Home | About PR | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |   Login 
Pharmacognosy Magazine
Search Article 
Advanced search 

 Table of Contents 
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 169-172  

Assessment of effectiveness of Barleria prionitis on oral health

1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Institute of Dental Science, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, and General Secretory, International Society for Holistic Dentistry, India
2 Principal, Government Degree College, Banbasa, Uttrakhand, India
3 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Consultant Periodontist and Implantologist, Banglore, India
5 Consultant Dental Surgeon, Patna, Bihar, India
6 Consultant Stomatologist, Dehradoon, Uttrakhand, India
7 SDS, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, KSA
8 Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago

Date of Web Publication24-May-2016

Correspondence Address:
Devanand Gupta
General Secretory, International Society for Holistic Dentistry, A-16, Shyam Vihar, Haldwani, Uttrakhand
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.181456

Rights and Permissions

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Barleria prionitis extract mouthwash in comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash on the oral health. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects were randomly divided into two groups, B. prionitis group and the CHX gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the effect of the two drug regime. Results: Our result showed that the CHX and the B. prionitis were statistically equally effective against dental plaque. Although the action of CHX was more pronounced. Conclusions: This study has confirmed antimicrobial potential of the plant B. prionitis, thus supporting its folklore application as preventive remedy against oral microbial diseases.

  • Within the limitation of this trial, herbal mouthwash has been shown to demonstrate similar effects on plaque as compared to the standard drug CHX. Further long term research needs to be done to check the efficacy and effectiveness of herbal products over standard drug regime

Keywords: Barleria prionitis, Chlorhexidine, Oral health

How to cite this article:
Gupta D, Gupta RK, Jain A, Bindhumadhav S, Sangeeta, Garg P, Chaturvedi S, Chattu VK. Assessment of effectiveness of Barleria prionitis on oral health. Phcog Res 2016;8:169-72

How to cite this URL:
Gupta D, Gupta RK, Jain A, Bindhumadhav S, Sangeeta, Garg P, Chaturvedi S, Chattu VK. Assessment of effectiveness of Barleria prionitis on oral health. Phcog Res [serial online] 2016 [cited 2021 Apr 11];8:169-72. Available from: http://www.phcogres.com/text.asp?2016/8/3/169/181456

   Introduction Top

The general quality of life influence Oral health. Many systemic diseases and chronic conditions are associated with poor oral health. The main causative factor of chronic gingivitis is bacterial plaque. Dental caries is one of the major oral health problems.[1] The most common periodontal diseases which affects more than 90% of the population, is Dental plaque induced gingivitis. The removal of bacterial biofilm is a crucial component in the prevention and treatment of this disease. Effective mechanical cleaning of the teeth helps in regular plaque removal. It is a cost-effective and simple method which proved effective in the control of gingivitis. Individual's motivation and manual ability influence the Efficiency of mechanical cleaning. Thus, the synergistic effect of antiseptics with mechanical oral hygiene is recommended.[2] There is a great need of research for the discovery of new antimicrobial agents that can serve as adjuvants or replace mechanical hygiene methods. Such compounds, particularly chlorhexidine (CHX), have been used to prevent plaque formation and development of gingivitis and are often indicated in situ ations in which oral hygiene is difficult, compromised or even impossible maintain. The lipophilic, hydrophobic and positively charged molecule of CHX interacts with lipopolysaccharides and phospholipids portion of bacteria and then through some type of passive and active transport mechanism CHX enters the cell.

Despite commonly known side effects such as temporary loss of taste; staining of the teeth, restorations, and mucosa; dry, soremucosa; bitter taste; and a slight increase in supragingival calculus formation, CHX is considered the “gold standard” ofantimicrobial rinses because of broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and substantivity of 8-12 hours.[1] As antibiotics and chemicals show more side effect, Hence, there is an urgent need to find out an alternative way.[3]

Effective oral care is important for all individuals; it is especially important for those who are compromised due to poor dexterity, an immune system deficiency, and/or are undergoing chemotherapeutic or radiation therapy. Despite one's best efforts, mechanical aids may fail to adequately remove plaque biofilm or “reduce the bacteria below the patient's threshold for disease.” For these individuals, a therapeutic mouthrinse is often recommended as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control to help maintain gingival health.[4]

According to World Health Organization about 80% of the world's population use herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Natural products are easily bio-degradable, non-narcotic, have less adverse effects and are easily available & affordable and pose minimum environmental hazards that's why change in the scenario occurred. The most cost effective method of preventing dental plaque is mouth rinse. It is used as adjuncts to maintain oral hygiene and in the delivery of active agents to the teeth and gums. Extensive studies have been undertaken to measure the capacity of these mouth rinses to influence plaque formation.

