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October-December 2020
Volume 12 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 337-470

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

In vitro 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme: A reductase inhibition assay of triphala ayurvedic formulation Highly accessed article p. 337
Chawannuch Mudjupa, Prasob-Orn Rinthong
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_68_20  
Background: Triphala, the Ayurvedic herbal formulation composed of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), Terminalia bellirica Roxb. (Combretaceae), and Phyllanthus emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae) fruits. It has been reported the cholesterol-lowering effect that the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity was proposed as a key mechanism of action. Since, triphala formulations in equal proportion (1:1:1) and different ratios of its three fruit constituents (vata, pitta, and kapha) have been prescribed by the traditional practitioners due to the patient's body conditions. The biological activities of each formulation are needed to evaluate. Objectives: The objective of the study was to investigate phytochemicals, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory effect, and HMG-CoA reductase molecular modeling of triphala extracts. Materials and Methods: Four triphala extracts were prepared by decoction and determined the contents of gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulagic acid, and chebulinic acid as markers using high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. The in vitro HMG CoA reductase assay was performed based on ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and molecular modeling was simulated using Autodock 1.5.6 to characterize the binding energy, ligand efficacy, and H-bond interaction. Results: All extracts contained gallic acid and chebulagic acid in the high contents, whereas ellagic acid and chebulinic acid were found in a small amount. The enzyme assay revealed pitta extract (at 10 μg/mL) was the most potent enzyme inhibition of 58.4' ± 0.40' (P = 0.05). Moreover, the modeling results indicated that these four markers can interact the enzyme with different configurations and binding affinities. Conclusion: Pitta extract appeared to be a potent HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. It was a potential natural product as an alternative treatment for hypercholesterolemia.
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Gas Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Elucidation and in vitro Cell Line Studies (Sulforhodamine B) on Niosomal Gel of Benincasa hispida p. 342
Gaurav Mahesh Doshi, Akanksha Dilip Badgujar, Ishan Sudhir Mathurvaishya
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_37_20  
Background: The Cucurbitaceae family has been known for its presence of phytoconstituents, namely, lupeol, β-sitosterol, terpenoids, phenols, and proteins with therapeutic potential. Objectives: The research paper tries to focus on major therapeutic field of people demographic area of type of cancer. Soxhlet extraction of Benincasa hispida (BH) was carried out and crude extract was converted to powder. Niosomal gel was formulated after the optimization of drug concentration from the extract of Niosomal solution. Solution with maximum entrapment was selected for the preparation of gel. Gel was prepared by using different Carbopol grades and with comparison of different parameters. Gel was studied for gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) evaluation for check toxicity. Biologic activity was analyzed by SRB (Sulforhodamine B) assay with in vitro cell lines (human oral cancer cell line KB and Mus Musculus skin melanoma B16-F10). Results: Solution which was clear and white was selected for gel development. Carbopol 934 (1') as gelling agent showed good formulation properties. It was non-gritty, easily spreadable, and washable. The gel with maximum entrapment efficiency was evaluated further. GC-HRMS revealed 1.2-ethyl 2-Hexen-1-ol; 1,8-(3-Octyl-2-oxiranyl)-1-octanol; Dodecanoic acid, 2-penten-1-yl ester; Cholestane, 4, 5-epoxy-,(4α,5α); Cyclopentaneundecanoic acid; 17-octadecynoic acid; Octadecanoic acid, methyl ester; Methyl oleate; Tridecanoic acid, methyl ester; and Silane, dimethyl (2,3,6, tricholrophenoxy) heptadicycloxy. The selected cell lines did not show satisfactory activity at different concentrations in SRB assay. Conclusion: This research paper tried to witness the probable potential of BH for cancer with analytical base. Future studies may be undertaken at various stages and levels to further explore the potential of these families of plants.
