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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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April-June 2021
Volume 13 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 69-103

Online since Saturday, May 29, 2021

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

The role of Physalis angulata as potential anti-type 2 diabetic agent p. 69
Thanh Sang Vo, Phuong Uyen Le, Dai Hung Ngo
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_51_19  
Background: Medicinal plants play important roles in the management of several diseases including diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanism of action of Physalis angulata (PA) for its anti-diabetic activity using an in vitro model. Materials and Methods: Alpha-amylase inhibition was investigated through dinitrosalicylic acid assay. Glucose uptake was determined using LO-2 cell model. Radical scavenging activity was performed through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+) assay. Nitric oxide (NO) production was measured using the Griess reaction. Cell viability was examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Results: The result showed that PA extract was able to inhibit enzyme alpha-amylase activity up to (56.6% ± 4.7%) at the concentration of 200 μg/ml. Moreover, PA possessed glucose adsorption and glucose uptake capacity up to (2.2 ± 0.18) mM glucose/g extract and (156% ± 10.1%), respectively. In addition, PA extract scavenged (52.6% ± 3.5%) DPPH and (59.7% ± 2.6%) ABTS + radicals and reduced NO production to (34.2% ± 3.8%) from RAW264.7 cells without any cytotoxic effects. Conclusion: PA could be suggested as pharmaceutical ingredient for the development of anti-diabetic products.
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Foliar epidermal study on selected medicinal plants used in homeopathy p. 75
Shilpi Singh, Digvijay Verma
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_55_20  
Background: Homeopathy is a complementary alternative medicine system which was introduced by Samuel Hahnemann in Europe in the last part of the eighteenth century. In homeopathy, drugs are obtained from various source materials such as plants, chemicals, minerals, and animals. However, plants are the major source and about 65% of medicines homeopathic medicines obtained from plants (HPI Vol. I to XI). Authentication and identification of genuine drugs is major concern for manufacturing units/industries. The present study will help to add key parameters in the identification of drugs. Objective: The objective of this study is to characterize the foliar epidermal characteristics of selected plants used in homeopathy. Materials and Methods: The foliar epidermal studies of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa, Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb., Cannabis indica Lam., Cephalandra indica (Wight and Arn.) Naudin, Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Gaultheria procumbens L., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) R. Br. ex Sm., Justicia adhatoda L., Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L., and Ricinus communis L. Results: The study showed various characteristic features such as presence or absence of hairs or trichomes, trichomes if present were uni to multicellular, types and size of stomata, stomatal index on dorsal and ventral sides, vein-islet per mm2, vein termination per mm2, and presence or absence of idioblasts, etc. All these features will help in the identification and characterization of medicinal plants. Conclusion: The study revealed that the diversity of foliar characters of the leaf was varying from plant to plant and this variation may be a valuable tool for the authentication and identification of drug.
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Leaf extracts of Glyphaea brevis attenuate high blood glucose and lipids in diabetic rats induced with streptozotocin p. 82
William Dakam, Christine Fernande Nyangono Biyegue, Simone Véronique Fannang, Julius Enyong Oben
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_99_20  
Background: Diabetes is a non-communicable disease causing impairment of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms. Previous ethnobotanical surveys showed that leaves of Glyphaea brevis (G. brevis) are used conventionally in the treatment of diabetes with limited scientific evidence. Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of aqueous (AE) and hydroethanolic extracts (HEE) of G. brevis leaves in attenuating diabetes-linked hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Thirty streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats were divided into six groups receiving the following daily treatments for 4 weeks orally: control (distilled water), reference (tolbutamide 80 mg/kg) and 4 tests (AE 250 mg/kg, AE 500 mg/kg, HEE 250 mg/kg, and HEE 500 mg/kg). The effects of each treatment on postprandial hyperglycemia were assessed using oral glucose tolerance and oral starch tolerance tests. Blood was collected to assess the effects of treatments on fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipid profile. Liver glycogen and gluconeogenic enzyme activity were also measured. Results: AE- and HEE-treated rats had 36%–64% lower fasting blood glucose levels, 34%–73% lower postprandial glycemia, and 15%–75% lower HbA1c than rats from control group (P < 0.01). AE and HEE treatments also brought about a significant increase in liver glycogen levels and lower gluconeogenic enzyme activity (P < 0.01). Extract-treated groups also had lower plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.01). Conclusion: These results suggest that treatment with leaf extracts of G. brevis is effective in attenuating hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Future studies will determine the active compounds accountable for these beneficial effects.
