|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 133-137
Cytotoxic activity of ten algae from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea on human breast cancer cell lines; MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T-47D
Nasrollah Erfani1, Zahra Nazemosadat2, Mahmoodreza Moein3
1 Shiraz Institute for Cancer Research, School of Medicine, Shiraz, Iran
2 Medicinal Plants Processing Research Center, Shiraz, Iran
3 Medicinal Plants Processing Research Center, Shiraz; Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
|Date of Submission||09-Jun-2014|
|Date of Acceptance||12-Aug-2015|
|Date of Web Publication||16-Feb-2015|
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 1583; 71345, Shiraz
Source of Support: This study was financially supported by a grant from
Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (grant no. 91.4988) and also a grant
from Shiraz Institute for Cancer Research, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: Seaweeds have proven to be a promising natural source of bioactive metabolites for drug development. Objective: This study aimed to monitor the ethanol extract of ten algae from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, for their in vitro cytotoxic activity on three human breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Three human breast cancer cell lines including MDA-MB-231(ER− ), MCF-7(ER + ), and T-47D (ER + ) were treated by different concentrations of total ethanol (90%) algae extracts and the cytotoxic effects were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Doxorubicin (Ebewe, Austria) was used as a positive control. After 72 h of incubation, the cytotoxic effect of the algae was calculated and presented as 50%-inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ). Results: The results indicated Gracilaria foliifera and Cladophoropsis sp. to be the most active algae in terms of cytotoxic effects on the investigated cancer cell lines. The IC 50 values against MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T-47D cells were, respectively, 74.89 21.71, 207.81 12.07, and 203.25 30.98 mg/ml for G. foliifera and 66.48 4.96, 150.86 51.56 and >400 mg/ml for Cladophoropsis sp. The rest of the algal extracts were observed not to have significant cytotoxic effects in the concentration range from 6.25 mg/ml to 400 mg/ml. Conclusion: Our data conclusively suggest that G. foliifera and Cladophoropsis sp. may be good candidates for further fractionation to obtain novel anticancer substances. Moreover, stronger cytotoxic effects on estrogen negative breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231(ER− )) in comparison to estrogen positive cells (MCF-7 and T-47D) suggest that the extract of G. foliifera and Cladophoropsis sp. may have an estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor-independent mechanism for their cellular growth inhibition.
Keywords: Algae, Persian Gulf, Oman Sea, cytotoxicity, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay
|How to cite this article:|
Erfani N, Nazemosadat Z, Moein M. Cytotoxic activity of ten algae from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea on human breast cancer cell lines; MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T-47D
. Phcog Res 2015;7:133-7
|How to cite this URL:|
Erfani N, Nazemosadat Z, Moein M. Cytotoxic activity of ten algae from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea on human breast cancer cell lines; MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T-47D
. Phcog Res [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Dec 3];7:133-7. Available from: http://www.phcogres.com/text.asp?2015/7/2/133/150539
| Introduction|| |
Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Studies show that in 2012, nearly 14.1 million new cases were diagnosed with cancer, and 8.2 million people died from the disease.  Among all types of cancer, breast cancer is the most common diagnosed cancer in women, ranking second after adding both genders together, and the leading cause of cancer-related death in women across the world.  In 2012, an estimated of 1.7 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer and almost 522,000 deaths occurred due to this disease. 
The most common breast cancer type is the invasive ductal carcinoma accounting for 70-80% of all breast cancers diagnosed.  Complement to breast mastectomy, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are frequently used for management of this malignancy. There are many chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of breast cancer. Nevertheless, due to the high side effects and resistance of cancer cells to these drugs, ,, there is still urgent need to develop new and more efficient therapeutic agents to battle the disease.
Nature with its incomparable biodiversity of chemical agents has been the leading source for development of effective drugs. Nowadays, nearly 60% of all of the drugs used in cancer treatment are based on natural products.  Covering almost 70% of the earth's surface, the marine environment seems to be a treasury of novel bioactive compounds. Marine algae have been consumed as food in many parts of the world. They are rich in dietary fiber, minerals, polysaccharides, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and vitamins. , Recent studies have shown that seaweeds can be a source of new anticancer drugs. ,,,,,,, Kahalalide F is an anticancer substance synthetized by the green algae, Bryopsis sp. Kahalalide F is now passing phase two of clinical trials for several solid tumors such as nonsmall cell lung cancer stage IIIB. , Various brown algae contain a sulfated polysaccharide named fucoidan in their fibrillar cell walls and intercellular spaces considered to protect the seaweeds against desiccation. Fucoidan has lately gone under various anticancer, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis studies. , The results indicate that the substance has promising characteristics which may lead to a future anticancer marine drug.