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Larvicidal efficacy of Andrographis paniculata and Tinospora cordifolia against aedes aegypti: A dengue vector Highly accessed article p. 352
Anubrata Paul, V Samuel Raj, Arpana Vibhuti, Ramendra Pati Pandey
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_35_20  
Background: Aedes aegypti, dengue fever mosquito, is predominantly accompanying the transmission of dengue in tropical and subtropical countries of the world, causing millions of deaths every year. Materials and Methods: The current research was carried out to evaluate the larvicidal efficiency of Andrographis paniculata and Tinospora cordifolia against third instar larvae of A. aegypti using in silico and experimental study. Results: The methanolic extract of A. paniculata and ethanolic extract of T. cordifolia showed the highest larvicidal activity with LC50 and LC90 value of 15.75 ppm; 349.60 and 100.64 ppm; 386.37 ppm, respectively after 48 h exposure, which was statistically significant (P = 0.05). However, the combined action of methanolic extract of A. paniculata + ethanolic (50:50) extract of T. cordifolia and the bioactive fraction of methanolic extract of A. paniculata showed the effective larvicidal activity with LC50 value of 113.20 ppm and 236.08 ppm respectively after 24 h treatment which was statistically significant (P = 0.05). The m/z values in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry graph of bioactive fraction of methanolic extract of A. paniculata predicted the possible amount of bioactive compound class like flavone, phenols, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, phenolic acid, alkaloids, isopalmitic acid, diterpenoids and quinic acid. The best energy binding affinity score against sterol carrying protein-2 of A. aegypti, panicolin (-9.86 kcal/mol), berberine (-10.13 kcal/mol) and their combination (50:50) showed effective larvicidal movement with LC50 value of 25.41 ppm, 23.15 ppm and 17.56 ppm after 24 h treatment. Conclusion: The crude extracts, bioactive fractions and synthetic bioactive compounds and their combination study of A. paniculata and T. cordifolia can be utilized as bio-control agents against A. aegypti mosquito.
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Phytochemical screening and bioactive potential of pod seed extracts of Leucaena leucocephala linn p. 361
Om Prakash, Salma Malik, Kumari Vandana Rani, Vipin Kumar Verma
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_49_20  
Background: Free radicals generated during injury lead to the development of various diseases such as diabetes, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disease, and cancer. Antioxidants present in plants can prevent the deleterious effect of these free radicals. Among various plants, Leucaena leucocephala is a mimosoid, fast-growing, nitrogen-fixing small tree having pods with various medicinal properties. Objective: Hence, the present study was designed to determine the bioactive potential of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of L. leucocephala pod seeds. Materials and Methods: We have assessed the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the extract. In addition, the presence of various metabolites and other compounds was also evaluated though gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Results: The results indicated that the methanol extract had relatively higher antibacterial and antioxidant properties than ethanol extract. Furthermore, GC-MS data revealed the presence of various active constituents in the methanolic extract. Conclusion: Thus, the bioactive potential of various compounds present in methanol extracts of plant parts could be responsible for its antibacterial and antioxidant properties.
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Comparative analysis of the antimicrobial potential of stem and fruit extracts of Calotropis procera p. 368
Sharafa Adegoke Bello, Tawakalt Adedayo Ayofe, Mohammed Faridat Yakub, Abdullahi Temitope Jamiu
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_58_20  
Background: The dramatic rise in antimicrobial resistance continues to threaten the effective management and treatment of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Medicinal plants offer excellent therapeutic alternative especially due to their plethora bioactive constituents and low resistance development to them. Purpose: The comparative analysis of the antimicrobial potential of the stem and fruit extracts of Calotropis procera was investigated. Materials and Methods: Using different extracts of the plant, the phytochemical screening was determined alongside their antimicrobial properties with agar-disc diffusion assay. The antimicrobial potency of the plant extracts (200 mg/ml) was evaluated and compared by their inhibition zone (IZ), activity index (AI), percentage specific activity (PSA), and percentage total activity (PTA) values. Results: The highest antibacterial activity (IZ = 15 ± 0.5 mm) was displayed by the stem hot aqueous extract against Staphylococcus aureus, while the maximum antifungal effect was exerted by both the stem cold and hot aqueous extracts (P > 0.05). The overall antimicrobial AI (AI = 1.56) was displayed by the stem cold aqueous extract against Candida albicans. The stem's hot and ethanolic extracts exhibited the highest achievable PSA of 100'. Furthermore, the stem extracts displayed the PTA of 83.3' compared to 25' by the fruit extracts, thus confirming the greater antimicrobial potency of the plant's stem extracts. Conclusion: This study suggests that while the stem extracts of C. procera could have displayed better antimicrobial activity, the overall effects elicited by the plant could be attributed to the presence of phytochemicals as revealed by the result of the phytochemical screening. Further studies focusing on complete characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of antimicrobial action of bioactive constituents of the extracts is underway.