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Isolation, characterization, and optimization of protease-producing bacterium bacillus thuringiensis from paddy field soil p. 89
Poojitha B Sridhara, Chandan Dharmashekara, Chandrashekar Srinivasa, Chandan Shivamallu, Shiva Prasad Kollur, SM Gopinath, Asad Syed, Sharanagouda S Patil, Ashwini Prasad, DE Salamun
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_83_20  
Background: The ubiquitous proteases that are commonly found in all living organisms play an important role in cell growth and cell differentiation. The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces delta-endotoxins that exhibit toxic properties against various insecticides and has demonstrated its potency and safety as a biopesticide agent for decades. The Bt protein includes vegetative, insecticidal, and crystal proteins that exhibit highly toxicants against immature insects (larvae). Objectives: The aim of this research was to use Bt as an alternative to chemical insecticides, and the source of Bt genes aids in the development of a resistant transgenic plant that improves not only productivity but also shift life. Materials and Methods: In the present study, bacterium Bt was isolated from various paddy files around the Hunsur region, Karnataka. The isolated bacteria show a potent protease activity on skim agar plates. Morphology, colony assay, and biochemical characterization were performed for the characteristic properties of bacteria. Further, 16S ribosomal RNA partial sequencing was carried out to identify the specific species of Bacillus. Results: Among nine samples from different paddy soils, three Bacillus isolates SAL-P1, SAL-P2, and SAL-P3 are the major dominant colonies which were streaked onto the fresh skim milk agar plates, out of which SAL-Pl shows an abundant growth and production of an enzyme at pH 7.0, 37°C, and 48 h, respectively. The study also shows the optimum condition of temperature, carbon, nitrogen source, pH for growth, as well as for biomass production. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm the significance of continuous exploration of new Bt strains from different ecological regions that could be more useful for Bt-based bioformulations and the generation of transgenic plants. Furthermore, the growth and biomass production of Btg (isolated from paddy soil) and Bti (reference strain) were found to be identical.
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Herbs and medications used for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza infections including H5N1, H1N1, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 p. 96
Sameh Monir Abdou Desouki
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_32_20  
Background: Herbs are plants or plant parts used for their scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicine is one type of dietary supplement that has been used for thousands of years for treatment or prophylaxis of many diseases including influenza virus infection. Although there are many previous studies about these issues, I did not find many research about using these herbs in treatment or prophylaxis of other influenza infections including H5N1, H1N1, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2. Objective: To collect, evaluate, and explore new important data about using medicinal herbs in these disorders' treatment or prophylaxis. Materials and Methods: I collected and explored new results and data from 24 professional health-care givers who had an experience about using these herbs in treatment or prophylaxis of these diseases. Then, I evaluated descriptively and quantitatively the results with alpha significance level ≤5% by tests such as Chi-square one-sample and reliability and validity tests. Results: The study showed many significant results about using these herbs, through using descriptive tests including one-sample Chi-square test, like in SARS-CoV-2 treatment (n = 414) with mean = 2.5870 ± 0.06730 and P < 0.05, while in SARS-CoV-2, prophylaxis (n = 275) with mean = 2.1164 ± 0.06271 and P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study revealed that there are some particular herbs that can be used in the treatment and prophylaxis of these diseases as adjunctives to the main typical treatment regimen, not as a monotherapy. Furthermore, many studies should be conducted in this field.
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