Barleria prionitis (Sanskrit kuranta; Marathi vjradant, porcupine flower), is one such plant. It is a species of plants in the family Acanthaceae. This plant is common in India, Central Africa, Sri Lanka and Eastern Southern. It is having many medicinal properties and thus use for variour medicinal purposes. 6-Hydroxyflavone is the main ingredient of its leaves which is a noncompetitive inhibitor of the protein cytochrome P450 2C9.

A variety of oral rinses are available to consumers either by prescription (Rx) or over-the-counter. The increasing popularity of herbal or “natural” products has led companies to include these in their oral care product lines. Since herbal products may be purchased OTC, research is needed on this aspect. It has attracted millions of consumers who are looking for an alternative mouthrinse; however, more research has to be undertaken to determine the effectiveness and safety of these products.[5]

Hence the present study has been conducted to check the effect of this herbal preparation Barleria prionitison the clinical level of dental Plaque in comparison with CHX.

   Materials and Methods Top

Authentication of the product

The bark was obtained freshly from the botanical garden of Teerthanker Mahaveer University (Western part of Uttar Pradesh, India) and was authenticated by the professor of Botany, Teerthanker Mahaveer University.

Preparation of extract

The samples were carefully washed under running tap water followed by sterile distilled water. These were air-dried at room temperature (40°C) for 5 days and pulverized to a fine powder using a sterilized mixer grinder and stored in air-tight bottles. A 10 g amount of pulverized bark was separately soaked in 100 mL of ethanol for 24 h with occasional shaking and kept undisturbed for 24 h. Sterilized Whatman No.1 filter paper was used for filtration of preparation and the filtered extract was concentrated under vacuum. The dried extract thus obtained was exposed to ultraviolet rays for 24 h and checked for sterility on nutrient agar plates and stored in labeled sterile bottles in a freezer at 4°C until further use.


This double-blind randomized control trial was conducted in the Department of Public Health Dentistry on volunteered male and female university students of Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre. All subjects signed an Institutional Review Board approved consent form.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Students inclusion criteria for those fulfilling the preliminary screening

  1. Students with age group of 18–24 years
  2. Students free from systemic illness
  3. Students who are willing to participate in the study.

Exclusion criteria

  1. Pregnant and nursing students
  2. Students receiving concurrent antibiotic treatment for any other purpose and
  3. Students who failed to give consent.

Withdrawal criteria

  1. Students who did not turn up for follow-up after undergoing initial treatment.

Sample size and randomization

From the sampling frame of 100 students of Teerthankar Mahaveer Dental College and Research Centre of those who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 were selected to be taken into the study. Computer-generated random numbers were used to randomly allocate 30 volunteers to two study groups. Lottery method was done for random allocation of mouthrinses.

Group 1 (n = 15) was given B. prionitis mouthwash and instructed to use 10 mL twice a day for 3 days. Group 2 (n = 15) was given CHX (12%) and instructed to use 10 mL twice a day for 3 days.

B. prionitis mouthwash composed of 50% concentration of B. prionitis. Same oral hygiene instructions were given to both the groups, apart from the use of allocated mouthrinse. The color of both the mouthwash was standardized with the help of department of pharmacy. Then the mouthwashes were kept in coded containers and decoded later. Instructions were given to students of both the groups to rinse their mouth with 10 ml of mouthwash twice a day after breakfast and second time after lunch for 3 days for one minute and not to rinse with water thereafter.

The data were collected two times in whole of the study once at baseline and second at the end of study, that is 3rd day. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman.[6]

The plaque and gingival scores were recorded by a single examiner. The examiner was calibrated and trained at the department. Examiner recorded the findings at two intervals for both the groups.