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Phytochemical and Pharmacological Screening of Begonia grandis Dryand p. 375
Srinivasarao Pendy, Krishna Nallamothu, Ganapaty Seru, Sunitha Katta, Sumanta Mondal
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_67_20  
Begonia grandis Dryand (Family: Begoniaceae) was screened for its phytoconstituents and evaluated for its ethnomedicinal potential as an antioxidant and hepatoprotective agent. The preliminary phytochemical studies of the B. grandis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, triterpenoids, and steroids. Antioxidant effect of the methanolic extract was assessed by DPPH, superoxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and hepatoprotective effect by CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. The extract showed significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects at a dose of 400 mg/kg similar to that observed in ascorbic acid and silymarin.
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Targeted delivery of curcumin using MgONPs and solid lipid nanoparticles: Attenuates aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in albino rats p. 380
Swathi Ganna, Rajasekhara Reddy Gutturu, Rajesh Megala, Rasajna Nadella, Deva Prasad Raju Borelli, John Sushma Nannepaga
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_18_20  
Background: Aluminum is a potent environmental toxin and its increasing entry exposes human beings to its neurotoxicity. Objective: The authors investigated the efficacy of delivery systems (magnesium oxide nanoparticles [MgONPs] and solid lipid nanoparticles [SLNs]) for curcumin in protecting aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into six groups (n = 6), Group I served as control; Group II Al treated; Group III curcumin loaded MgONPs (CuMgONPs); Group IV Al + CuMgONPs; Group V curcumin loaded SLNs (CuSLNs); Group VI Al + CuSLNs. After the treatment period, i.e., 30 days the animals were sacrificed and biochemical tests were performed to assess the cholinergic damage followed by histological observation of brain regions (cerebral cortex and cerebellum). Results: In cholinergic analyses, it was observed that aluminum-induced alterations in ACh and acetylcholine esterase were reversed with concomitant administration of CuMgONPs and CuSLNs. The therapeutic potential of CuMgONPs and CuSLNs was also observed in histological analyses of brain regions treated with aluminum. Among these two drug delivery systems, CuSLNs administration was found to be more potential compared to the CuMgONPs in treating aluminum induced neurotoxicity. Conclusions: By using drug delivery systems, MgONPs and SLNs, the problem of low bioavailability of curcumin can be controlled. This will be a promising agent to treat neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease with the potentiality to cross the blood–brain barrier. However, CuSLNs has showed a more protective effect on altered cholinergic system and tissue damage compared to CuMgONPs.
