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In vitro sun protection factor determination of herbal oils used in cosmetics
Chanchal Deep Kaur, Swarnlata Saraf
January-February 2010, 2(1):22-25
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.60586  PMID:21808534
The aim of this study was to evaluate ultraviolet (UV) absorption ability of volatile and nonvolatile herbal oils used in sunscreens or cosmetics and express the same in terms of sun protection factor (SPF) values. Sun protection factor is a laboratory measure of the effectiveness of sunscreen; the higher the SPF, the more protection a sunscreen offers against the ultraviolet radiations causing sunburn. The in vitro SPF is determined according to the spectrophotometric method of Mansur et al. Hydroalcoholic dilutions of oils were prepared, and in vitro photoprotective activity was studied by UV spectrophotometric method in the range of 290-320 nm. It can be observed that the SPF values found for nonvolatile oils were in between 2 and 8; and for volatile oils, in between 1 and 7. Among the fixed oils taken, SPF value of olive oil was found to be the highest. Similarly among essential oils, SPF value of peppermint oil was found to be the highest. The study will be helpful in the selection of oils and fragrances to develop sunscreens with better safety and high SPF. Oily vehicles are more effective for producing a uniform and long-lasting film of sunscreen on the skin, and their emollient properties protect the skin against the drying effects of exposure to wind and sun. Volatile oils are used as perfumes in cosmetics.
  25,149 980 15
Brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity studies on Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.) Jacq. seed methanolic extract
Geethaa Sahgal, Surash Ramanathan, Sreenivasan Sasidharan, Mohd. Nizam Mordi, Sabariah Ismail, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor
July-August 2010, 2(4):215-220
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69107  PMID:21808570
Background: The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. Methods: SMCM seed extract has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity, in mice. Results: The brine shrimp lethality bioassay shows a moderate cytotoxicity at high concentration. The LC50 for the extract is 0.68 mg/ml at 24 hours of exposure. The LD50 of the SMCM seed extract for acute oral toxicity in mice is greater than 5000 mg/kg. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic seed extract may contain bioactive compounds of potential therapeutic significance which are relatively safe from toxic effects, and can compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine.
  16,130 274 8
Isolation and characterization of phytoconstituents from Chlorophytum borivilianum
Sharada L Deore, Somshekhar S Khadabadi
November-December 2010, 2(6):343-349
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.75452  PMID:21713136
Background: The present communication deals with the identification and characterization of bioactive principles from the roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum. Method: Methanolic extract and its fractions were used to isolate different phytoconstituents. The structures of isolated compounds were characterized and elucidated with chemical and spectroscopic techniques such as Infra Red, Nuclear Mass Resonace and Mass spectroscopy experiments. Fatty acids were characterized by GC-MS analysis. Result: Three Fatty acids were isolated and confirmed. One sterol stigmasterol was isolated. One new saponin named as Chlorophytoside-I (3b, 5a, 22R, 25R)-26-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-22-hydroxy-furostan-12-one-3 yl O-β-D-galactopyranosyl (1-4) glucopyranoside was isolated. Conclusion: The roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum contain three important fatty acids, common sterol stigmasterol and one furostanol saponins.
  15,836 135 3
Insulin Plant (Costus pictus) extract restores thyroid hormone levels in experimental hypothyroidism
S Ashwini, Zachariah Bobby, MG Sridhar, CC Cleetus
January-March 2017, 9(1):51-59
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.199766  PMID:28250654
Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive effect of Costus pictus leaf extract in experimental hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups with ten rats in each group: Control (C), hypothyroid (H), control+extract (C+E), and hypothyroid+extract (H+E). Rats in C group did not receive any intervention throughout the experimental period. The rats in the C+E and H+E groups received pretreatment with C. pictus leaf extract for 4 weeks. Subsequently, for the next 6 weeks, rats in the H group received 0.05% propylthiouracil in drinking water while C+E group received C. pictus leaf extract and H+E group received propyl thiouracil and C. pictus leaf extract. Results: Hypothyroid group rats exhibited dramatic increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with concomitant depletion in the levels of thyroid hormones. Treatment with the extract resulted in remarkable improvement in thyroid profile. Extract produced 10.59-fold increase in plasma free T3, 8.65-fold increase in free T4, and 3.59-fold decrease in TSH levels in H+E group in comparison with H group. Treatment with the extract ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, decreased levels of plasma C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor alpha, suppressed tissue oxidative stress and prevented hepatic and renal damage caused due to thyroid hormone depletion in the H+E group. Pentacyclic triterpenes alpha and beta amyrins were identified and quantified in the extract. Conclusions: This is the first study to reveal that C. pictus extract has therapeutic potential to restore thyroid hormone levels and prevent the biochemical complications due to thyroid hormone insufficiency in the animal model of experimental hypothyroidism.
  15,302 191 -
Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant
N'Guessan Bra Yvette Fofie, Rokia Sanogo, Kiyinlma Coulibaly, Diénéba Kone Bamba
January-March 2015, 7(1):7-13
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147131  PMID:25598628
Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus.
  15,358 127 1
Protective effect of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra linn. against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats
Nirmal K Bairwa, Neeraj K Sethiya, SH Mishra
January-February 2010, 2(1):26-30
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.60584  PMID:21808535
The present study reports protective activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) was administered orally to the rats with hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (3 gm/kg). Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as positive control. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting of ethyl acetate fraction revealed presence of its major chemical constituents. A significant (P < 0.05) reduction in serum enzymes GOT (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), GPT alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin content and histopathological screening in the rats treated gave indication that ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of Ceiba pentandra possesses hepatoprotective potential against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
  14,236 406 21
Antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds from six wild edible mushrooms of western ghats of Karnataka, India
Ch. Ramesh , Manohar G Pattar
March-April 2010, 2(2):107-112
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.62953  PMID:21808550
Methanolic extracts of 6 wild edible mushrooms isolated from the Western Ghats of Karnataka were used in this study. Among the isolates (Lycoperdon perlatum, Cantharellus cibarius, Clavaria vermiculris, Ramaria formosa, Marasmius oreades, Pleurotus pulmonarius), only 4 showed satisfactory results. Quantitative analysis of bioactive components revealed that total phenols are the major bioactive component found in extracts of isolates expressed as mg of GAE per gram of fruit body, which ranged from 3.20 ± 0.05 mg/mL to 6.25 ± 0.08 mg/mL. Average concentration of flavonoid ranged from 0.40 ± 0.052 mg/mL to 2.54 ± 0.08 mg/mL; followed by very small concentration of ascorbic acid (range, 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/mL to 0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) in all the isolates. All the isolates showed high phenol and flavonoid content, but ascorbic acid content was found in traces. Antioxidant efficiency by inhibitory concentration on 1,1-Diphenly-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was found significant when compared to standard antioxidant like Buthylated hydroxyanisol (BHA). The concentration (IC 50 ) ranged from 0.94 ± 0.27 mg/mL to 7.57 ± 0.21 mg/mL. Determination of antimicrobial activity profile of all the isolates tested against a panel of standard pathogenic bacteria and fungi indicated that the concentrations of bioactive components directly influence the antimicrobial capability of the isolates. Agar diffusion assay showed considerable activity against all bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of the extracts of 4 isolates showed that they are also active even in least concentrations. These results are discussed in relation to therapeutic value of the studied mushrooms.
  12,018 558 32
Review on Polygonum minus. Huds, a commonly used food additive in Southeast Asia
Parayil Varghese Christapher, Subramani Parasuraman, Josephine Maria Arokiaswamy Christina, Mohd. Zaini Asmawi, Murugaiyah Vikneswaran
January-March 2015, 7(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147125  PMID:25598627
Polygonum minus (Polygonaceae), generally known as 'kesum' in Malaysia is among the most commonly used food additive, flavoring agent and traditionally used to treat stomach and body aches. Raw or cooked leaves of P. minus are used in digestive disorders in the form of a decoction and the oil is used for dandruff. The pharmacological studies on P. minus have demonstrated antioxidant, in vitro LDL oxidation inhibition, antiulcer activity, analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, in vitro antiplatelet aggregation activity, antimicrobial activity, digestive enhancing property and cytotoxic activity. The spectroscopic studies of essential oil of P. minus showed the presence of about 69 compounds, which are responsible for the aroma. The phytochemical studies showed presence of flavonoids and essential oils. This review is an effort to update the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological data of the plant P. minus.
