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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 394-402

Pharmacognostic, phytochemical, and anti-inflammatory effects of Corynaea crassa: A comparative study of plants from ecuador and peru

1 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Chemical Sciences, Guayaquil University, Guayaquil, Ecuador
2 Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Pharmacy and Food, Havana University, Havana 13600, Cuba
3 Department of Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, ESPOL Polytechnic University; Biotechnological Research Center of Ecuador, ESPOL Polytechnic University, Guayaquil, Ecuador
4 Biotechnological Research Center of Ecuador, ESPOL Polytechnic University, Guayaquil, Ecuador
5 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, National Trujillo University, Trujillo, Perú

Correspondence Address:
Migdalia Miranda-Martinez
Department of Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, ESPOL Polytechnic University, P.O. Box 09-01-5863, Guayaquil
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_42_20

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Background: Corynaea crassa Hook. F (Balanophoraceae), is a hemiparasitic plant that grows on the roots of other species, commonly known as “huanarpo male” and traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory and aphrodisiac. Objective: The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative pharmacognostic, physicochemical, and pharmacological study between extracts obtained from plants that grow in Peru and Ecuador. Materials and Methods: Macro and micromorphological analysis, physicochemical characteristics, and phytochemical screening were determined according to established standards. Successive extraction was carried out with solvents of increasing polarity, and the composition of the ethyl acetate extract was performed using a gas chromatograph Agilent connected to the mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the plants by the carrageenan test. Results: The macro- and micromorphological characteristics did not show differences, the physical-chemical properties presented some differences attributable to the ecological conditions of the places of origin, the phytochemical screening exposed a complex chemical composition. In the ethyl acetate extract obtained, safrole and squalene were identified as major components for the Ecuadorian species and hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids for the Peruvian species. The anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts was demonstrated on the carrageenan-induced acute inflammation model in female Wistar albino rats. Conclusion: The extracts showed a similar anti-inflammatory behavior, although less than the indomethacin used as a positive control. This work brings novel results to the pharmacognostic, chemical and pharmacological properties of the species C. crassa.

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