Chemical antiplaque agents are rarely preferred by developed countries as well as even the most affluent due to high expense or ignorance.[7]

Statistical analysis

The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by post-hoc least significant difference (LSD) were used for analysis. P =0.05 was taken to be significant.

   Results Top

There were no reports of adverse reactions to any of the mouth rinses used. No dropouts were noted. ANOVA was used to analyze the reduction in plaque in the two groups [Table 1]. Significant decrease was noted in the plaque in both the B. prionitis and CHX groups at 3 days (P < 0.05). There was progressive decrease in the plaque at 5% level of significance. CHX group showed maximum decease as compared to herbal group but it was not statistically significant. Multiple comparisons were obtained by post-hoc LSD. The difference in the decrease in plaque (P = 108 at 3 days) between herbal group and CHX group was not statistically significant. Our result shows that there is no significant difference in the efficacy of B. prionitis and CHX on dental plaque.
Table 1: ANOVA for plaque scores of different groups

Click here to view

   Discussion Top

There is a very high prevalence of Periodontal diseases and caries in India, according to many studies.[8] Majority of population gives a low precedence to oral health which may be attributed to such high prevalence of oral diseases. Other reasons for such high prevalence may be lack of availability of simple interventions to rural and underprivileged people and lack of basic oral health education.[9]

Antimicrobial agents may aid in disrupting pathogenic bacteria associated with plaque, thus aiding in the control of gingivitis.[10] Healthy oral flora is influenced by effective plaque control; however, the pathogenic degree of the bacteria in plaque also plays a significant role, as does the host response, immune status, and amount of time that plaque remains on the tooth. The World Health Organization estimates that 65–80% of the world's population uses traditional medicine as the primary form of health care. This study was an attempt to investigate if indigenously prepared mouthwashes from B. prionitis can effectively reduce plaque and gingival scores in the selected population.

This study focused on two specific mouth rinses: B. prionitis rinse and 0.12% CHX rinse (CHX), both claiming to be effective in the treatment of dental plaque. CHX (0.12%) has the American Dental Association (ADA) Seal of Acceptance and is Food and Drug Administration approved for the reduction of plaque and gingivitis. CHX also has long-standing research to substantiate its safety 13–16 and efficacy, whereas the herbal rinse mouth rinse used in this study is a newer, less researched product.[11],[12]

A variety of chemotherapeutic agents have been examined for their ability to control oral micro-organisms and to affect plaque formation. CHX digluconate has a 30 years history in Dental Medicine. Studies showed that the most disturbing side-effect of Chlorhexidine is extrinsic tooth staining and others such as unpleasant taste and burning sensation. There is rising awareness in the result of natural compounds as they have dual effect. On one hand they inhibit the growth of bacterial organisms which are associated with oral diseases and on other hand they uphold the growth of helpful microorganisms.[13]

B. prionitis mouth washes was prepared based on the findings of an in vitro study conducted by Aneja et al. and Diwan. In this study, 50% extracts of B. prionitis was found to be most effective in inhibiting Streptococcus mutans.

To make the taste agreeable some amount of artificial sweetening agents were added. Flavoring agents like menthol, thymol, etc., are essential oils. Essential oils are excellent plaque inhibiyors as chlorhexidine so they may act as confounders in plaque and gingival evaluation that's why they are not added in preparation.[14]

Sodium benzoate, salt of benzoic acid, has been established safe for use and thus used as preservative in food and other compounds. Concentration of 0.03-0.1% concentration of sodium benzoate is used in US.[15]

Methyl paraben is a methyl ester of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. It is a stable, nonvolatile compound that has been used as an antimicrobial preservative in foods, drugs, and cosmetics for over 50 years. Both the preservatives were used at a much lower concentration than what was found to inhibit oral bacteria.[16]

A study by Aneja et al.[17] and Diwan and Gadhikar [18] have showed the antibacterial action of B. prionitis in vitro but there are no published reports on the antibacterial action of B. prionitis in vivo. So, this research can be considered as the only research in this aspect which limits its comparison with other such studies.