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In vivo evaluation of antimicrobial, antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities of Nilavembu Kudineer capsule in comparison with siddha classical Nilavembu Kudineer p. 387
GS Lekha, E Deepika, S Swetha, A Kanagarajan, V Gayathridevi, KS Santhy
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_23_20  
Background: The classical Siddha formulation Nilavembu Kudineer (NVK) is more effective in treating fever, infection, pain, and inflammation, but it is a liquid, is bitter in taste, is in a non-palatable form, and hence it was converted into a portable and palatable NVK capsule with increased shelf-life to comply with the needs of patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the NVK capsule in comparison with the classical NVK by using animal models. Materials and Methods: NVK and NVK capsules were processed as per the standard operating procedures, and the extracts were prepared for oral administration. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the drug in comparative assay with the standards – ciprofloxacin and fluconazole – were evaluated by the agar diffusion method. Analgesic activity of NVK and NVK Capsule was studied in Swiss albino mice of either sex (n=4), compared with positive control group; Antipyretic and antiinflammatory activity was studied in Wistar rats of either sex (n=4), compared with the positive control of Paracetamol and Indomethacin respectively.. Results: The zone of inhibition in antimicrobial assay revealed that NVK capsule is more effective than the extract of NVK. The NVK capsule at 200 mg/kg has equal and consistent efficacy (P < 0.01) to reduce pyrexia compared to paracetamol 150 mg/kg at 1–5 h. Furthermore NVK capsule at 400 mg/kg showed a statistically significant analgesic effect (P < 0.01) and higher level of inhibition of inflammation in comparison with NVK and indomethacin (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The study concludes that NVK capsule has very effective antimicrobial, analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities in comparison with classical NVK.
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Pharmacognostic, phytochemical, and anti-inflammatory effects of Corynaea crassa: A comparative study of plants from ecuador and peru p. 394
AJ Lopez-Barrera, YI Gutierrez-Gaiten, Migdalia Miranda-Martinez, IA Choez-Guaranda, SG Ruiz-Reyes, R Scull-Lizama
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_42_20  
Background: Corynaea crassa Hook. F (Balanophoraceae), is a hemiparasitic plant that grows on the roots of other species, commonly known as “huanarpo male” and traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory and aphrodisiac. Objective: The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative pharmacognostic, physicochemical, and pharmacological study between extracts obtained from plants that grow in Peru and Ecuador. Materials and Methods: Macro and micromorphological analysis, physicochemical characteristics, and phytochemical screening were determined according to established standards. Successive extraction was carried out with solvents of increasing polarity, and the composition of the ethyl acetate extract was performed using a gas chromatograph Agilent connected to the mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the plants by the carrageenan test. Results: The macro- and micromorphological characteristics did not show differences, the physical-chemical properties presented some differences attributable to the ecological conditions of the places of origin, the phytochemical screening exposed a complex chemical composition. In the ethyl acetate extract obtained, safrole and squalene were identified as major components for the Ecuadorian species and hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids for the Peruvian species. The anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts was demonstrated on the carrageenan-induced acute inflammation model in female Wistar albino rats. Conclusion: The extracts showed a similar anti-inflammatory behavior, although less than the indomethacin used as a positive control. This work brings novel results to the pharmacognostic, chemical and pharmacological properties of the species C. crassa.
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Inhibitory activity of lupinifolin isolated from Derris reticulata stem against biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus p. 403
Pawitra Pulbutr, Kaewkallaya Thongrak, Apichart Thitprapai, Sakulrat Rattanakiat, Chawannuch Mudjupa, Achida Jaruchotikamol
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_57_20  
Background: Biofilm formation activity of pathogenic bacteria plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of various diseases caused by bacterial infections. It has been reported that lupinifolin, a major phytochemical isolated from Derris reticulata stem, possesses an antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus. Nonetheless, its actions on biofilm formation properties of S. mutans and S. aureus have not been clearly established. ?Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial and antibiofilm formation activities of lupinifolin derived from D. reticulata stem against S. mutans and S. aureus. Subjects and Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated using the microbroth dilution method. The antibiofilm formation activity of lupinifolin was conducted at various incubation periods using the crystal violet biofilm formation assay. Results: The MICs of lupinifolin against S. mutans and S. aureus were 4 and 8 μg/mL, respectively. Lupinifolin at the concentrations of sub-MICs had significant inhibitory actions against both sucrose-dependent and sucrose-independent biofilm formations of S. mutans. The lowest median inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were found at the incubation periods of 12 h (0.57 ± 0.08 μg/mL) and 20 h (0.21 ± 0.04 μg/mL) against sucrose-dependent and sucrose-independent S. mutans biofilm formations, respectively. In addition, at its sub-MICs, lupinifolin also produced a significant inhibition against S. aureus biofilm formation with the lowest IC50 of 0.22 ± 0.03 μg/mL observed at 6-h incubation. Conclusion: These results evidently indicated that lupinifolin can potentially be developed further as a natural product-derived antibiofilm-forming agent for the prevention and/or treatment of biofilm-associated bacterial infections.