  12,321 148 6
Comparing the effect of rose drop, ginger, and cinnamon on sexual function in depressed women with sexual dysfunction
Sheida Shabanian, Mahtab Ebrahimbabaei, Parvin Safavi, Masoud Lotfizadeh
July-September 2018, 10(3):314-318
Background: Sexual dysfunction is caused by multiple anatomical, physiological, medical, and psychological factors. Many studies have shown the efficacy of herbal remedies on increasing libido and sexual function. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of three herbs of ginger, cinnamon, and rose on sexual function of depressed women with low sex drive. Materials and Methods: This randomized double-blinded clinical trial was conducted on 140 depressed women with sexual dysfunction who were divided into four groups receiving oral drops of rose, ginger, cinnamon, or placebo. The information about the two variables of sexual function and depression were collected by Female Sexual Function inventory questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Kruskal–Wallis test, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The mean scores of sexual dysfunction and depression were significantly improved in the three groups after treatment (P < 0.05) so that sexual dysfunction score in placebo group had the lowest rate of improvement with the mean of 1.55 ± 0.44 and in ginger group had the highest improvement rate with the mean of 4.04 ± 1.07. Depression in placebo group had the lowest improvement rate with the mean of 3.71 ± 1.94 and in cinnamon group had the highest rate of improvement with the mean of 6.29 ± 1.57, but there was no significant difference between the four groups (P > 0.05). The factors such as received treatments with impact factor of 0.723 and age with impact factor of 0.170 had direct relation and depression with impact factor of −0.078 had reverse relation to sexual performance improvement (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Herbal medicines, except for their positive impacts on sexual function, may have positive but minor effects on depression. Abbreviations Used: FSFI: Female sexual function inventory, BDI: Beck depression inventory, Spss: Statistical package for social science.
  11,458 211 -
Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.
Sangeeta Sankhalkar, Vrunda Vernekar
January-March 2016, 8(1):16-21
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.171095  PMID:26941531
Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance.
  10,787 630 3
Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis
Eric W.C Chan, Eu Ying Soh, Pei Pei Tie, Yon Peng Law
October-December 2011, 3(4):266-272
Background: The role of non-polymeric phenolic (NP) and polymeric tannin (PT) constituents in the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of six brands of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis were investigated. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic content (TPC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Minimum inhibitory dose (MID) against Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. Teas were extracted with hot water successively three times for one hour each time. The extracts were fractionated using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain the NP and PT constituents. Results: Extraction yields ranged from 12 to 23%. Yields of NP fractions (70−81%) were much higher than those of PT fractions (1−11%), suggesting that the former are the major tea components. Ranking of antioxidant properties of extracts was green tea>black tea>herbal tea. For all six teas, antioxidant properties of PT fractions were significantly higher than extracts and NP fractions. Extracts and fractions of all six teas showed no activity against the three Gram-negative bacteria. Green teas inhibited all three Gram-positive bacteria with S. aureus being the least susceptible. Black and herbal teas inhibited the growth of M. luteus and B. cereus, but not S. aureus. The most potent were the PT fractions of Boh Cameron Highlands and Ho Yan Hor with MID of 0.01 and 0.03 mg/disc against M. luteus. Conclusion: Results suggested that NP constituents are major contributors to the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of teas of C. sinensis. Although PT constituents have stronger antioxidant and antibacterial properties, they constitute only a minor component of the teas.
