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   2009| July-August  | Volume 1 | Issue 4  
    Online since January 2, 2010

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Phytochemical Studies on Cissus quadrangularis Linn.
Achal Thakur, Vandana Jain, L Hingorani, KS Laddha
July-August 2009, 1(4):213-215
Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Family: Vitaceae) is an ancient medicinal plant, named as Hadjod in Hindi. A triterpene d-amyrin acetate (1), aliphatic acid hexadecanoic acid ( 3 ) and stilbene glucoside trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucoside ( 9 ) were isolated for the first time from the stems of Cissus quadrangularis, along with previously reported compounds namely, δ- amyrone ( 2 ) d-amyrin ( 4 ), β-sitosterol ( 5 ), kaempferol ( 6 ), quercetin ( 7 ) and resveratrol ( 8 ). The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds were performed by spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS) and by direct comparison with literature.
  8,165 287 -
Standardisation of Avipattikar Churna- A Polyherbal Formulation
HN Aswatha Ram, Ujjwal Kaushik, Prachiti Lachake, CS Shreedhara
July-August 2009, 1(4):224-227
Standardisation of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs, based on the concentration of their active principles. The present paper reports on standardisation of Avipattikar churna, a poly herbal ayurvedic medicine used as remedy for acidity and complications associated with it like headache, nausea and vomiting. It is also used as laxative and helps to increase appetite. Avipattikar churna was prepared as per Ayurvedic Formulary of India. In-house preparation and two marketed have been standardised on the basis of organoleptic characters, physical characteristics and physico-chemical properties. The set parameters were found to be sufficient to evaluate the churna and can be used as reference standards for the quality control/quality assurance laboratory of a Pharmaceutical house.
  8,029 208 -
Evaluation of extracts of leaf of three Ficus deltoidea varieties for antioxidant activities and secondary metabolites
Zunoliza Abdullah, Khalid Hussain, Ismail Zhari, Mat Ali Rasadah, Pisar Mazura, Fadzureena Jamaludin, Rohana Sahdan
July-August 2009, 1(4):216-223
Present study aimed to investigate alcoholic and aqueous extracts of three varieties of Ficus deltoidea for antioxidant activity using in vitro models such as free radical scavenging activity, reduction power of iron (III), superoxide anion (O2) scavenging, xanthine oxidase (XOD), nitric oxide (NO·) and lipid peroxidation. The total polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins were estimated using colorimetry in order to investigate their correlation with antioxidant activities. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of different varieties of the plant exhibited different radical scavenging activities in different models (P<0.05). Both the types of extracts displayed high antioxidant activity in DPPH and superoxide anion scavenging models, and the activity was comparable to quercetin, rutin, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), ascorbic acid and allopurinol. A correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and content of total polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins. The results of this study indicate that the extracts of Ficus deltoidea possess promising antioxidant activity.
  6,144 150 -
Damarane Triterpene from Cleome arabica
Ali K Khalafallah, Abou-El-Hamd H Mohamed, Afifi H Yousof, Taha A Hussien, F Hegazy Mohamed-Elamir, Ohta Shinji
July-August 2009, 1(4):162-165
A damarane triterpene was isolated from the aerial parts of Cleome arabica L. (Capparaceae). The structure of the compound was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1 D- [ 1 H and 13 C] and 2D- NMR experiments [COSY, HMQC, HMBC] as well as HRMALDITOFMS analysis.
  5,146 53 -
Development and Evaluation of Polyherbal Formulations for Hair Growth Potential
Vaishali Rathi, Jagdish Chandra Rathi, Sengodan Tamizharasi
July-August 2009, 1(4):234-237
The present study is an effort to formulate and evaluate hair growth promoting activity of three polyherbal formulations. Polyherbal formulations were prepared using extract of Cicer arietinum Linn., Ocimum sanctum Linn. and Cyperus rotundus Linn. in various ratios to obtained the best formulation The extract incorporated into cream were applied topically on shaved skin of rats and primary skin irritation test, hair growth initiation time, completion time, hair length and diameter were recorded. The ratio of Cicer arietinum Linn., Ocimum sanctum Linn. and Cyperus rotundus Linn. in 1:2:3 showed excellent hair growth activity comparable to standard.
  4,428 159 -
Evaluation of Haematinic Potential of a Herbomineral Formulation (HMF-TE) in Haloperidol Induced Anaemic Rats
Ashish Trivedi, SH Mishra
July-August 2009, 1(4):192-196
Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide, especially in India where 87% of pregnant women suffer from anemia and out of these about 10% have severe anemia (H < 80 g/l). In the present study a new modified herbomineral formulation (HMF-TE) containing two natural mineral sources was prepared in laboratory along with different supportive herbs. This formulation was evaluated for its haematinic potential in haloperidol induced anemic rats. The formulation (HMF-TE) exhibited significant haematinic potential by increasing parameters like haematocrit value, hemoglobin concentration, RBC count, MCV, MCH and MCHC.