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Pharmacognostic evaluation of aerial parts of Euphorbia tirucalli p. 409
B Swapna, R Harisha, Satvik Kotha, M Raghavendra Rao, S Ramachandra Setty
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_59_20  
Objectives: This study aimed to establish the pharmacognostic profile of aerial parts of Euphorbia tirucalli (ET) as per World Health Organization guidelines for ensuring the quality and identification of adulteration. Materials and Methods: Standardization parameters such as macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the study plant were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared and subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening. Further, the extracts were used to analyze total phenol and flavonoid contents, and their antioxidant activities were estimated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide assay. Results: Shape, size, color, odor, surface characteristics, and microscopic images exhibited useful diagnostic characteristics of aerial parts of plants. Total ash, water-soluble, and acid-insoluble ash were found to be 16.65' ± 1.050', 5.623' ± 1.11', and 2.56' ± 0.706, respectively. The loss on drying was 9.6', and water and alcoholic extractive values were 4.0' and 26', respectively. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, steroidal triterpenoids, phenols, and flavonoids. Total flavanoid and phenol content in hydroalcoholic and ethyl acetate extracts of ET was found to be 246 mg rut/g, 120 mg rut/g, 81.36 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g, and 279.58 mg GAE/g respectively. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide scavenging assay revealed the IC50 values of hydroalcoholic and ethyl acetate extracts as 69.599 μg/ml, 20.454 μg/ml, 17.017 μg/ml, and 17.562, respectively. Conclusion: The findings obtained from the present study help to authenticate and establish the pharmacopeia standards for the ET plant.
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The cellular activities of the subfraction of red onion peel crude ethanolic extract in MDA-MB-231 cells p. 416
Sin Pei Choe, Poh Chiew Siah, Shern Kwok Lim, Kok Khiang Peh, Ming Thong Ong, Boon Yin Khoo
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_20_20  
Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the cellular activities of a subfraction (F1) of red onion peel crude ethanolic extract in MDA-MB-231. Materials and Methods: The cell cycle profile and apoptosis induction in F1-treated MDA-MB-231 were measured using flow cytometry, and the migratory activity was measured using wound healing assay, Boyden chamber motility assay, and Matrigel chamber invasion assay, whereas other related protein expressions were measured using Western blotting. Results: Our results demonstrated that the treatment of MDA-MB-231 with F1 reduced cell proliferation of the cells via inducing cell cycle arrest at S and G2 phases. F1 also possessed a better cell cycle arrest profile than camptothecin and executed better cell migratory effect in MDA-MB-231, which was likely via inhibition of the Akt signaling pathway in MDA-MB-231. Conclusion: F1 may have the potential to be developed as a nutraceutical agent that promotes anticancer effects or to be used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs to reduce the toxicity of drugs for MDA-MB-231-type breast cancer treatment.
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Anatomical description and in vitro evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Aristolochia esperanzae kuntze (Aristolochiaceae) extract on oral micro-organisms p. 424
Carlos Roberto Botelho-Filho, Gabriela Keiko Izumi, Juliana Campos Vieira, Fernanda Mara de Paiva Bertoli, Antônio Pedro Ricomini Filho, Leila Teresinha Maranho, Flares Baratto-Filho, Marilisa Carneiro Leão Gabardo
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_52_20  
Background: Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze (Aristolochiaceae) is a plant present in the Brazilian flora, with few studies in the dental area, but used in integrative therapies to treat some health problems. Objectives: The initial purpose was to make an anatomical description of A. esperanzae and then test its antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on specific oral micro-organisms-Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: For the pharmacognostic study, the samples were fixed in formaldehyde, acetic acid and 70' ethyl alcohol and stored in 70' ethanol. For the in vitro study, to obtain the essential oil (OE) and hydrolate, the plant material was mechanically macerated and subjected to hydrodistillation in Clevenger and then frozen until the time of testing. The EO was diluted in dimethylsulfoxide and the tests performed were agar diffusion (disc-diffusion) with isolated bacteria and MIC. A 0.12' chlorhexidine digluconate solution was used as a positive control and 0.9' sodium chloride as a negative. Results: The anatomical study showed the presence of hook-shaped trichomes and stomatal complexes. Regarding the microbiological results, they were negative for the extracts used. Conclusion: The anatomical findings may guide future studies related to the pharmacognostic properties of A. esperanzae and both OE and hydrolate did not have an antibacterial effect against S. mutans, P. gingivalis and E. faecalis.