The Southern parts of Iran have nearly 1,260 km coastline along the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. The unique ecological properties of this area have led to the growth of some novel organisms in this region. 153 species of marine algae have been reported to live along the Bandar -e- Lengeh area at the south of Iran and north of the Persian Gulf. 
Only few studies have looked into the pharmacological properties of algae from Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. ,,,,,, The aim of this research was to determine the in vitro cytotoxic activity of total ethanol extracts (90%) of ten algae acquired from the coastlines of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea against three human breast cancer cell lines; MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T-47D.
| Materials and methods|| |
Algae samples were collected from the Iranian coasts of Persian Gulf and Oman Sea in 2008. The samples were collected by Dr. R. Rabii and Identified by Dr. J. Sohrabipour at the Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center of Hormozgan, Iran. The voucher specimens of these algae were deposited at the Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Information regarding the exact collection date and place of the algae samples and their voucher numbers are also demonstrated in [Table 1]. The seaweeds were washed twice with distillated water and stored at −20°C until use.
|Table 1: Date and place of collection and voucher number of the algae samples |
Click here to view
Preparation of algal extracts
Algal samples were freeze-dried and minced by a blender. 100 g of each alga was measured and macerated by ethanol (90:10) (2 × 1,000 ml). After filtration, the solvent was condensed and freeze-dried to obtain crude ethanol extracts. 20 mg of dried ethanol extracts was dissolved in 1 ml dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) to prepare a 20 mg/ml stock solution of the extracts. The solution was passed through a 0.2 μm filter and kept in −26°C until use. For each experiment, the concentrations were prepared freshly.
Doxorubicin (Ebewe, Unterach, Austria), a current anticancer drug, was used as a positive control in our experiment. An available solution (2 mg/ml) of doxorubicin (Ebewe, Austria) was used as a stock. For each experiment, the working solutions were prepared freshly at 4°C and protected from light.
Three invasive breast ductal carcinoma cell lines, human MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor negative [ER− ]), MCF-7, and T-47D (both ER + ) were purchased from the National Cell Bank of Pasteur Institute of Iran. Cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 (Biosera, France) with 5% fetal bovine serum (Gibco, USA) and 1% penicillin-streptomycin (Biosera, France) at 37°C in a humidified 5% CO 2 incubator. Cells were used for 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay after 70% confluency.
3- (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay
Cells were trypsinized with trypsin 0.25%, counted by trypan blue (Biosera, France) and suspended at a concentration of 3 × 10 4 cell/ml. 100 μl of this suspension was added to each well of a 96-well plate. Cells were left overnight to attach to the plate. After 24 h, cells were inoculated, in triplicates, with quadruple-serially diluted concentrations of the algal extracts ranged from 6.25 μg/ml to 400 μg/ml. Negative controls for each extract concentrate were normal media containing the corresponding DMSO concentration. Doxorubicin was used at double-serially diluted concentrations between 0.9 × 10−2 μg/ml to 0.58 μg/ml. After 72 h of treatment, the medium was removed, and cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Briefly, 100 μl of MTT (0.5 mg/ml) in RPMI-1640 without phenol red was added to each well in the dark, and the plates were placed in the incubator for 4 h. Next, the supernatant was removed carefully, and 150 μl of DMSO (Merck, Germany) was added to each well. Plates were shacked for 15 min and were then read at 570 nm using a microplate reader. All the experiments were repeated three times. Cell cytotoxicity of each extract was calculated using the following equation:
%cytotoxicity = 100 − (ABS test /ABS control × 100%).
Where ABS test is the average absorbance of cells treated with algal extracts, ABS control is the average absorbance of corresponding DMSO control.
Statistical analysis was performed by Excel 2007 (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, Washington, USA) and inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values were determined using CurveExpert for Windows version 1.4 (Daniel Hyams, Hixson, USA).
| Results|| |
The ethanol crude extract of ten algae from Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, as well as doxorubicin-as positive control were evaluated for their cytotoxic properties on three breast cancer cell lines, using MTT assay. Following 72 h of incubation, the IC 50 values of doxorubicin on MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and T-47D cell lines were 0.09 ± 0.03, 0.18 ± 0.04 and 0.37 ± 0.25 μg/ml, respectively.