  10,437 308 47
Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats
RS Kujur, Vishakha Singh, Mahendra Ram, Harlokesh Narayan Yadava, KK Singh, Suruchi Kumari, BK Roy
July-August 2010, 2(4):258-263
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69128  PMID:21808578
Background : Stevia rebaudiana regulates blood sugar, prevents hypertension and tooth decay. Other studies have shown that it has antibacterial as well as antiviral property. Methods : Preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous, ether and methanolic extracts of S. rebaudiana was done. Acute and sub-acute toxicity were conducted on twenty four Albino rats, divided into one control (Group I) and three treatment groups viz. aqueous extract (Group II), ether extract (Group III) and methanolic extract (Group IV). For the study of antidiabetic effect of S. rebaudiana rats were divided into seven groups (n=6). Diabetes was induced by a single dose of 5% alloxan monohydrate (125 mg/kg, i.p.) after 24 hour fasting.Blood samples were analysed on day 0, 1, 5, 7, 14 and 28. Results : Phytochemical tests showed presence of different kinds of phyto-constituents in aqueous, ether and methanol extract of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Daily single dose (2.0 g/kg) administration of aqueous extract (A.E.) , ether extract (E.E.) and methanol extract (M.E.) for 28 days of S. rebaudiana could not show any significant change in ALT and AST levels in rats. Blood sugar level was found to be decreased on day 28 in groups of rats treated with A.E., E.E. and M.E. of S. rebaudiana. Conclusion : The extracts of Stevioside rebaudiana could decrease the blood glucose level in diabetic rats in time dependent manner.
  10,122 320 35
Antilithogenic potential of green tea, oolong tea, and black tea
Shaikh I Nasrul, Amit Sehgal
January-March 2020, 12(1):92-94
Background: Urolithiasis and nephrolithiasis are the commonly occurring painful diseases in most parts of the world. The number of new cases associated with lithiasis is on rise, although various therapies such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy, lithotripsy, and other surgical procedures can remove the stones, high recurrence rate is a major problem. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antilithogenic potential of green tea, oolong tea, and black tea employing chemical model. Materials and Methods: The antilithogenic action of different teas on calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated on artificial urine spectroscopically, and the modulation of crystal size and density was recorded microscopically. Results: The different tea types showed significant inhibitory action on nucleation and crystal size morphology and density. The optical and spectroscopic techniques demonstrated that standard drug cystone exhibited highest inhibition followed by green tea, oolong tea, and black tea. Conclusion: Green tea illustrated maximum antilithogenic property as compared to other tea types and can be used as a potential dietary agent for the prevention of lithiasis.
  9,525 176 -
Case Reports of Bedsores Using Aloe Vera Gel Powder with High Molecular Weight
Keizo Matsuo, Akira Yagi, Amal Kabbash
May-June 2009, 1(3):136-142
It has been reported that the Japanese have higher rate of life expectancy and that Japan is rapidly becoming a super aging society. Almost 5 per cent of the aged, who develop diseases such as cerebrovascular related disorders, mental problems, fractures, cancer and infections also end up suffering from bedsores. It has been found that patients often opt for treatment, when the bedsores become very severe and adding more complications in their treatment. It may be presumed that prevention and early detection are vital for the treatment of bed sores. In our present study, we have tested herbal formulations having Aloe vera gel powder for its efficacy and activity on bed sores. Aloe vera gel powder with high molecular weight (AHM) was prepared from the gel part, by washing with running water using the patented freeze-drying under micro wave and far infra red irradiations in which barbaloin content was less than 10 ppm in powder form. The treatment was given by applying the macromolecule aloe ointment for bedsores from I degree to Il degree ulcer patients. The results have shown that AHM in the ointment form indicated a high possibility to cure bedsores. Being very difficult to cure, due to the patient's peculiar conditions such as old age, inability of the patient to turn by himself/herself and also due to complications caused by other symptoms. We were able to confirm the effectiveness of the macromolecule aloe ointment in four cases of bedsores with two cases of positive control, using the Design Score and by checking the side effects. In this study, our report is based on the preclinical trials for bedsores by the external use of the macromolecule aloe ointment.
  9,464 143 -
Phytochemical Studies on Cissus quadrangularis Linn.
Achal Thakur, Vandana Jain, L Hingorani, KS Laddha
July-August 2009, 1(4):213-215
Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Family: Vitaceae) is an ancient medicinal plant, named as Hadjod in Hindi. A triterpene d-amyrin acetate (1), aliphatic acid hexadecanoic acid ( 3 ) and stilbene glucoside trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucoside ( 9 ) were isolated for the first time from the stems of Cissus quadrangularis, along with previously reported compounds namely, δ- amyrone ( 2 ) d-amyrin ( 4 ), β-sitosterol ( 5 ), kaempferol ( 6 ), quercetin ( 7 ) and resveratrol ( 8 ). The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds were performed by spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS) and by direct comparison with literature.