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Toxicity evaluation of Camellia sinensis var. assamica and its fermented miang product p. 430
Sukanya Chachiyo, Kanokwan Kulprachakarn, Chalermpong Saenjum, Kittipan Rerkasem, Somdet Srichairatakool, Kongsak Boonyapranai, Wason Parklak, Voravuth Somsak, Sakaewan Ounjaijean
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_22_20  
Introduction: Camellia sinensis var. assamica (Assam tea or Cha-Miang [CM]) is widely accepted to be beneficial to health. The tea leaf is used to produce various fermented tea products such as black tea (China, India) and Miang (Thailand). Despite its medicinal properties, toxicological information regarding certain tea variety and its fermented Miang product, especially its long-term toxicity, is currently limited. This study aimed to evaluate the potential toxicity of the extract of fresh resh Cha-Miang leaves (CM) and its fermented Miang product (FCM) in both in vitro and in vivo models. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxic effect on cell viability of HepG2, HEK293, and EA.hy926 cell lines incubated with CM or FCM extract for 24 h and 48 h was investigated by the MTT assay. After that, 14-day repeat oral toxicity test was performed on Wistar rats. Results: No in vitro cytotoxic effect of CM and FCM extract was found in the tested cell types, at a dose up to 1000 μg/ml. For in vivo study, both CM and FCM extracts at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day did not produce any sign or symptom of toxicity; no mortality was observed. Furthermore, investigation of hematological parameters, blood chemistry, body weight, and organ weight in the treated rats revealed no significant difference compared with that of normal controls. Conclusion: The results suggested that crude extract of CM and FCM at the doses used in this study are safe, however, further evaluation of possible chronic toxicity is recommended.
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Phytochemical screening, antibacterial-guided fractionation, and thin-layer chromatographic pattern of the extract obtained from Diploknema butyracea p. 437
Supriya Tiwari, Samjhana Nepal, Shraddha Sigdel, Sarju Bhattarai, Rabindra Kumar Rokaya, Jitendra Pandey, Ram Bahadur Khadka, Pramod Aryal, Ravin Bhandari
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_27_20  
Objective: Diploknema butyracea (family: Sapotaceae), commonly known as the Indian butter tree or Chyuri, is habitat to Nepal and distributed from Garhwal to Sikkim up to Bhutan. This study was aimed to investigate and examine the qualitative phytochemical screening, antibacterial-guided fractionation, and thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) pattern of the D. butyracea bark extracts. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening of D. butyracea extract was carried out by different chemical tests. Normal-phase TLC was conducted by using different solvent system to investigate the presence of phytochemicals. Antibacterial activity on different fractions of methanolic bark extract was determined by the agar disc diffusion method. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, and flavonoid in barks; alkaloid and flavonoid in flowers; and alkaloid, tannin, and steroid in leaves. Among the different fractions of bark extracts, the acetone fraction was found to be most effective against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the highest sensitivity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli was shown by n-butanol fraction. Both fractions showed a zone of inhibition of 15 mm at the concentration of 1 mg extract per disc. TLC of the bark extract confirmed the presence of prominently visible compounds at ethyl acetate fraction. Conclusion: Isolated compounds from dried barks of D. butyracea could be the cradle of the new useful drug.
