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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 460-465

Antihypertensive effect of methanol leaf extract of Azadirachta indica is mediated through suppression of renal caspase 3 expressions on Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester induced hypertension

1 Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
2 Department of Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
3 Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
4 Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, Qwaqwa Campus, University of the Free State, South Africa
5 Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
6 Department of Environmental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vascular Biology Unit, Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, COPHS, Texas Southern University, Houston, TX, USA
7 Phytomedicine and Phytochemistry Group, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville, South Africa

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi
Departments of Veterinary Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_10_20

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Background: Azadirachta indica (AI) Adr Juss (Meliaceae), known as neem, has been used traditionally for the treatment of various disease conditions including obesity and hypertension. Objective: The antihypertensive effect and mechanism of action of modulatory effect of AI were investigated after the induction of hypertension using Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Materials and Methods: Five groups of ten rats divided as follows: Control; L-NAME (40 mg/kg); L-NAME + 100 mg/kg AI; L-NAME and 200 mg/kg ?AI; and L-NAME and Enalapril (25 mg/kg) were used. Results: following the application of L-NAME, hypertension (elevated systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures) and increased levels of oxidative stress markers were observed in rats. Immunohistochemistry showed increased caspase-3 expressions in hypertensive rats compared to normotensive rats. Conversely, AI treatment resulted in restoration of physiological antioxidant status and normotension, comparable to the standard antihypertensive agent enalapril. Conclusion: AI leaf is a good candidate for the management of high blood pressure.

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