The antimicrobial potency of plants is believed to be due to tannins, saponins, phenolic compounds, essential oils and flavonoids (Cowan, 1999). The antimicrobial potency of B. prionitis may be due to the presence of five iridoid glucoside esters, acetylbarlerin (6, 8-di-O-acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester), barlerin (8-O-acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester), shanzhiside methyl ester and 6-0-acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester, verbascoside (6-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-8-O-acetylshanzhiside methyl ester).[17],[19],[20]

It is interesting to note that even crude extracts of B. prionitis showed good activity against dental caries causing oral pathogens where modern antibiotic therapy has failed.[17]

In the present study, Barleria prionitis has shown a good potential as an anti-plaque agent. Barleria prionitis has been proven to be less effective than CHX. Subjects answered the questionnaire that they found Barleria prionitis to be effective and convenient to use due taste duration (aftertaste) in their mouth after rinsing, taste was better than CHX due to the of natural ingredients.

In regard to the efficacy of plaque reduction, CHX was considered to be more effective. However, CHX rinsing can cause a number of local side effects [21],[22],[23] including extrinsic tooth and tongue brown staining, taste disturbance, enhanced supragingival calculus formation and less commonly, desquamation of the oral mucosa. Due to the side-effects of CHX users are not bale to accept CHX completely and for long-term use.[24] Barleria prionitis doesnot have any side-effects due to its natural ingredients. It can be use as a good replacement to patients who wish to avoid alcohol, sugar, any artificial preservatives and artificial colors in their mouthrinses. Further studies of longer time period have to be conducted. The natural product in issue has to be compared to both positive as well as negative control.[25],[26],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33],[34],[35],[36],[37],[38],[39],[40],[41] To establish the effectiveness of this product studies must be conducted where safety and microbiological parameters can be assessed.


The present study was a short a term study employing a crude extract of B. prionitis as mouth rinse. Though significant results were obtained in 3 days in the B. prionitis groups, long term clinical efficacy (6 months as prescribed by ADA) and adverse effects associated with long term usage could not be assessed.[42]

   Conclusion Top

Within the limitation of this trial, herbal mouthwash has been shown to demonstrate similar effects on plaque as compared to the standard drug CHX. Further long term research needs to be done to check the efficacy and effectiveness of herbal products over standard drug regime.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest

   References Top

Lyle D. The role of pharmacotherapeutics in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis. J Pract Hyg 2000;5:46-50.  Back to cited text no. 1
Mandel ID. Chemotherapeutic agents for controlling plaque and gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol 1988;15:488-98.  Back to cited text no. 2
Addy M. The use of antiseptics in periodontal therapy. In: Lindhe J, Karring T, Lang NP, editors. Clinical Periodontology and Implant Dentistry. 4th ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.; 2003. p. 464.  Back to cited text no. 3
Addy M. Chlorhexidine compared with other locally delivered antimicrobials. A short review. J Clin Periodontol 1986;13:957-64.  Back to cited text no. 4
Jones CG. Chlorhexidine: Is it still the gold standard? Periodontol 2000 1997;15:55-62.  Back to cited text no. 5
Turesky S, Gilmore ND, Glickman I. Reduced plaque formation by the chloromethyl analogue of victamine C. J Periodontol 1970;41:41-3.  Back to cited text no. 6
Moran JM. Chemical plaque control – prevention for the masses. Periodontol 2000 1997;15:109-17.  Back to cited text no. 7
Shaju JP, Zade RM, Das M. Prevalence of periodontitis in the Indian population: A literature review. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2011;15:29-34.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
Addy M, Griffiths G, Dummer P, Kingdom A, Shaw WC. The distribution of plaque and gingivitis and the influence of toothbrushing hand in a group of South Wales 11-12 year-old children. J Clin Periodontol 1987;14:564-72.  Back to cited text no. 9
Hannah JJ, Johnson JD, Kuftinec MM. Long-term clinical evaluation of toothpaste and oral rinse containing Sanguinaria extract in controlling plaque, gingival inflammation, and sulcular bleeding during orthodontic treatment. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1989;96:199-207.  Back to cited text no. 10
Van Dyke TE, Offenbacher S, Pihlstrom B, Putt MS, Trummel C. What is gingivitis? Current understanding of prevention, treatment, measurement, pathogenesis and relation to periodontitis. J Int Acad Periodontol 1999;1:3-15.  Back to cited text no. 11
Scherer W, Gultz J, Lee SS, Kaim J. The ability of an herbal mouthrinse to reduce gingival bleeding. J Clin Dent 1998;9:97-100.  Back to cited text no. 12
Percival RS, Devine DA, Duggal MS, Chartron S, Marsh PD. The effect of cocoa polyphenols on the growth, metabolism, and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis . Eur J Oral Sci 2006;114:343-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
Claffey N. Essential oil mouthwashes: A key component in oral health management. J Clin Periodontol 2003;30 Suppl 5:22-4.  Back to cited text no. 14
Heydaryinia A, Veissi M, Sadadi A. A comparative study of the effects of the two preservatives, sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate on Aspergillus niger and Penicillium notatum . Jundishapur J Microbiol 2011;4:301-7.  Back to cited text no. 15
Sharma R, Hebbal M, Ankola AV, Murugaboopathy V, Shetty SJ. Effect of two herbal mouthwashes on gingival health of school children. J Tradit Complement Med 2014;4:272-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
Aneja KR, Joshi R, Sharma C. Potency of Barleria prionitis L. bark extracts against oral diseases causing strains of bacteria and fungi of clinical origin. N Y Sci J 2010;3:5-12.  Back to cited text no. 17
Diwan PD, Gadhikar YA. Assessment of phytochemical composition and antibacterial activity of different extracts of Barleria prionitis leaves against oral microflora to improve dental hygiene. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5:182-4.  Back to cited text no. 18
Suri JL, Banerjee SK, Taneja SC, Chandra S, Anand AS, Prabhakar A, et al . United States Patent Application Publication, 20030181397; 2003.  Back to cited text no. 19
Chen JL, Blanc P, Stoddart CA, Bogan M, Rozhon EJ, Parkinson N, et al. New iridoids from the medicinal plant Barleria prionitis with potent activity against respiratory syncytial virus. J Nat Prod 1998;61:1295-7.  Back to cited text no. 20
Gupta D, Jain A. Effect of Cinnamon Extract and Chlorhexidine Gluconate (0.2%) on the Clinical Level of Dental Plaque and Gingival Health: A 4-Week, Triple-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. J Int Acad Periodontol 2015;17:91-8.   Back to cited text no. 21
Gupta D, Gupta RK. Investigation of antibacterial efficacy of Acacia nilotica against salivary mutans streptococci: A randomized control trial. Gen Dent 2015;63:23-7  Back to cited text no. 22
Gupta D, Devaki M, Dommaraju N, Srinivas KT, Patil AA, Momin RK, et al. CAM Modalities for Musculoskeletal Pain Management Among Dental Professionals of East India. Holistic nursing practice 2015;29:385-90.   Back to cited text no. 23