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Acute toxicity and cytogenotoxicity of yangambin isolated from Ocotea duckei vattimo-gil p. 444
Maria Isabel de Assis Lima Castro, Marta Gerusa Soares de Lucena, Camilla Vila Nova Soares Silva, Yhasminie Karine da Silva Xavier, José Maria Barbosa Filho, Maria Madalena Rocha Silva Teles, Laisla Rangel Peixoto, Ivone Antônia de Souza, Eliete Cavalcanti da Silva
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_73_20  
Background: Yangambin, a lignan isolated from Ocotea duckei leaves, has been reported to have antitumor, anxiolytic, hypotensive, and leishmanicidal activity, but there is little information on toxicity. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity of yangambin in mice, and cytotoxicity and genotoxicity through the Allium cepa assay. Materials and Methods: The yanganbin at a dose of 2000 mg/kg was orally administered once to mice to investigate acute toxicity, and meristem of the roots of Allium cepa was used to determine inhibition of root growth (root length) and mitotic index. Results: Yangambin did not cause hemolysis in sheep erythrocytes at concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50 μg/mL, and did not show genotoxic changes in root meristem cells of Allium cepa at the same concentrations. In the acute toxicity study in Swiss mice at a dose of 2000 mg/kg, there were no apparent clinical signs or any behavioral changes and no deaths. Conclusion: Therefore, yangambin appears to a promising active compound for future pharmacological studies.
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Identification, preliminary genetic, and biochemical analyses the Hedera plants which naturally distribute in Vietnam p. 450
Nguyen Tuan Hiep, Pham Thi Hong Nhung, Nguyen Hoai Nguyen, Do Thi Thuy Linh, Hoang Thanh Duong, Do Thi Le Hang, Pham Thanh Huyen, Vu Thi Thom, Nguyen Minh Khoi, Dinh Doan Long
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_65_20  
Background: Hedera is a genus of 12–15 species of evergreen climbing woody plants in the family Araliaceae that are considered as traditional medicinal plants. Objectives: The objectives were to classify Hedera species collected from different areas in Vietnam and characterize some chemical compounds of these species. Materials and Methods: In this study, the DNA-based technique was used to classify and analyze the genetic source of 21 Hedera plant samples found in Vietnam. In addition, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is also employed to assess the chemical compounds of these plants. Results: The collected plants mainly distribute into three groups (named as N1, N2, and N3). Based on the phenotypic identification and genetic analysis, the N1 group is indicated as Hedera nepalensis (H. nepalensis), while N3 is Hedera helix (H. helix). The HPLC analysis indicates that most of them contained more hederacoside C than α-hederin. Moreover, N1 plants are able to produce hederacoside C as N3 even the accumulation levels in N1 are moderately lower than those in N3 plants. Conclusion: These results provide important information about the local Hedera plants and help us to select the good medicinal sources for further applications in biomedical sciences.
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Natural gastroprotective remedy from the branches of Spondias tuberosa arruda p. 455
Amanda Dias de Araujo, George Souza Feitoza, Fernanda Granja da Silva Oliveira, Bruno Oliveira de Veras, Francinete Francis Lacerda, Nicácio Henrique da Silva, Wolfgang Harand, Silvania T Paz, Mário Ribeiro de Melo-Júnior, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida, Marcia Vanusa da Silva, Maria Tereza dos Santos Correia
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_43_20  
Background: Gastric ulcers are a worldwide health problem and their poor healing is one of the most important causes for their recurrence. Several species of Spondias are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, infections, and inflammation, among other conditions. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties in vitro and gastroprotective effect in mice of the methanolic extract of branches of Spondias tuberosa (MEB). MEB was screened for antioxidant activities using different methods. Materials and Methods: Measurements of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins were also evaluated. The profile of phenolic compounds of extract was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). MEB was investigated for acute and chronic toxicity and gastroprotective effects against ethanol-induced lesions in Swiss mice. Results: The extract showed antioxidant activity in vitro and high content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and tannins. The HPLC results identified the presence of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and t-ferulic acid. The MEB showed no acute and chronic toxicity and in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, v. o., reduced the area of ulcerative lesions induced by ethanol in 73.74, 72.02, and 72.40', respectively. Conclusion: The oral treatment with the extract of S. tuberosa branches (MEB) showed gastroprotective and antioxidant activities.
