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   2009| March-April  | Volume 1 | Issue 2  
    Online since January 2, 2010

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Anti-inflammatory activity of ixora coccinea methanolic leaf extract
SM Handunnetti, RR Kumara, SA Deraniyagala, WD Ratnasooriya
March-April 2009, 1(2):80-90
The anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic leaf extract (MLE) of Ixora coccinea Linn. (Rubiaceae) was investigated in this study. MLE showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model (r = 0.7; P<0.01). MLE at a dose of 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg showed maximum inhibition of edema 36.7, 46.5, and 64.5% respectively (P<0.01). Oral administration of MLE of rats at a dose of 1500 mg/kg significantly inhibited peritoneal phagocytic cell infiltration (45.9%; P<0.05), impaired nitric oxide (NO) production in peritoneal cells (40.8%; P<0.01) and showed antihistamine activity (54.9%; P<0.01). In vitro treatment of rat peritoneal cells with MLE inhibited NO production dose-dependently (82.2% at 400 μg/ml, r = 0.99; P<0.05). MLE also possessed significant, dose-dependent in vitro anti-oxidant activity (r = 0.88; P<0.01; IC50 value = 8.0 μg/ml), membrane stabilizing activity (r = 0.81; P<0.01; IC50 value = 6.4 ng/ml) and lipid peroxidation activity (36.7% at 250 μg/ml; P<0.01). Thirty-day oral treatment of rats with 1500 mg/kg did not show any adverse signs of toxicity or behavioral changes. These results suggest that anti-inflammatory activity of I. coccinea is mediated via inhibition NO production, phagocytic cell infiltration, anti-histamine effect, scavenging of free radicals, membrane stabilizing activity and lipid peroxidation.
  6,654 148 -
Effects of Ephedrine and Ephedra fragilis Crude Extracts on Human Peripheral Lymphocytes
E Attard, K Vella
March-April 2009, 1(2):38-42
Ephedra fragilis Desf. (Ephedraceae), a locally cultivated medicinal plant, is a source of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, two important alkaloids, which have long played an important pharmacological role. The present study investigated the in vitro effects of ephedrine and the Ephedra branch extract on unstimulated lymphocytes. Ephedra alkaloids were extracted from various plant parts and after phytochemical analysis, the brine shrimp lethality test was used to determine the activity of the extracts. The LC 50 of the branch extract was 581.395 μg/ml, showing no statistical difference from that of ephedrine (208.203 μg/ml). The ephedrine and extract did not show toxic effects on lymphocytes but exhibited immunostimulant activity. Although ephedrine cannot be used as an immune booster, it can be used as a lead drug for further immunological research.
  4,674 103 -
Dermal Wound Healing Effect of Pistacia Lentiscus Fruit's Fatty Oil.
N Boulebda, A Belkhiri, F Belfadel, A Bensegueni, L Bahri
March-April 2009, 1(2):66-71
Several natural products have been shown to accelerate wound healing process. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Pistacia lentiscus fruits fatty oil on cutaneous wound healing in rat, and to compare this effect to that of saponifiable and unsaponifiable oily fractions. Full-thickness excision wounds were made on the back of anesthetised rats. The fruit's oil and the two fractions were assessed together with a conventional drug, i.e. Madecassol® . Preparations were topically applied on the area of excised wounded once a day and assessed for a period of 26 days. During this period, wound area was measured and photographically documented. Wound contraction, expressed as percentage, was significantly (P<0.05) enhanced in the presence of Pistacia lentiscus oil, unsaponifiable oily fraction and Madecassol® treatments compared to the control, untreated animals. Furthermore, wound healing potentially effect was more pronounced in case of the oily unsaponifiable fraction-treated group compared to the others groups. Results clearly substantiate the healing potential effect on wound of a topic application of the Pistacia lentiscus fruits fatty oil and its unsaponifiable fraction.