  4,201 82 -
GC-MS Analysis of Terpenes from Ficus mucuso
Pierre C Djemgou, Francois Ngandeu, Mohamed-Elamir F Hegazy, Eric Rene Nkanwen, Gilles Neguim, Elisabeth Chosson, Philippe Verite, Pierre Tane
July-August 2009, 1(4):197-201
Fractionation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH extract of the stem bark of Ficus mucuso, a western Cameroonian plant species lead to five main fractions from which eleven terpenes previously reported from other species of the genus were identified. These were based on GC-MS analysis and comparison with the Willey database.
  4,133 108 -
Essential Oil Composition of the Dracocephalum moldavica L from Xinjiang in China
Tian Shuge, Zhou Xiaoying, Zhang Fan, An Dongqing, Yang Tao
July-August 2009, 1(4):172-174
The essential oil of Dracocephalum moldavica L from Xinjiang in China was isolated by hydrodistillation in yield of 0.15 %(w/w). The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by GC and GCMS. Fifty-one compounds accounting for 99.45% of the total oil were identified. The major components werea-Citral (32.55%), β-Citral (23.53%), Acetic acid, geranial ester(21.32%), Trans-Geraniol(3.38%), Nerolacetate(3.38%), Octane(2.14%), and 2,4,6-Trimethyl -3-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde (1.3%). Monotenepers were the main group of compounds.
  3,634 70 -
Cestocidal Activity of Acacia caesia stem bark on Raillietina echinobothrida
K Lalchhandama
July-August 2009, 1(4):179-184
The effects of the methanol extract of Acacia caesia Linnaeus (Mimosaceae) stem bark were examined on the avian gastrointestinal cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida Megnin. In vitro treatments of the cestodes with different concentrations, viz, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 20 mg ml-1, of the plant extract indicated that the plant extract caused dose-dependent paralytic and mortality effects similar to that of albendazole, with significant mortality (P < 0.05) when compared to the control. However, the plant extract showed significant lethal effect only at the higher concentrations such as 5, 10, and 20 mg ml-1 while albendazole was effective at all concentrations tested. Scanning electron microscopy of the cestode treated with 20 mg ml-1 of the plant extract showed profound morphological alterations which were the deliberate hallmark effects of anthelmintic drugs. Devastating obliteration of tegumental surface, focal erosion and degeneration of the microtriches of the proglottids, and distortion of suckers on the scolex were clearly discernible. The plant extract thus showed profound anthelmintic effects and apparently acted trans-tegumentally to cause morphological damages.
  2,920 59 -
Evaluation of extracts of Piper sarmentosum for accelerated stability by metabolomic fingerprint profiling
K Hussain, Z Ismail, A Sadikun, P Ibrahim
July-August 2009, 1(4):185-191
Unlike pharmaceuticals, precise stability assessment of herbal products is challenging because of their complex nature. A new trend in natural products is that the extract is considered active as a whole whether active constituents are known or not. Hence, the stability of all the constituents must be taken into account, which is possible by analyzing metabolomic fingerprint profiles. Therefore, present study aimed to evaluate ethanol extracts of fruit of Piper sarmentosum, an important medicinal plant, for accelerated stability using metabolomic fingerprint profiling. The extract was exposed to three storage conditions of different temperature and humidity and analyzed at 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 months by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) to get metabolomic fingerprints. FTIR fingerprints in combination with chemometrics indicated the changes in metabolomics, stirring with the passage of time at all storage conditions. Visual inspection of HPTLC densitograms revealed metabolomic changes in the extracts stored for 6 months at 60 °C and 85% relative humidity. The results of the study indicate that the products made from this plant ought to be stored at room temperature, below 30 °C and 45% relative humidity, and excessive heating must be avoided during manufacturing process. Moreover, the method may be used by natural product industry as a tool of identification, classification and discrimination (ICD).
  2,859 95 -
Biological and Chemical Study of Cleome paradoxa B.Br
Essam Abdel-Sattar, Azza R Abd El-Monem, Amany A Sleem
July-August 2009, 1(4):175-178
The methanolic extract of Cleome paradoxa B.Br. and its different fractions (viz. hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol) were tested for their antidiabetic activities. The ethyl acetate and hexane fractions exhibited the highest activities, which further subjected to chemical investigation. This study resulted in isolation of two compounds from the ethyl acetate fraction and three compounds from the hexane fraction. These compounds were identified using different spectroscopic methods as quercetin, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (isoquercetrin), α-amyrin, sitgmasterol and sitgmasterol-3-O-β-D-glucpyranoside. The major compound isolated from ethyl acetate fraction, isoquercetrin, was assessed for its antidiabetic activity.