  9,165 377 -
Standardisation of Avipattikar Churna- A Polyherbal Formulation
HN Aswatha Ram, Ujjwal Kaushik, Prachiti Lachake, CS Shreedhara
July-August 2009, 1(4):224-227
Standardisation of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs, based on the concentration of their active principles. The present paper reports on standardisation of Avipattikar churna, a poly herbal ayurvedic medicine used as remedy for acidity and complications associated with it like headache, nausea and vomiting. It is also used as laxative and helps to increase appetite. Avipattikar churna was prepared as per Ayurvedic Formulary of India. In-house preparation and two marketed have been standardised on the basis of organoleptic characters, physical characteristics and physico-chemical properties. The set parameters were found to be sufficient to evaluate the churna and can be used as reference standards for the quality control/quality assurance laboratory of a Pharmaceutical house.
  9,233 264 -
Antioxidant activity of Aquilaria malaccensis (thymelaeaceae) leaves
A.W.N Huda, M.A.S Munira, SD Fitrya, M Salmah
September-October 2009, 1(5):270-273
The phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Aquilaria malaccensis leaves were investigated. The sequential maceration extraction methods utilizing solvents with different polarities namely hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol yielded the corresponding crude extract. The extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, triterpenoids, steroids and saponins. The phytochemical screening suggests that flavanoids present in this species might provide a great value of antioxidant activity. Preliminary screenings of the free radical scavenging activity on the extracts of the plants with 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were tested and showed positive result. Quarcetine was used as reference standard. The extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity radical scavenging activity with IC 50 value of 8.0 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 1.6 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 1.4 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 30.0 μg/ml and 3.33 μg/ ml for hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate, methanol and quarcetine respectively.
  9,077 333 -
A Comparative Study: Antimicrobial Activity of Methanol Extracts of Lantana camara Various Parts
Mahdi Pour Badakhshan, Srinivasan Sasidharan, Naidu Jegathambigai Rameshwar, Suresh Ramanathan
November-December 2009, 1(6):348-351
Finding new resources of antibiotics based on natural products used by traditional practitioners was the main aim to study extracts of root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae), a medicinal plant available in Malaysia. A panel of organisms including 10 bacteria and 5 fungi were treated by L. camara extracts of different parts based on disk diffusion method and broth microdilution technique. The leaf extract presented the highest antibiotic effect among all parts of plant especially against Gram positive Bacillus cereus (zone of inhibition 13.0 ± 0.0 mm, MIC/MBC 9.4 ± 4.4 mg/ml) and Gram negative Salmonella typhi (zone of inhibition 13.5 ± 2.1 mm, MIC/MBC 12.5 ± 0.0 mg/ml). In conclusion, this study may support the conventional use of leaf extract of L. camara in some infectious gastroenteritis disorders, a potential subject to further isolation and identification as a supply of antibacterial substances.
  8,835 271 -
Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity of Hydroalcoholic and Aqueous Extracts from Bauhinia divaricata and Bougainvillea spectabilis Using the DPPH Assay
L Chaires-Martinez, E Monroy-Reyes, A Bautista-Bringas, HA Jimenez-Avalos, G Sepulveda-Jimenez
September-October 2009, 1(5):238-244
Bauhinia divaricata and Bougainvillea spectabilis are medicinal plants widely distributed in Mexico and they are used because of its potential hypoglycemic action; however, no free radical scavenging activity (RSA) studies over these plants are known. Thus, aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts from leaf and stem samples were evaluated for their RSA using 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH). Total phenolics and flavonoids extracts were determined too. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical program with the significance level set at P<0.05. Bauhinia divaricata stem aqueous extracts with total phenols content of 12.98 mg GAE/g DW had the highest amount between samples. The same behavior was shown in flavonoids determination. However, when RSA was estimated it was found that stem aqueous extracts from Bougainvillea spectabilis produced more DPPH absorbance reduction (95.66%), with an IC 50 (the concentration to inhibit the oxidation of DPPH by 50%) and AP (reciprocal of IC 50) values of 0.03 μg/mL and 33.33, respectively. These results were superior to common synthetic antioxidants used in the food industry like butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, IC 50=62 μg/mL) and can be useful for further applications of these plants or its constituents in pharmaceutical and alimentary preparations.