  4,313 137 -
Anti-hepatotoxicity Effect of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth against Acetaminophen-induced Liver Injury in Rats by Enhancing Hepatic GST Activity
JH Chin, AH Hussin, S Ismail
March-April 2009, 1(2):53-58
The present study was undertaken to assess the sub-chronic (14-day treatment) effect of oral administration of O. stamineus on hepatic drug metabolising enzymes and the protective effect against acetaminophen-induced liver injury in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Healthy male SD rats weighing 200 g ± 10 g were used throughout the experiments. Isolated hepatocytes and liver cytosolic fraction were used to examine the effect of O. stamineus on the activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase and glutathione-S-transferase respectively. Hepatoprotective effect of O. stamineus was judged by comparing the serum levels of hepatic markers, i.e. AST, ALT and ALP and the percentage of hepatocytes viability between O. stamineus treatment groups and acetaminophen (APAP) control group. O. stamineus extract at 125 mg/kg (P<0.01) and 500 mg/kg (P<0.01) exhibited significant hepatoprotective effect by restoring the elevation of serum levels of AST and ALT and increased the percentage of hepatocytes viability in rats. The hepatoprotective effect exhibited by O. stamineus at dose 500 mg/kg was comparable to silymarin at dose 20 mg/kg in acetaminophen-induced liver injury rats. The activity of GST was 17% higher in the rats treated with 500 mg/kg (P<0.01) of O. stamineus compared with the control group. There was no significant difference in body weigh gained, food consumption, water intake and relative organ weight between the treatment group and the control group. Methanol extract of O. stamineus protects against acetaminophen-induced liver injury in rats by enhancing the activity of GST in liver.
  2,519 92 -
The Effect of Extracts of Andrographis paniculata Aerial Parts on Rat Thoracic Aorta
S Raghava Naidu, Amirin Sadikun, Mohd. Zaini Asmawi
March-April 2009, 1(2):60-65
Andrographis paniculata (AP), (Burf.) Nees. of Acanthaceae, has been used for centuries in Asia to treat GI tract and upper respiratory tract infections, fever, herpes, sore throat, and a variety of other chronic and infectious diseases. AP has cardio protective property and is familiarly known as "King of Bitters". The present study was aimed to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of different solvent extracts of AP on rat thoracic aorta. Petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol extracts of AP are used in this study. Experiments are performed on male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for possible vasorelaxing activity of AP. Cumulative dose response curves are recorded by using isometric force displacement transducer Model FT-03 and it is connected to Grass Polygraph Model 79D. Additionally, HPLC study of chloroform extract of AP is conducted and compared with commercially available standard andrographolide. Petroleum ether and chloroform extract of AP is first suspended in 1% (v/v) DMSO then volume made up with Krebs solution. The average of responses to each concentration of the agonist is plotted on the ordinate the logarithm of the concentration of the agonist on the abscissa. Among all these extracts of AP, chloroform extract 80 and 160 μg/mL is found to be the highly significant (P<0.001) vasorelaxant effect on norepinephrine induced contraction on rat thoracic aortic ring preparations.
  2,493 71 -
New secoiridoids from Ligustrum ovalifolium and their hypotensive activity
Mohammed Hosny, Ehab A Ragab, Abd El-salam I Mohammed, Usama Y Shaheen
March-April 2009, 1(2):91-97
New Secoiridoid glucosides 1-5 ; ligustaloside A methyl hemiacetal 1 , ligustaloside B methyl hemiacetal 2 , ligustaloside A dimethyl acetal 3 ligustaloside A butyl-methyl acetal 4 , and ligustaloside B butyl hemiacetal 5 have been isolated from the leaves of Ligustrum ovalifolium L. along with five known secoiridoids; ligustaloside B dimethyl acetal 6 , 10-hydroxy oleuropein 7 , 10-hydroxy ligstroside 8 , oleuropein 9 and ligstroside 10 , one known iridoid; loganin 11 and two known phenethyl alcohol glucosides; 3,4-di hydroxyphenylethyl-β-D-glucoside 12 and p-hydroxyphenylethyl-β-D-glucoside 13. The structures have been elucidated by spectroscopic means including 1H NMR 13C, and DEPT), 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments), UV, IR and FAB-MS (positive mode). Both n-BuOH fraction and the isolated new compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their hypotensive activity on experimental animal. The n-BuOH fraction showed good activity; however, the activity of the isolated new compounds 1-5 did not particularly strong.
  2,193 48 -
Antifouling Alkaloids from Crinum augustum (Amaryllidaceae)
John Refaat, Ahmed Abdel-Lateff, Mohamed S Kamel, Ahmed A Ali, Mahmoud A Ramadan, Tatsufumi Okino, Yasuyuki Nogata
March-April 2009, 1(2):43-52
Fractionation and purification of the ethanolic extract of the bulbs of Crinum augustum Rox. (Amaryllidaceae) cultivated in Egypt yielded five alkaloids 6-methoxy-crinamine (1) , crinamine (2) , buphanisine (3) , ungeremine (4) , and hippadine (5) ; two fatty acid derivatives: myristic acid ethyl ester (6) and palmitic acid ethyl ester (7) ; four terpenoidal and steroidal compounds: ursolic acid (8) , β-sitosterol-O- β glucopyranoside (9) and mixture of β-­sitosterol (10) and stigmasterol (11) . The structures of all compounds were determined by interpretation of their spectroscopic data; 1D ( 1 H and 13 C), 2D (HSQC, COSY, DQF, NOE and HMBC) NMR; MS and UV analyses. The compounds (1 -4) and (6-8) were tested towards biofouling activity using larvae of barnacle Balance amphitrie. Significant activities of 1, 2 and 3 with EC 50 1.8, 1.2 and 0.75 μg/mL respectively, were observed.
  2,173 58 -
Modulation of Phosphatase Levels in Mice Liver by Genistein Treatment against Radiation Exposure
Ajay Gaur, AL Bhatia
March-April 2009, 1(2):72-79
Genistein is a soya isoflavone, which is found naturally in legumes, such as soybeans and chickpeas. The intraperitoneal administration of optimum dose (200 mg/kg body weight) of Genistein before 24 hrs and 15 minutes of irradiation (8 Gy at a dose rate of 1.02 Gy/min) increased the acid phosphatase (by 34.7 ± 12.39%) and decreased the alkaline phosphatase (by 49.59 ± 13.82%) in experimental group as compared to control group in liver of Swiss albino mice. Statistically analyzed survival data produced a dose reduction factor (DRF) = 1.24. The results indicate that Genistein against radiation effect may pave way to the formulation of medicine in radiotherapy for normal tissue and possible against radiomimetic drug induced toxicity. Present study also establishes the fact that Genistein may be used as a radioprotector before and after radiation exposure. Hence the possibility of its use as a radioprotectant and radiotherapeutic drug in accidental conditions or nuclear war conditions cannot be ruled out.
  1,762 66 -
Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory activity of parotid exudate of Bufo melanostictus
Allenki Venkatesham, Neerati Prasad, Devarakonda R Krishna, Yellu Narsimha Reddy
March-April 2009, 1(2):98-101
Type 2 diabetes arises as a result of β-cell failure combined with concomitant insulin resistance. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a gastrointestinal hormone that is released postprandially from the L cells of the gut and exerts a glucose- dependent and direct insulinotropic effect on the pancreatic β cell. Which activate adenylate cyclase and enhances insulin secretion. GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by DPP-IV to GLP-1(9-37) amide following release from gut L cells. GLP-1 directly enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion via an increase in β-cell cAMP. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a plasma membrane glycoprotein ectopeptidase. In mammals, DPP-IV was widely expressed on the surface of endothelial and epithelial cells and highest levels in humans have been reported to occur in the intestine, bone marrow and kidney. Inhibiting DPP-IV reduces its rapid degradation of GLP-1, increasing circulating levels of the active hormone in vivo and prolonging its beneficial effects. The IC 50 value of parotid exudate was found to be 9.4 μg/ml. The maximum % inhibition (61.8) was showed at a concentration of 12μg/ml. Parotid exudate through inhibition of DPP-IV, improves glucose tolerance and enhances insulin secretion. DPP-IV inhibitors are a novel class of oral hypoglycemic agents with a potential to improve pancreatic beta cell function and the clinical course of type 2 diabetes.
  1,705 49 -