The cytotoxic effect of the algae extracts is shown in [Table 2]. As illustrated in [Table 2], Gracilaria foliifera and Cladophoropsis sp. extracts indicated the highest cytotoxic activity among the algae tested, and inhibited the cell growth in a dose-response manner. After 72 h of incubation, the IC 50 values of G. foliifera on MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T-47D cell lines were 74.89 ± 21.71, 207.81 ± 12.07 and 203.25 ± 30.98 μg/ml, respectively. The IC 50 values for Cladophoropsis sp. were 66.48 ± 4.96, 150.86 ± 51.56 and >400 μg/ml, respectively. The other algae extracts did not show any remarkable cytotoxic effect on the investigated cell lines in the concentration range from 6.25 μg/ml up to 400 μg/ml.
|Table 2: Cytotoxic activity of the ethanol extracts of the algae after 72 h of incubation, assessed by MTT assay |
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Marine seaweeds have been considered as a source of new anticancer drugs. ,, In the present study, in vitro cytotoxic activity of the total ethanol extracts (90%) of ten algae acquired from the coastlines of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea was determined against three human breast cancer cell lines; MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T-47D. Results indicated G. foliifera and Cladophoropsis sp. to have the highest cytotoxic effect on the investigated cell lines.
The ethanol extract of the red alga G. foliifera showed the IC 50 values of 74.89 ± 21.71, 207.81 ± 12.07 and 203.25 ± 30.98 μg/ml against MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T-47D cells, respectively. Many Gracilaria species are frequently used as food in various countries and are also of great interest for commercially producing food grade agar. , To our knowledge, no study to date, has investigated the cytotoxic effect of G. foliifera species. However, other species of this genus have undergone investigations in different studies. Two compounds found in G. asiatica (gracilarioside and gracilamides) have shown mild cytotoxic effects against A375-S2 melanoma cell line.  Evaluating the effects of G. salicornia extract from the Persian Gulf and G. corticata extract from India on brine shrimp, in different studies, revealed the potent cytotoxic activity of these algae with the LC 50 of 3 μg/ml  and 1.081 μg/ml,  respectively. G. corticata from Persian Gulf was also reported to have potent cytotoxic effects on Jurkat and MOLT-4,  MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, HepG2 and HT-29  human cancer cell lines. Sundaram et al. have shown an increase in the life span and an inhibition of tumor formation in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing mice which were treated by ethanol extract of G. edulis.  It is notable that in our study the ethanol extract of G. foliifera was more active than G. salicornia against the breast cancer cell lines [Table 2]. These data, collectively with our observation, suggest that the members of Gracilaria genus, including G. foliifera merit more investigations as the anticancer candidates.
As shown in [Table 2], Cladophoropsis sp. ethanol extract had the IC 50 values equal to 66.48 ± 4.96, 150.86 ± 51.56 and >400 μg/ml against MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T-47D cells, respectively. So far, there have only been several reports dealing with the cytotoxic effects of this algal genus, ,, and our study is the first to investigate the cytotoxic effects of this alga on breast cancer cell lines. In a research by Kanegawa et al. C. zollingeri extract was observed to have moderate telomerase inhibitory effect on MOLT-4 leukemic cell line.  Studies done by Harada et al. on 306 marine algae revealed that the methanol extract of C. vaucheriaeformis with the concentrations of 50-100 μg/ml has a high cytocidal effect on L1210 murine leukemic cells.  The cytotoxic effect of C. vaucheriaeformis was further evaluated on five human leukemia cell lines. The results indicated that the algal extract have much weaker effects on human leukemic cell lines than murine derived cell lines. C. vaucheriaeformis extract had also possessed a selective cytotoxicity on murine malignant cells  but unluckily no conspicuous selective cytotoxic activity was detected on human malignant cells.  In our study, Cladophoropsis sp. exhibited an 80% cell growth inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells at the concentration of 100 μg/ml. Although we did not have normal human cell lines in our experiment; the effect of Cladophoropsis sp. is less but close to the effect of C. vaucheriaeformis on human leukemia cell lines; HL60 and MOLT-4. Together our observation, along with the data from other investigations suggest that the members of the alga genus Cladophoropsis might contain valuable cytotoxic metabolites against cancer cells.
The results of this study also showed that the cytotoxic effect of the algae G. foliifera and Cladophoropsis sp. on the ER/PR/HER2 triple negative breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB231) is stronger than that of estrogen-receptor positive cell lines (MCF7 and T47D) (ER + /PR + /HER2− ). These data suggest that the growth inhibition properties of these two algae extract might be independent from cell ERs. , As triple negative tumors are believed to be more invasive with higher reoccurrence rate that ER/progesterone receptor positive tumors,  this observation may shed light on the new aspects of anticancer agents. The observation; however, needs to be evaluated in other investigations in which proteome profiling of the target cells is assessed.
