Recent years have seen a global rise in the use of herbal medicine. Many naturally occurring bioactive substances, especially those derived from plants, have been studied as potential cures for various diseases. Luffa echinata Roxb., a mysterious medicinal plant from the Cucurbitaceae family, has recently gained recognition as one of the most important medicinal herbs among them. Many phytochemicals found in this plant have been found to have therapeutic potential, including xanthones, alkaloids, phytosterols, flavonoids/isoflavonoids, chalcone, glycosides, terpenoids, saponins, carbohydrates, proteins, reducing sugars, fatty acids, tannins, and phenolic compounds. Other potent phytoconstituents of this plant include saponins, hentriacontane, gypsogenin, sapogenin, cucurbitacin (A, B, C, D, E, K, S, and I), β-sitosterol, echinatol (A and B), oleanolic acid, isoquercetin, quercimeritrin, and sitosterol glycoside. Cucurbitacin, a prominent class of triterpenoids found in L. echinata, has been proven effective in numerous reports. Recent research has shown that cucurbitacins can decapitate or inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells. Luffa echinacea's fruit and leaves have long been used as purgatives and to cure liver disease, hemorrhoids, jaundice, migraines, emesis, and other conditions by Indian and Chinese physicians. Ulcers and sores have also been expelled using them. During the field study, it was found that the tribal community (Tharus) of Khatima utilized extremely bitter, squeezed fruit stuff given to sufferers of dog bites in the morning on an empty stomach, and more than 500 people have been adequately treated thus far. The therapeutic potential and phytoconstituents of Luffa echinata have been clarified by pharmacological and phytochemical studies; further study is required to investigate these phytoconstituents and their structures.