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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 176-180

Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of piperine: An experimental study

1 Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sunil Mahakalkar
Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_94_19

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Background: Narcotics (e.g., opioids) or non-narcotics (e.g., salicylates and corticosteroids) are used in the management of pain and inflammation, both of which have side effects, thereby emphasizing the search for natural substances. Piperine found naturally in plants of the Piperaceae family has shown inhibitory activity against 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-1 in in vitro studies. Objectives: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of piperine in comparison to aspirin. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats of either sex weighing 180–200 g and Swiss mice weighing 25–30 g were used. The tail-flick method and hot plate method in rats and acetic acid-induced writhing method in mice were used for the evaluation of analgesic activity. The carrageenan-induced paw edema method, cotton pellet-induced granuloma method, and formalin-induced arthritis method were used for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity. Baker's yeast-induced pyrexia model was used to evaluate antipyretic activity. Results: Piperine showed significant analgesic effect of 40%–55% in tail-flick method, 58% in hot plate method, and 54% in acetic acid-induced writhing model, when compared to negative controls. The percentage inhibition of inflammation, in comparison to controls, was significant at 56% for carrageenan-induced paw edema model and 40% for formalin-induced arthritis model. In the cotton pellet-induced granuloma model, however, it was only 10%. In the yeast model of pyrexia, piperine significantly reduced rectal temperature at 4 h. However, aspirin had better effect than piperine in all these models. Conclusion: Piperine exhibits significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity though not comparable to aspirin.

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