Although we did not demonstrate significant cytotoxic effects of the other algae, genera Colpomenia, , Cytoseira, ,,,, Gracilariopsis,  Iyengaria, and Laurencia,  from other regions of the world, have exhibited cytotoxic effects in other studies.
Totally, our data indicated that among ten algae ethanol extracts from Persian gulf and Oman Sea listed in [Table 2], G. foliifera and Cladophoropsis sp. might be considered for further fractionation and in vitro, as well as in vivo, anti-cancer investigations.
A limitation of our study should, however, not to be ignored. Evaluating the effects of the extracts on normal human cell line may reveal the selectivity of the investigated extracts.
| Acknowledgments|| |
This study was financially supported by a grant from the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (grant no. 91-4988) and also a grant from Shiraz Institute for Cancer Research. The project had been submitted as the Pharm. D. thesis project of Dr. Zahra Nazemosadat at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.
| References|| |
Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, et
. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC Cancer Base No. 11, Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://www.globocan.iarc.fr. [Last cited on 2014 Jan 02].
Li CI, Uribe DJ, Daling JR. Clinical characteristics of different histologic types of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 2005;93:1046-52.
Gottesman MM. Mechanisms of cancer drug resistance. Annu Rev Med 2002;53:615-27.
Baguley BC. Multiple drug resistance mechanisms in cancer. Mol Biotechnol 2010;46:308-16.
Lu HP, Chao CC. Cancer cells acquire resistance to anticancer drugs: An update. Biomed J 2012;35:464-72.
Cragg GM, Newman DJ. Plants as a source of anti-cancer agents. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;100:72-9.
MacArtain P, Gill CI, Brooks M, Campbell R, Rowland IR. Nutritional value of edible seaweeds. Nutr Rev 2007;65:535-43.
Mohammadi M, Tajik H, Hajeb P. Nutritional composition of seaweeds from the Northern Persian Gulf. Iran J Fish Sci 2013;12:232-40.
Mayer AM, Gustafson KR. Marine pharmacology in 2003-2004: Anti-tumour and cytotoxic compounds. Eur J Cancer 2006;42:2241-70.
Mayer AM, Gustafson KR. Marine pharmacology in 2005-2006: Antitumour and cytotoxic compounds. Eur J Cancer 2008;44:2357-87.
Samarakoon K, Jeon YJ. Bio-functionalities of proteins derived from marine algae - A review. Food Res Int 2012;48:948-60.
Varshney A, Singh V. Effects of algal compounds on cancer cell line. J Exp Biol 2013;1:337-52.
Senthilkumar K, Manivasagan P, Venkatesan J, Kim SK. Brown seaweed fucoidan: Biological activity and apoptosis, growth signaling mechanism in cancer. Int J Biol Macromol 2013;60:366-74.
Newman DJ, Cragg GM. Marine-sourced anti-cancer and cancer pain control agents in clinical and late preclinical development. Mar Drugs 2014;12:255-78.
Murphy C, Hotchkiss S, Worthington J, McKeown S. The potential of seaweed as a source of drugs for use in cancer chemotherapy. J Appl Phycol 2014;26:1-54.
Kwak JY. Fucoidan as a marine anticancer agent in preclinical development. Mar Drugs 2014;12:851-70.
Hamann MT. Technology evaluation: Kahalalide F, PharmaMar. Curr Opin Mol Ther 2004;6:657-65.
Sohrabipour J, Nejadsatari T, Assadi M, Rabei R. The marine algae of the southern coast of Iran, Persian Gulf, Lengeh area. Iran J Bot 2004;10:83-93.
Zandi K. In vitro
antitumor activity of Gracilaria corticata
(a red alga) against Jurkat and molt-4 human cancer cell lines. Afr J Biotechnol 2010;9:6787-90.
Zandi K, Ahmadzadeh S, Tajbakhsh S, Rastian Z, Yousefi F, Farshadpour F, et al.
Anticancer activity of Sargassum oligocystum
water extract against human cancer cell lines. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2010;14:669-73.
Ghannadi AP, Zandi K, Sartavi K, Yegdaneh A. Screening for antimalarial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of some Iranian seaweeds. Res Pharm Sci 2012;8:113-8.
Plubrukarn KZ, Sartavi K, Yegdaneh A, Ghannadi A. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some seaweeds from Persian Gulf, Iran. Res Pharm Sci 2012;7:775.
Fouladvand M, Barazesh A, Farokhzad F, Malekizadeh H, Sartavi K. Evaluation of in vitro
anti-Leishmanial activity of some brown, green and red algae from the Persian Gulf. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2011;15:597-600.
Namvar F, Baharara J, Mahdi A. Antioxidant and anticancer activities of selected Persian Gulf algae. Indian J Clin Biochem 2014;29:13-20.
