Ethnopharmacology: Arisaema propinquum Schott (Araceae) is commonly known as cobra lily. Traditionally, the rhizomes were used as vermifuge, in rheumatism, as stomachache, and in snake bites. Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the pharmacognostical parameters and anthelminthic activity of A. propinquum rhizomes. Materials and Methods: The rhizomes of A. propinquum Schott was collected, shade dried and then powdered, and then evaluated for pharmacognostic parameters such as macro- and microscopical characters, physico-chemical parameters, and phytochemical analysis using standard procedures. Anthelminthic activity of the extracts was elevated against Pheretima posthuma. Results: The rhizomes are light brown in color with pungent odor and astringent taste. Transverse section of rhizomes showed intercellular schizogenous cavities, xylem vessels, phloem vessels, and parenchymatous cells. Phytochemical screening of the extracts reveals the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, proteins, amino acids, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, and terpenoids. Physiochemical parameters including ash values showed 6.32% total ash, 1.77% acid insoluble ash, 5.15% water-soluble ash, and 8.55% sulfated ash. Other parameters such as extractive value, foreign matter, moisture content, swelling index, foaming index, pH of different solvents, and fluorescence analysis were also determined. Both the methanolic and aqueous extracts of A. propinquum showed dose-dependent anthelminthic activity against P. posthuma compared to standard albendazole. Conclusion: This is the first report on the pharmacognostic studies and anthelminthic activity of A. propinquum Schott. Data composed from such studies can be used as a standard in the quality control of this plant used as an herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases.