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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 179-182  

Volatile constituents of Saussurea costus roots cultivated in Uttarakhand Himalayas, India

Centre for Aromatic Plants, Industrial Estate, Selaqui, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

Date of Submission25-Aug-2012
Date of Acceptance22-Sep-2012
Date of Web Publication23-May-2013

Correspondence Address:
Harish Chandra Andola
Scientist-B Centre for Aromatic Plants, Industrial Estate, Selaqui, Dehradun, 248197 Uttarakhand
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Source of Support: The authors thankfully to Ministry of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (Formerly known as Ministry of Small Scale Industry), Govt. of India, New Delhi to provide support service facilities for quality assessment laboratory.,, Conflict of Interest: We declared we do not have Conflict of Interest.

DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.112424

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Background: Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipschitz, syn Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke, one of the best-known species within this genus, is commonly known as costus. Due to the remarkable biological activity of S. costus and its constituents it will have an appropriate place in various systems of medicines all over the globe. Objective: The main aim is to study the volatile constituents of S costus cultivated in Uttarakhand Himalayas. Material and Methods: The volatile constituents were isolated from the root of S costus cultivated in Chamoli district of Uttrarakhand by hydro distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Results: A total 35 aroma compounds representing about 92.81% of the total composition were identified. Aldehyde like (7Z, 10Z, 13Z)-7, 10, 13-hexadecaterinal (25.5%) was found as a major compound including other ketones like dehydrocostus lactone (16.7%), alcohols like elemol (5.84%), γ-costol (1.80%), vulgarol B (3.14%), valerenol (4.20%), and terpinen-4-ol (1.60%), etc. Esters and acids were found to be completely absent in our samples. Conclusion: S. costus volatile oil constituents are superior in terms of total identified constituents. Where relative area quantum is higher in Uttarakhand Himalayas samples, when compared with those originated to China and Korea.

Keywords: C.B. Clarke, essential oil, GC-MS, Saussurea costus

How to cite this article:
Gwari G, Bhandari U, Andola HC, Lohani H, Chauhan N. Volatile constituents of Saussurea costus roots cultivated in Uttarakhand Himalayas, India. Phcog Res 2013;5:179-82

How to cite this URL:
Gwari G, Bhandari U, Andola HC, Lohani H, Chauhan N. Volatile constituents of Saussurea costus roots cultivated in Uttarakhand Himalayas, India. Phcog Res [serial online] 2013 [cited 2021 May 12];5:179-82. Available from: http://www.phcogres.com/text.asp?2013/5/3/179/112424

   Introduction Top

The genus Saussurea DC. of the family Asteraceae comprises about 300 species in the world of which about 61 species exist in India. Saussurea costus has become an important drug in the international market as well as Indian systems of medicine. [1] It is used either as a single drug or in combination with other drugs. In India, this is endemic in the sub alpine region of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand from altitudes of 3200-3800 m. This is a critically endangered species. Government of India has prohibited exports of 29 medicinal and aromatic species, including S. costus, either in crude form or in processed products. Its roots are used mainly as an antispasmodic in asthma, cough, and also in treatment of cholera, chronic skin diseases, and rheumatism. [2] The essential oil of S. costus was also studied for food repellency. [3] The total plant extract of S. costus as well as its Ayurvedic preparations, 'Asava' and 'Arishta', were screened for antimicrobial activity. [4] Costus oil, used in perfumery, being rich in sesquiterpene lactones, is responsible for numerous cases of allergic contact dermatitis. [5] Roots essential oil is studied by various workers. [6],[7],[8],[9] Oil of S. costus is very costly and used in high grade perfumes, it has a very strong odor. The oil blends well with vetiver, patchouli, rose, violet, and sandal wood used in preparation of hair oil, insecticide and insect repellent, and making incense. [10] According to planning commission of India, S. costus requirement is 0.43 tons/annum. In view of the above importance, cultivated species ingredient need to be explored. However, no systematic study has been carried out in essential oil compositions of the species from Uttarakhand Himalayas.

   Material and Methods Top

Collection of plant material

Roots of S. costus were collected from Ghat region District Chamoli Uttarakhand India in a manner of three samples (different biological replicates) in the month of March 2010. The species was identified by Dr. Sunil Sah, Taxonomist, at our Center. Voucher specimen has been kept in the herbarium (CAP-94) of Centre for Aromatic Plants, Selaqui Dehradun, India. The roots were air dried and were grounded to uniform powder using grinder (Philips, India), and stored in air-tight bottles till further analysis.

Isolation of the Essential oils

The essential oil of the grounded powder was extracted by hydro-distillation for 6 hours using Clevenger apparatus. [11] The oil content (v/w%) was estimated. The oil dehydrated over anhydrous sodium sulfate and kept in cool place before analysis.