  8,826 191 -
Effect of dragon fruit extract on oxidative stress and aortic stiffness in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats
Kolla R. L Anand Swarup, Munavvar A Sattar, Nor A Abdullah, Mohammed H Abdulla, Ibrahim M Salman, Hassaan A Rathore, Edward J Johns
January-February 2010, 2(1):31-35
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.60582  PMID:21808536
Cardiovascular complications are consistently observed in diabetic patients across all age groups. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of the fruit pulp of Hylocereus undatus (DFE) on aortic stiffness and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Twenty-four male, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: I (control), II (diabetic), III (DFE, 250 mg/kg) and IV (DFE 500 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced in groups II, III and IV by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ (40 mg/kg). After confirmation of diabetes, group III and IV received DFE for 5 weeks. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was used as a marker of aortic stiffness and was determined at the end of 5 weeks. DFE significantly decreased ( P < 0.05) the fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, but not to normal levels. Systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and PWV were significantly increased ( P < 0.05) in diabetic rats at the end of 5 weeks in comparison with control group. DFE treatment significantly decreased ( P < 0.05) these elevations. Oxidative damage was observed in group II after 5 weeks. Plasma malondialdehyde levels significantly decreased ( P < 0.05), while superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity significantly increased ( P < 0.05) with DFE treatment in comparison with group II. These data demonstrate that DFE treatment was effective in controlling oxidative damage and decreasing the aortic stiffness measured by PWV in STZ-induced diabetes in rats.
  8,466 356 3
Determination of polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity of Tephrosia purpurea linn leaves (Leguminosae)
Avani Patel, Amit Patel, Amit Patel, NM Patel
May-June 2010, 2(3):152-158
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.65509  PMID:21808558
Background: Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (sarpankh), belonging to the family Leguminaceae, are used for the treatment of jaundice and are also claimed to be effective in many other diseases. This research work was undertaken to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves. Method: The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. So, the quantitative determinations were undertaken. All the methods are based on UV-spectrophotometric determination. Result: The total phenolic content of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 9.44 ± 0.22% w/w and 18.44 ± 0.13% w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 0.91 ± 0.08% w/w and 1.56 ± 0.12%w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 1.85 ± 0.08% w/w and 2.54 ± 0.12% w/w, respectively, for rutin. Further investigations were carried out for in vitro antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity by calculating its percentage inhibition by means of IC 50 values, all the extracts' concentrations were adjusted to fall under the linearity range and here many reference standards like tannic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, ascorbic acid were taken for the method suitability. Conclusion: The results revealed that leaves of this plant have antioxidant potential. The results also show the ethanolic extract to be more potent than the aqueous decoction which is claimed traditionally. In conclusion, T. purpurea Linn. (Leguminosae) leaves possess the antioxidant substance which may be responsible for the treatment of jaundice and other oxidative stress-related diseases.
  8,456 265 24
Effect of standardized aqueous extract of Withania somniferaon tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance in healthy human participants
Usharani Pingali, Raveendranadh Pilli, Nishat Fatima
January-March 2014, 6(1):12-18
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.122912  PMID:24497737
Background: Withania somnifera is an herbal medicine that has been known to possess memory-enhancing properties. The current study involved an assessment of cognitive and psychomotor effects of Withania somnifera extract in healthy human participants. Materials and Methods : In this prospective, double-blind, multi-dose, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 20 healthy male participants were randomized to receive 250 mg two capsules twice daily of an encapsulated dried aqueous extract of roots and leaves of Withania somnifera or a matching placebo for a period of 14 days. Cognitive and psychomotor performance was assessed pre-dose (day 1) and at 3 hrs post-dose on day 15 using a battery of computerized psychometric tests. After a washout period of 14 days, the subjects crossed-over to receive the other treatment for a further period of 14 days as per prior randomization schedule. Same battery of test procedures were performed to assess cognitive and psychomotor performance. Results: Significant improvements were observed in reaction times with simple reaction, choice discrimination, digit symbol substitution, digit vigilance, and card sorting tests with Withania somnifera extract compared to placebo. However, no effect can be seen with the finger tapping test. Conclusion: These results suggest that Withania somnifera extract can improve cognitive and psychomotor performance and may, therefore, be a valuable adjunct in the treatment of diseases associated with cognitive impairment.