Rastian Z, Mehranian M, Vahabzadeh F, Sartavi K. Antioxidant activity of extract from a brown alga, Sargassum boveanum
. Afr J Biotechnol 2007;6:2740-5.
Armisen R. World-wide use and importance of Gracilaria
. J Appl Phycol 1995;7:231-43.
Norziah MH, Ching CY. Nutritional composition of edible seaweed Gracilaria changgi
. Food Chem 2000;68:69-76.
Sun Y, Xu Y, Liu K, Hua H, Zhu H, Pei Y. Gracilarioside and gracilamides from the red alga Gracilaria asiatica
. J Nat Prod 2006;69:1488-91.
Saeidnia S, Gohari AR, Shahverdi AR, Permeh P, Nasiri M, Mollazadeh K, et al
. Biological activity of two red algae, Gracilaria salicornia
and Hypnea flagelliformis
from Persian Gulf. Pharmacogn Res 2009;1:428-30.
Sreejamole K, Greeshma P. Antioxidant and brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of ethanolic extract of red alga Gracilaria corticata
(J. Agardh). Indian J Nat Prod Resour 2013;4:233-7.
Sundaram M, Patra S, Maniarasu G. Antitumor activity of ethanol extract of Gracilaria edulis (Gmelin) Silva on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao 2012;10:430-5.
Harada H, Noro T, Kamei Y. Selective antitumor activity in vitro from marine algae from Japan coasts. Biol Pharm Bull 1997;20:541-6.
Harada H, Kamei Y. Selective cytotoxicity of marine algae extracts to several human leukemic cell lines. Cytotechnology 1997;25:213-9.
Kanegawa K, Harada H, Myouga H, Katakura Y, Shirahata S, Kamei Y. Telomerase inhibiting activity in vitro
from natural resources, marine algae extracts. Cytotechnology 2000;33:221-7.
Pec MK, Aguirre A, Moser-Thier K, Fernández JJ, Souto ML, Dorta J, et al.
Induction of apoptosis in estrogen dependent and independent breast cancer cells by the marine terpenoid dehydrothyrsiferol. Biochem Pharmacol 2003;65:1451-61.
Khanavi M, Nabavi M, Sadati N, Shams Ardekani M, Sohrabipour J, Nabavi SM, et al.
Cytotoxic activity of some marine brown algae against cancer cell lines. Biol Res 2010;43:31-7.
Dent R, Trudeau M, Pritchard KI, Hanna WM, Kahn HK, Sawka CA, et al.
Triple-negative breast cancer: Clinical features and patterns of recurrence. Clin Cancer Res 2007;13:4429-34.
Green D, Kashman Y, Miroz A. Colpol, a new cytotoxic C6-C4-C6 metabolite from the alga Colpomenia sinuosa
. J Nat Prod 1993;56:1201-2.
Huang HL, Wu SL, Liao HF, Jiang CM, Huang RL, Chen YY, et al.
Induction of apoptosis by three marine algae through generation of reactive oxygen species in human leukemic cell lines. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:1776-81.
Ayyad SE, Abdel-Halim OB, Shier WT, Hoye TR. Cytotoxic hydroazulene diterpenes from the brown alga Cystoseira myrica
. Z Naturforsch C 2003;58:33-8.
Abourriche A, Charrouf M, Berrada M, Bennamara A, Chaib N, Francisco C. Antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicity of the brown alga Cystoseira tamariscifolia
. Fitoterapia 1999;70:611-4.
Mhadhebi L, Laroche-Clary A, Robert J, Bouraoui A. Anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-oxidant activities of organic extracts from the Mediterranean seaweed, Cystoseira crinita
. Afr J Biotechnol 2013;10:16682-90.
Spavieri J, Allmendinger A, Kaiser M, Casey R, Hingley-Wilson S, Lalvani A, et al.
Antimycobacterial, antiprotozoal and cytotoxic potential of twenty-one brown algae (Phaeophyceae
) from British and Irish waters. Phytother Res 2010;24:1724-9.
Permeh P, Gohari A, Saeidnia S, Mashinchian-Moradi A, Dasian Z. Bioactivity and sterols from Gracilariopsis
persica and Sargassum oligocystum. Planta Med 2010;76:322.
Ayesha H, Sultana V, Ara J, Ehteshamul-Haque S. In vitro
cytotoxicity of seaweeds from Karachi coast on brine shrimp. Pak J Bot 2010;42:3555-60.
Fernández JJ, Souto ML, Norte M. Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of polyethers isolated from Laurencia. Bioorg Med Chem 1998;6:2237-43.
[Table 1], [Table 2]