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Antihypertensive effect of methanol leaf extract of Azadirachta indica is mediated through suppression of renal caspase 3 expressions on Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester induced hypertension p. 460
Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Olumuyiwa Abiola Adejumobi, Fisayo Ugbor, Ebunoluwa Racheal Asenuga, Temitayo Olabisi Ajibade, Jeremiah Moyinoluwa Afolabi, Blessing Seun Ogunpolu, Olufunke Olubunmi Falayi, Idayat Titilayo Gbadamos, Olufunke Eunice Ola-Davies, Adebowale Bernard Saba, Anofi Ashafa, Momoh Audu Yakubu, Adeolu Alex Adedapo, Oluwafemi Omoniyi Oguntibeju
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_10_20  
Background: Azadirachta indica (AI) Adr Juss (Meliaceae), known as neem, has been used traditionally for the treatment of various disease conditions including obesity and hypertension. Objective: The antihypertensive effect and mechanism of action of modulatory effect of AI were investigated after the induction of hypertension using Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Materials and Methods: Five groups of ten rats divided as follows: Control; L-NAME (40 mg/kg); L-NAME + 100 mg/kg AI; L-NAME and 200 mg/kg ?AI; and L-NAME and Enalapril (25 mg/kg) were used. Results: following the application of L-NAME, hypertension (elevated systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures) and increased levels of oxidative stress markers were observed in rats. Immunohistochemistry showed increased caspase-3 expressions in hypertensive rats compared to normotensive rats. Conversely, AI treatment resulted in restoration of physiological antioxidant status and normotension, comparable to the standard antihypertensive agent enalapril. Conclusion: AI leaf is a good candidate for the management of high blood pressure.
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Untargeted gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis and evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Zingiber nimmonii (J. Graham) Dalzell rhizome extracts p. 466
Aswati Ravindranathan Nair, G Ganapathy
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_19_20  
Background: Zingiber nimmonii (J. Graham) Dalzell (syn. Z. cernuum) endemic to peninsular India have been documented to be in use since ancient times in several traditional systems of medicine. Z. nimmonii with ethnomedicinal applications constitute a rich source of secondary metabolites toward identifying potential bioactive constituents with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Objective: Rhizomes of Z. nimmonii (J. Graham) Dalzell, endemic to the Western Ghats, were analyzed for bioactivity and phytochemical composition. Materials and Methods: Polyphenolic contents, namely total phenolics (TPs), total flavonoids (TFs) and total tannin (TT), were determined and expressed using gallic acid (GA), catechin (C) and tannic acid (TA) as standards. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated against two Gram-positive, three Gram-negative bacteria and three fungi by agar well diffusion method. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay, and volatile metabolite composition was determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Results: THE highest TF and TT contents were detected in ethyl acetate (557.64 ± 41.74 mg CE. 100 g-1 DW) and isopropanol (63.995 ± 2.062 mg TA equivalent. 100 g-1 DW) extract, respectively. High TP content in isopropanol extract (112.80 ± 10.99 mg GA equivalent. 100 g-1 DW) contributed to antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (16.3 ± 0.6 mm) and antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus (11.7 ± 0.6 mm). Methanol extracts showed high antioxidant activity as determined by DPPH (67.4 ± 12.5 μg/ml) and FRAP (127.8 ± 12.4 μg/ml) assays. Major bioactive phytochemical constituents in Z. nimmonii rhizome following GC-MS analysis included heptanediamide, N, N'-di-benzoyloxy (arachidonic acid inhibitor), n-hexadecanoic acid (antibacterial, cytotoxic, and antioxidant), and oleic acid (antitumor). Conclusion: The present study demonstrates potential of Z. nimmonii rhizomes as a rich source of secondary metabolites which can be exploited toward developing anti-infective formulations and free radical quenchers.
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