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Review of clinical studies of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and its isolated bioactive compounds
Guy-Armel Bounda, YU Feng
July-September 2015, 7(3):225-236
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157957  PMID:26130933
Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PMT), officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, is one of the most popular perennial Chinese traditional medicines known as He shou wu in China and East Asia, and as Fo-ti in North America. Mounting pharmacological studies have stressed out its key benefice for the treatment of various diseases and medical conditions such as liver injury, cancer, diabetes, alopecia, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases as well. International databases such as PubMed/Medline, Science citation Index and Google Scholar were searched for clinical studies recently published on P. multiflorum. Various clinical studies published articles were retrieved, providing information relevant to pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis, sleep disorders, dyslipidemia treatment, and neurodegenerative diseases. This review is an effort to update the clinical picture of investigations ever carried on PMT and/or its isolated bio-compounds and to enlighten its therapeutic assessment.
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Standardization of some herbal antidiabetic drugs in polyherbal formulation
Harinarayan Singh Chandel, AK Pathak, Mukul Tailang
January-March 2011, 3(1):49-56
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.79116  PMID:21731396
Background: Ayurvedic formulations are used to treat a wide variety of diseases including diabetes mellitus Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs. The present paper reports standardization of eight herbal anti-diabetic drugs−Momordica charantia (seeds), Syzigium cumini (seeds), Trigonella foenum (seeds), Azadirachta indica (leaves), Emblica offi cinalis (fruits), Curcuma longa (rhizomes), Gymnema sylvestre (leaves), Pterocarpus marsupium (heart-wood) individually and in polyherbal marketed samples of Baidyanath Madhumehari Churna Material and Methods: Shivayu Madhuhari Churna, Meghdut Madhushoonya Churna and were compared to the in-house preparation for physicochemical properties. Results and Conclusions: The limits obtained from the different physicochemical parameters of the individual eight herbal drugs and the marketed formulations could be used as reference standard for standardization of the anti-diabetic drugs in a quality control laboratory.
  8,086 166 4
Honey and health: A review of recent clinical research
Saeed Samarghandian, Tahereh Farkhondeh, Fariborz Samini
April-June 2017, 9(2):121-127
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.204647  PMID:28539734
Honey is one of the most appreciated and valued natural products introduced to humankind since ancient times. Honey is used not only as a nutritional product but also in health described in traditional medicine and as an alternative treatment for clinical conditions ranging from wound healing to cancer treatment. The aim of this review is to emphasize the ability of honey and its multitude in medicinal aspects. Traditionally, honey is used in the treatment of eye diseases, bronchial asthma, throat infections, tuberculosis, thirst, hiccups, fatigue, dizziness, hepatitis, constipation, worm infestation, piles, eczema, healing of ulcers, and wounds and used as a nutritious supplement. The ingredients of honey have been reported to exert antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anticancer, and antimetastatic effects. Many evidences suggest the use of honey in the control and treatment of wounds, diabetes mellitus, cancer, asthma, and also cardiovascular, neurological, and gastrointestinal diseases. Honey has a potential therapeutic role in the treatment of disease by phytochemical, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Flavonoids and polyphenols, which act as antioxidants, are two main bioactive molecules present in honey. According to modern scientific literature, honey may be useful and has protective effects for the treatment of various disease conditions such as diabetes mellitus, respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and nervous systems, even it is useful in cancer treatment because many types of antioxidant are present in honey. In conclusion, honey could be considered as a natural therapeutic agent for various medicinal purposes. Sufficient evidence exists recommending the use of honey in the management of disease conditions. Based on these facts, the use of honey in clinical wards is highly recommended.
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