  2,855 82 -
Preparation of Philippine Plant Extract Libraries for High-Throughput Screening
Christine L Chichioco-Hernandez, Irene M Villasenor
July-August 2009, 1(4):228-230
Various terrestrial plants were collected from different places in the Philippines. The dried samples were then soaked in methanol and partitioned using modified Kupchan method. Portions of the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions were treated for the removal of polyphenols. Dried methanolic, hexane, ethyl acetate, aqueous fractions and portions treated for polyphenols were weighed and dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide to give a concentration of 5mg/ml. Philippine Plant Library I, with 200 wells and Philippine Plant Library II, which has 628 wells, are currently deposited at the Institute of Chemistry and Cell Biology Screening Facility at Harvard Medical School are continuously being subjected to different assays.
  2,664 67 -
Potential of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb Leaf Extract in Controlling Hypertriglyceridemia in Experimental Models
MC Thounaojam, RN Jadeja, Ansarullah , VB Patel, RV Devkar, AV Ramachandran
July-August 2009, 1(4):208-212
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihypertriglyceridemic activity of Sida rhomboidea.roxb leaf extract (FESR) (200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight) in Triton WR 1339 and oral lipid emulsion induced hypertriglyceridemia in rats. Plasma cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), HDL and Triglyceride secretion rate (TGSR) were assessed in control and Triton WR 1339 rats. TG profile in lipid emulsion treated rats was evaluated at an interval of 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 hour post emulsion and area under curve (AUC) was calculated. FESR (200 & 400 mg/kg) treatment to Triton WR 1339 treated rats recorded significant decrement in plasma TC (p<0.05), TG (p<0.05) while HDL (p<0.05) was increased at 6th hour and 24th hour post Triton injection. Lowered levels of TGSR were recorded in Triton + FESR treated groups at 6th hour. In the second experiment oral lipid emulsion induced hypertriglyceridemia was significantly suppressed by FESR (200 & 400 mg/kg), indicated by lowered AUC values compared to its control (Lipid emulsion only). Results clearly substantiate the antihypertriglyceridemic potential of S. rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract mediated via decreased intestinal absorption and increased catabolism of TG. The present study is of merit in providing pharmacological evidence for use of SR leaf extract as a folklore medicine for controlling obesity amongst north-eastern population of Indian subcontinent.
  2,574 105 -
Lipid Constituents from Cissus quadrangularis Leaves
Vandana Jain, Achal Thakur, Lal Hingorani, KS Laddha
July-August 2009, 1(4):231-233
A phytochemical investigation of Cissus quadrangularis leaves yielded five additional known compounds including eicosyl eicosanoate, tetratriacontanol, tetratriacontanoic acid, α-amyrin and β-sitosterol. The characterization of isolated compounds was achieved by chemical and spectral studies (IR, 1H NMR and Mass Spectroscopy).
  2,194 109 -
Modulatory Effect of Erythrina vareigata on Experimental Hyperlipidaemia in Male Wistar Rats
K Mangathayaru, K Balakrishna, Sarah Kuruvilla, C Uma Maheshwara Reddy
July-August 2009, 1(4):202-207
Erythrina vareigata is a medium sized quick growing tree found distributed in deciduous forests throughout India. Its leaves are eaten as a pot herb and different parts of the plant have folkloric reputation as an anti inflammatory in India, China and South east Asia. Bark, wood, root and flowers are richly represented by isoflavones, pterocarpans and biphenyls. Current investigations were aimed at evaluating the hypolipidaemic activity of this popular hypolipidaemic siddha drug. Its nutritive value was estimated by standard reported methods. Ethyl acetate extract of the dried leaves were analyzed for total phenol content by Folin Ciocalteau and Titanium tetrachloride method. Its in vitro anti oxidant activity was assessed by DPPH, NO and trichloroacetic acid based reducing power method. Male wistar rats were subjected to high fat diet induced (HFD) hyperlipidaemia concurrent with extract administration for 60 days. While normal control group received standard pellet diet, Positive control group was on HFD only. At the end of experimentation, blood was collected for serum estimation of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and atherogenic index. The extract had a high total phenol content, beneficially altered lipid parameters and reduced body weight of experimental animals. The leaves are rich in protein, minerals, vitamins and low in carbohydrate and fat. Anti oxidant activity of the polyphenols present in the extract might be mediating the observed hypoplipidaemia. This study validated the traditional medicine claims of its anti obesity effect as well as folkloric tutelage of consumption of leaves as a green vegetable.
  2,189 91 -
Iron in Highbush Blueberries and It's Effect in Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) Assay
Radhika Kota, Ara DerMarderosian
July-August 2009, 1(4):166-171
Blueberries are well known for their antioxidant property, due to the polyphenolics present in these fruits. The antioxidant activity of blueberries is usually measured by colorimetric assays involving metals such as iron, copper. Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) assay was previously studied on blueberry fractions which has metmyoglobulin (protein bound iron) in its +3 oxidation state to assess the antioxidant activity of compounds. Studies showed that the amount of iron in highbush blueberries is too low to have a significant effect on the antioxidant activity measured by the TAS assay. A short comparative study was also performed using ascorbic acid in TAS assay and bathocuproine copper complex assay for a quick, inexpensive, rapid analysis of crude screening for antioxidant compounds.
  1,828 79 -