Background: The species Marsilea quadrifolia L. belonging to the family Marsileaceae is a semi-aquatic plant widely distributed in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of India. The whole plant of Marsilea quadrifolia L. is extensively used for its eminent medicinal properties. Objectives: Despite promising therapeutic benefits, the plant seems to be less explored, and consequently, the present investigation focuses on exploring pharmacognostical parameters, quality control standardization and antioxidant studies. Materials and Methods: The microscopical (transverse sections of leaves, petiole, stem, and root.) studies, leaf constants (stomatal number, vein islet number, etc.), and powder microscopic examination were performed. All physicochemical evaluations, like swelling index, foaming index, etc. were accomplished as per the World health organization (WHO) guidelines. TLC profiling and HPLC standardization of ethanolic extract was also performed. In vitro, antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract were carried out by various methods. Results: The transverse sections of all parts of the plant, leaf constants, and powder microscopy were reported with clear identification. Physicochemical parameters, i.e., foaming index (<100), Loss on drying (13.99 w/w), moisture content (13.75 w/w), total ash value (13.5 w/w) were done. Ethanolic extract was standardized with reference to quercetin and quantified HPLC data was calculated to be 2.1805±0.02089 mg/g. The antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract and its IC50 values are reported. Conclusion: We have reported complete pharmacognostical standardization of Marsilea quadrifolia L. as per WHO guidelines. We have reported the antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Marsilea quadrifolia L. along with quantitative estimation of quercetin using HPLC.
Keywords: Quercetin, HPLC, Pharmacognosy, Phytopharmaceuticals, Sushni, European water clover.