Gupta D, Momin RK, Mathur A, Srinivas KT, Jain A, Gupta RK. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Treatment Needs in 3-5-Year-Old Preschool Children in Rural Moradabad District, India. North American journal of medical sciences 2015;7:143-50.   Back to cited text no. 24
Gupta D, Mathur A, Patil GI, Tippanawar HK, Jain A. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder and alternative medicine therapies as a treatment modality for it among dentists of North India: A descriptive study. Pharmacognosy Research 2014;7:350-4.   Back to cited text no. 25
Gupta D, Nayan S, Tippanawar HK, Patil GI, Jain A, Gupta RK. Are herbal mouthwash efficacious over chlorhexidine on the dental plaque? Pharmacognosy Research 2015;7:277-81.   Back to cited text no. 26
Gupta D, Gupta RK, Bhaskar DJ, Gupta V. Comparative Evaluation of Terminalia chebula Extract Mouthwash and Chlorhexidine Mouthwash on plaque and gingival inflammation – 30 days randomized control trial. Oral Health Preventive Dentistry 2015;13:5-12.   Back to cited text no. 27
Gupta D, Somasundaram, Kumaran NS, Batra N, Sardiwal KK, Mahajan S, et al. Acupuncture and Dentistry Oral Health and Dental Management 2014;13:1-9  Back to cited text no. 28
Gupta D, Nagar P, Karim B, Khan IM, Naveen B, Chaturvedi M, et al. Tobacco abuse amongst the school going students of 15 to 18 years of Almora district, Uttarakhand: A cross sectional study. Oral Health and Dental Management 2014;13:680-6.   Back to cited text no. 29
Devanand G, John BD, Rajendra GK, Bushra K, Alpana K, Ankita J, et al. Use of complementary and alternative medicine for work related musculoskeletal disorders associated with job contentment in dental professionals: Indian outlook. Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences 2014:24;117-124   Back to cited text no. 30
Gupta D, Dalai DR. Acupuncture (zhēn jiÇ") - An emerging adjunct in routine oral care. J Tradit Complement Medicine 2014;4:218-23   Back to cited text no. 31
Gupta D, Bhaskar DJ, Gupta RK, Jain A, Yadav P, Dalai DR, et al. Is CAM therapy effective in job satisfaction among dentist of with Musculoskeletal Disorders: A cross sectional Study. Medycyna Pracy 2014;65:317-23.   Back to cited text no. 32
Gupta D, Bhaskar DJ, Gupta RK, Karim B, Jain A, Singh R, et al. Efficacy of Ocimum sanctum extract mouthwash in comparison with Chlorhexidine Mouthwash on dental plaque and gingival inflammation – A Randomized Control Clinical Trial. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine 2014:5:109-16   Back to cited text no. 33
Gupta D, Batra R, Mahajan S, Bhaskar DJ, Jain A, Shiju M, et al. Comparative Evaluation of the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Therapy and Conventional Therapy Use for Musculoskeletal Disorders Management and Its Association with Job Satisfaction among Dentists of West India. J Tradit Complement Med. 2014;4:263-7.   Back to cited text no. 34
Kumar GR, Devanand G, John BD, Ankit Y, Khursheed O, Sumit M. Preliminary antiplaque efficacy of Aloe Vera mouthwash on 4 day plaque re-growth model: Randomized control trial Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences 2014:24;139-144   Back to cited text no. 35
Gupta D, Bhaskar DJ, Gupta RK, Karim B, Gupta V, Punia H, et al. Effect of Terminalia chebula Extract and Chlorhexidine on salivary pH and periodontal health: 2 Weeks Randomized Control Trial. Phytotherapy Research 2014;28:992-8.  Back to cited text no. 36
Karim B, Gupta D. Cheiloscopy & Blood groups: Aid in forensic identification. Saudi Dental Journal 2014;26:176-80   Back to cited text no. 37
Jain A, Bhaskar DJ, Gupta D, Yadav P, Khurana R. Practice of Self Medication for dental problems among residents of Uttar Pradesh, India. Oral Health Preventive Dentistry 2016;14:5-11   Back to cited text no. 38
Jain A, Gupta D, Singh D, Garg Y, Saxena A, Chaudhary H, et al. Knowledge regarding prescription of drugs among dental students: A descriptive study. J Basic Clin Pharm 2015;7:12-6   Back to cited text no. 39
Jain A, Bhaskar DJ, Gupta D, Agali C, Gupta V, Karim B, et al. Comparative Evaluation of Honey, Chlorhexidine Gluconate (0.2%) and Combination of Xylitol and Chlorhexidine Mouthwash (0.2%) on the Clinical Level of Dental Plaque-A 30 Days Randomized Control Trial. Perspectives in Clinical Research 2015;6:53-7.   Back to cited text no. 40
Karim B, Bhaskar DJ, Agali C, Gupta D, Gupta RK, Jain A, et al. Effect of Aloe vera Mouthwash on Periodontal Health: Triple Blind Randomized Control Trial. Oral Health Dental Management 2013;12;1-6  Back to cited text no. 41
Council on Scientific Affairs. Acceptance Program Guidelines – Chemotherapeutic Products for Control of Gingivitis. ADA; 2008. Available from: http://www.ada.org/sections/scienceAndResearch/pdfs/guide_chemo_ging.pdf. [Last cited on 2014 Dec 25].  Back to cited text no. 42


  [Table 1]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Materials and Me...
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded63    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal