonoids extracts were determined too. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical program with the significance level set at P<0.05. Bauhinia divaricata stem aqueous extracts with total phenols content of 12.98 mg GAE/g DW had the highest amount between samples. The same behavior was shown in flavonoids determination. However, when RSA was estimated it was found that stem aqueous extracts from Bougainvillea spectabilis produced more DPPH absorbance reduction (95.66%), with an IC 50 (the concentration to inhibit the oxidation of DPPH by 50%) and AP (reciprocal of IC 50) values of 0.03 μg/mL and 33.33, respectively. These results were superior to common synthetic antioxidants used in the food industry like butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, IC 50=62 μg/mL) and can be useful for further applications of these plants or its constituents in pharmaceutical and alimentary preparations.
  8,636 173 -
Comparative Study of Cuscuta reflexa and Cassytha filiformis for Diuretic Activity
Sakshy Sharma, KK Hullatti, SM Prasanna, IJ Kuppast, Paras Sharma
September-October 2009, 1(5):327-330
Aqueous and alcoholic extract of Cuscuta reflexa and Cassytha filiformis were investigated for diuretic activity in Wister rats. The extracts were administered once orally at a dose of 300mg/kg. Frusemide (20mg/kg) was used as standard reference drug and normal saline (25 ml/kg) was used as control. Total urine volume and concentration of Na + , K + and Cl excreted in urine were estimated. Aqueous and alcoholic extract of Cuscuta reflexa and Cassytha filiformis exhibited significant diuretic activity and caused marked increase in Na + and K + excretion, when compared to saline treated controls. However the diuretic activity of Cassytha filiformis extract was higher than that of Cuscuta reflexa.
  4,705 178 -
Analysis of Total Proteins, Polysaccharides and Glycosaponins Contents of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. In Spray and Freeze Dried Methanol: Water(1:1) extract and its Contribution to Cytotoxic and Antiangiogenic Activities
MJ Siddiqui, SN Hafizoh, Z Ismail, HB Sahib, M.H.S Helal, A.M.S Abdul Majid
September-October 2009, 1(5):320-326
Orthosiphon stamineus (OS), Benth, (Lamiaceae), popularly known as Java tea, is a useful traditional medicinal herb cultivated largely in Malaysia and in Indonesia. This study was conducted to investigate the primary metabolic contents, cytotoxicity and antiangiogenic activity of freeze dried and spray dried extracts of the OS methanol: water (1:1). Primary metabolic contents were evaluated for total proteins, total polysaccharides and glycosaponins (P<0.05). Freeze dried extract showed high content of proteins and glycosaponins whilecontents of polysaccharides were high in spray dried extracts. Cytotoxicity was detected by MTT assay using MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line and anti angiogenesis assay was performed on rat aorta. Both extract showed moderate cytotoxic activity using extract in high and medium concentration. Freeze dried extract showed strong antiangiogenic activity while spray dried extract showed no activity. A significant change in total proteins of freeze dried extract may be the reason for strong antiangiogenic activity.
  4,247 90 -
Phytoconstituents from Alpinia purpurata and their in vitro inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Oliver B Villaflores, Allan Patrick G Macabeo, Dietmar Gehle, Karsten Krohn, Scott G Franzblau, Alicia M Aguinaldo
September-October 2009, 1(5):261-269
Alpinia purpurata or red ginger was studied for its phytochemical constituents as part of our growing interest on Philippine Zingiberaceae plants that may exhibit antimycobacterial activity. The hexane and dichloromethane subextracts of the leaves were fractionated and purified using silica gel chromatography to afford a mixture of C 28 to C 32 fatty alcohols, a 3-methoxyflavone and two steroidal glycosides. The two latter metabolites were spectroscopically identified as kumatakenin (1), sitosteryl-3-O-6-palmitoyl-β-D-glucoside (2) and β-sitosteryl galactoside (3 ) using UV, IR, EIMS and NMR experiments, and by comparison with literature data. This study demonstrates for the first time the isolation of these constituents from A. purpurata. In addition to the purported anti-inflammatory activity, its phytomedicinal potential to treat tuberculosis is also described.
  4,181 98 -
Anti-leukemia Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Lantana camara
Mahdi Pour Badakhshan, Sasidharan Sreenivasan, Rameshwar Naidu Jegathambigai, Ramanathan Surash
September-October 2009, 1(5):274-279
Anticancer effect of Lantana camara's root and leaf extracts against Jurkat leukemia cell line was investigated by MTT assay. These extracts had statistically similar antineoplastic property (root IC50, 328.36 53.08 μg/ml; leaf, 394.41 99.73 μg/ml; p > 0.1, n = 3), averagely 1/10 times as activity as carboplatin (IC50 34.83 3.60 μg/ml; p < 0.05, n = 3). Decreasing cytotoxicity at higher concentrations implied the existence of cytoprotective compounds. Morphological examinations indicated apoptosis induction as the mechanism of activity on Jurkat cells. In conclusion, L. camara's root and leaf extracts might be subjects for further fractionation and identification to find new anticancer agents.
  3,882 104 -
Antioxidant Effects of Roots of Clerodendrum serratum Linn
SS Bhujbal, S.M.K Kewatkar, LS More, MJ Patil
September-October 2009, 1(5):294-298
Over the past decade, herbal and ayurvedic drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of herbal health claims. In the present study we examined the antioxidant effects of ethanolic extract of roots of Clerodendrum serratum (CSR) at various concentrations in the DPPH radical scavenging assay, FRAP assay (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and the Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay. The results of the present study revealed that the plant extract has significant antioxidant activity and are encouraging for further assessment to elucidate the mechanism of action and to identify the bioactive compounds implicated in the antioxidant effect and the membrane stability.
  3,502 121 -
Studies on the Effect of Processing Methods on the Antihyperglycemic activity of Herbal Teas from Leaves of Vernonia amygdalina Del
GI Okafor, CO Okoli, AS Odo, NR Kelechi
September-October 2009, 1(5):256-260
The leaves of Vernonia amygdalina Del (Asteraceae) was processed into herbal tea using the black and green tea processing techniques. The green tea obtained was used as such while a portion of the black tea was flavored with O. basilicum or O. gratissimum. Methanol extracts of the flavored and unflavored herbal teas, obtained by cold maceration, were subjected to pharmacological studies for antihyperglycemic activity in alloxan diabetic rats and pytochemical analysis. Results showed that single oral administration of the tea extracts reduced blood glucose level of diabetic rats to varying the extents. Extract of green tea (GTE) caused a moderate reduction in blood glucose levels while black tea (BTE) evoked a mild dose-related effect. Extracts of the flavored tea caused significant (P<0.05) reductions in blood glucose levels. While the effect of extract of O. basilicum flavored tea (BTOBE) was dose-related, that of O. gratissimum flavored tea (BTOGE) was non-dose-related. A comparison of the magnitude of reduction in blood glucose level showed the order of potency: BTOBE>BTOGE>GTE>BTE. Phytochemical analysis showed relative presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids with GTE having the highest concentration of these constituents. These findings suggest that black tea technique may be preferred for processing leaves of V. amygdalina into herbal tea since it preserved the antihyperglycemic activity. Green tea method may reduce the antihyperglycemic effect even though it preserves the phytochemical constituents better than black tea technique. Flavoring of black tea with Ocimum spp enhances the antihyperglycemic effect due to their inherent hypoglycemic activity.
  3,302 75 -
Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Chlorophytum borivilianum Tubers in Alleviating the Diabetic Impotency in Streptozotocin Induced Male Diabetic Rats
NS Vyawahare, VG Kagathara, AD Kshirsagar, R Rajendran, MN Patil, AA Jagtap, SS Sadar
September-October 2009, 1(5):314-319
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has continued to grow over the past decade, and it is an important cause of organic impotence. In the present study we investigated the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of tubers of Chlorophytum borivilianum (CB) in alleviating the diabetic impotency in rats. Male wistar albino rats were classified into two groups as normal control and diabetic group. Normal control group rats were injected with 0.1 M citrate phosphate buffer (0.1 ml, i.p) while in diabetic group, DM was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg) freshly dissolved in 0.1 M citrate phosphate buffer (pH 4.5). On confirming the diabetic state, the rats in diabetic group were individually tested for sexual potency by pairing them with pro-oestrus female rat. Diabetic rats showed a significant decline in the sexual potency as compared to the normal control groups. Following this, the diabetic rats were divided into four groups and treated orally as: diabetic control group with distilled water 2 ml/day, CB-100 group with CB 100 mg/kg/day, CB-300 group with CB 300 mg/kg/day and standard group with sildenafil citrate 4 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Their sexual behavior was evaluated on 15 th day by pairing with a pro-estrous female rat and evaluated for CB, at 100 mg/kg, for sexual vigor and sexual arousal as compared to diabetic control rats. The study revealed dose dependent improvement in all the parameters of sexual behavior were enhanced against diabetic control group, reflecting increased potency.
  3,212 100 -
Diabetes Induced Oxidative Stress: A Comparative Study on Protective Role of Momordica charantia and Metformin
Uma Nath Tripathi, Deepak Chandra
September-October 2009, 1(5):299-306
Diabetes mellitus is associated with oxidative stress which plays an important role in development of chronic complications of diabetes. Due to various side effects associated with the drugs used for the management of diabetes, the development of new plant based drugs is the renewed interest of the present time. The new prospective anti-diabetic formulations should possess anti-oxidative potential to resist the oxidative insult of tissues during diabetes and their potential should also be comparable with standard drugs. Momordica charantia is extensively used in India, China and other parts of the world as vegetable. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Momordica charantia (MC) on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of alloxan induced diabetic rats. In a 30 days treatment, rats were divided into four groups (I-IV) of five animals in each, experiments were repeated thrice. Administration of MC (13.33 g pulp/kg body weight/day) extract in diabetic rats has remarkably improved the elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. A significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (p<0.001) and increase in the activities of key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents in liver and kidney tissues of diabetic rats were observed upon MC treatment. The anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant properties of MC were comparable with Metformin, a standard hypoglycemic drug.
  2,823 117 -
Psychotropic Activity of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. In Experimental Animals
VJ Galani, BG Patel
September-October 2009, 1(5):307-313
Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is a branched herb with purple color flowers, distributed in wet places. The present study evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of S. indicus (SIE) in rats and mice. Effect of SIE (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) on spontaneous motor activity, pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, motor coordination, exploratory behaviour and apomorphine-induced stereotypy were investigated in mice. SIE (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) induced catalepsy and effect of SIE on haloperidol induced catalepsy were studied in rats. The SIE showed significant reduction of spontaneous motor activity, exploratory behaviour and prolonged pentobarbital sleeping time in the mice. Neuroleptic potential of SIE was observed by the results in which SIE antagonized apomorphine-induced stereotypy in mice, produced catalepsy and potentiated haloperidol-induced catalepsy in rats. Further, SIE had no effect on motor-coordination as determined by the rota rod test. These results provide evidence that the hydroalcoholic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus may contain psychoactive substances that are sedative in nature with possible neuroleptic properties.
  2,779 132 -
Comparison Between the Antioxidant Properties of Slurry of the Coffee (Coffea Arabica) and Coffee Beverage
Bruno Alves Rocha, Bruno Lemos Batista, Stella Maris da Silveira Duarte, Marcelo Henrique Dos Santos
September-October 2009, 1(5):245-249
Residues of coffee called slurry are totally discarded after preparing coffee beverages and they do not present any potential use. These represent about 15-20% of coffee production on weight basis and attention are giving in how explored them. Coffee residues and beverage were evaluated, after extraction with different solvents such as hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, ethanol and methanol. Antioxidant potential from extracts were evaluated then, for this purpose, was used in vitro models such as radical scavenging activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, DPPH.), reducing power activity and chelating capacity. The highest yields were obtained for dichloromethane (B), ethyl acetate (C) and methanol (I). B extract exhibits the maximum radical scavenging activity (91.8%) followed by C extract (85.6%) and then, I extract (57.4%) each one at 200 mg L -1 . For reducing power activity the extracts B, C, I, ethanol (H) and ethyl acetate (E) showed 85.4%, 71.6%, 36.2%, 19.3% and 12.4% of antioxidant activity, respectively, at 1000 mg L -1 . The chelating capacity for I, ethanol (F), C and B extracts was 14.8%, 14.7%, 9.9% and 4.3% when compared to etilendiamintetracetic acid (EDTA) chelating capacity. The high antioxidant potentials observed for the extracts of the slurry is due to the presence of phenolic compounds including chlorogenic acids which make them more suitable as a source of natural antioxidant.
  2,764 98 -
Antimicrobial and Resistance Modulatory Activities of Corynanthe pachyceras
Adu Francis, Gbedema Stephen Yao, Annan Kofi
September-October 2009, 1(5):280-284
As part of the project to identify plant natural products which modulate bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) the methanol extract of Corynanthe pachyceras (Rubiaceae) K. Schum., were tested for in vitro antibacterial and resistance modifying activities against different bacterial strains including resistant staphylococcus SA1199B, RN4220 and XU212 possessing the Tet(K), Msr(A), and Nor(A) multidrug resistance efflux mechanisms respectively. Using the Micro-well dilution method the MIC of the stem bark extract ranged between 128-512μg/ml against the selected bacteria used. At 10μg/ml, none of the different extracts displayed any antibacterial action but in combination with tetracycline, erythromycin and norfloxacin, the stem bark extract displayed a 2-fold, 4-fold and 8-fold potentiation of activities of these antibiotics against XU212, SA1199B and RN4220 possessing the Tet(K) [tetracycline resistant], Nor(A) [norfloxacin resistant] and Msr(A) [macrolide resistant] transporters respectively.
  2,749 41 -
Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Ardisia crispa Thunb. D.C
AH Roslida, YH Teh, KH Kim
September-October 2009, 1(5):250-255
Ardisia crispa Thunb D.C (Myrsinaceae), has long been used in treating various ailments among the local villagers. The objective of this study was to investigate experimentally the possible anti-ulcer activity of Ardisia crispa. The effect of hexane fraction of root of Ardisia crispa (ACRH) was evaluated in experimental ulcer models with necrotizing agents ie ethanol, NaCl, HCl, NaOH and also COX-1 inhibitor namely indomethacin as inducers. Four doses ie 10, 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg were selected for further study. Ulcer effects were determined by counting the total surface area of lesion in mm 2 . Results showed that ACRH provided significant protection in various experimental models used. Pretreatment with ACRH at all doses (10,30,100 and 300 mg/kg) has produced significant inhibition of gastric mucosal damage induced by 80% EtOH and 25% NaCl, whilst at 30, 100 and 300 mg/ kg, ACRH significantly reduced the lesion formation in ulcer induced by 0.6 M HCl, 0.2 M NaOH and 30 mg/kg indomethacin. The present study indicates that the hexane fraction of Ardisia crispa (ACRH) exhibits significant anti-ulcer effect.
  2,532 90 -
Intestinal absorption, anti diarrheic activity of freeze dried aqueous extract from Rhizophora mangle L. Cytoprotective activity of polyphenolic compounds fractions on experimental gastric ulceration
Perera Luz Maria Sanchez, Mancebo Betty, Regalado Ada Ivis, Pelzer Lilliam
September-October 2009, 1(5):285-293
The effect of the freeze aqueous extract from red mangrove bark on intestinal absorption was studied in vitro e in situ models in rats. Anti diarrheic activity of this extract was evaluated using a model of ricin oil in rats. The polyphenolic fractions were separated from the aqueous extract and its cytoprotective activity were studied on gastric ulceration induced by ethanol plus hydrochloric acid in rats. The freeze - dried aqueous extract from red mangrove bark was used in both models employed to determinate the intestinal absorption. The freeze dried extract of R. mangle shown a high absorption. It was superiority at 95% in vitro study and the constant apparent of absorption's rate was 2, 03 0, 77. It was shown a high anti diarrheic effect of R. mangle in experimental model with ricin oil. The low molecular weigh polyphenolic fraction showed the highest level of gastric protection. Not additive effect was obtained by comparison between low and high molecular weigh polyphenols in this aqueous extract. The highest gastric protection was obtained by oral treatment with total of freeze aqueous extract at 500 mg/ kg body weight (b.w.). Probably the cytoprotective activity was resulted of other compounds presents in this extract joint at polyphenol substances.
  1,836 47 -