Gas chromatography

The gas chromatograph (GC) analyses of the oil samples was carried out by using HP6890 GC manufactured by Agilent equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID) detector and a HP-5 fused silica column (30 m × 0.32 mm × 0.2 μm film thickness). The sample was injected directly into the column. Nitrogen was used as a carrier gas during analysis. The injector and detector temperature were maintained at 210°C and 230°C, respectively. The column oven temperature was programmed from 60°C to 220°C with an increase in rate of 3°C/min. The injection volume was 0.02 μl neat.

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

The gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the oil was performed out on a Perkin Elmer mass spectrometer (Model Claurus 500) coupled to a Perkin Elmer Clarus 500 GC with a 60 m × 0.32 mm × 0.2 μm film thickness column (RtX5). The sample was injected directly into the column. Helium was used as the carrier gas (flow rate 1 ml/min). The oven temperature was programmed from 60°C to 220°C at 3°C/min. Other conditions were the same as described under GC. The mass spectrum was taken with a mass range of 40-600 Daltons.

Identification of components

The identification of constituents was performed on the basis of retention index (RI), determined with reference to the homologous series of n-alkanes,C 9 -C 24 under experimental conditions, co injection with standards (Aldrich and Fluka), MS library search (2.0 version, NIST 2002 and WILEY-7 th edition, May 2003), and by comparing with the MS literature data. [12],[13] The relative amounts of the individual components were calculated based on the GC peak area (FID response) without correction factors.

   Results and Discussion Top

The essential oil was found to be 0.02% (v/w).GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of S. costus led to the identification of 41 components representing 92.81% of the total oil composition. Results of present study are summarized in [Table 1]. Among the aldehydes (7Z, 10Z, 13Z)-7, 10, 13-hexadecatrienal was identified as a major component (25.5%), this is with the tune of reports from China and Korea. As the molecular weight, the odor profile gradually tends to give more pleasant fruity character. Among the alcoholic compounds (+) -γ-costol (1.80%), vulgarol B (3.14%), valerenol (4.20%), elemol, (5.84%), and terpinen-4-ol (1.60%) and other minor alcohols such as linalool, 1,8-cineol, etc., were found.1,8-cineole is widely used in the flavor industry and is an important ingredient in pharmaceuticals. [14] Elemol (5.84%) has been reported to possess antimicrobial activities and is demonstrated in various growth inhibitions, [15] which is found in higher quantum as compared with China and Korea originated oils. Dehydrocostus lactone (16.7%) detected as second major components, which found greater quantity as compared with China and Korea, showed various biological activities. [16] Among the hydrocarbon, β-elemene (2.1%), which belongs to the sesquiterpenes group, is reported to inhibit mouse pancreatic cancer and neoplastic metasis, and have antitumor effect [17] and (E)-β-ocimene (2.3%) possessed higher quantum as compared with other hydrocarbon like α-thujene, α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, sabinene, α-terpinene, p-cymene, limonene, β-phellandrene. Where α-terpinolene, α-terpineol, estragole, pregnane, carvotan acetone, dehydro β-ionone were completely absent in our sample. However, compounds like β-guaiene, β-himanchalene, δ-cadinene, and cis-α-bisabolene were found abundant in the samples of China and Korea but not detected in present investigation.
Table 1: Comparison between constituents of Korean and Chinese S. costus root oil and that from Uttarakhand

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   Conclusion Top

The investigated species (S. costus) was found to be rich in dehydrocostus lactone, which is a sesquiterpene compound, that is reported to act as selective inhibitor and can be potentially used as an ingredient of new anticancer drug. [17] Yield of S. costus root oil was 0.02% (v/w) in Indian Himalayan region, which is similar to the reports from Korean origin root oil. However, Uttarakhand's essential oil is more volatile in flavor compounds and higher percentage of total peak area as compared with Korea and China. The potential of this species in food repellency [3] and in Ayurveda medicines [4] strengthens the possibility of its commercial cultivation in the hilly tracks of Uttarakhand Himalayas for industrial utilization.

   Acknowledgment Top

The authors wish to thank colleagues of Centre for Aromatic Plants, Selaqui for the support and help. The authors are also thankful to anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions in improving earlier version of manuscript.

   References Top

1.Pandey MM, Rastogi S, Rawat AK. Saussurea costus: Botanical, chemical and pharmacological review of ayurvedic medicinal plant. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;110:379-90.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR; 1956.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Naik SN, Kumar A, Maheshwari RC, Guddewar MB, Chandra R, Kumar B. Pesticidal properties of sub-critically extracted plant essential oils against storage pest Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Indian Perfumer 1995;39:71-6.   Back to cited text no. 3
4.Farooq S, Pathak GK. A comparative study of in vivo antimicrobial activity of total solvent extracts of some medicinal plants with Asawa and Arishta preparation Non Tim. Forest Prod 1998;5:79-81.   Back to cited text no. 4
5.Cheminat A, Stampf JL, Benezra C, Farrall MJ, Frechet JM. Allergic contact dermatitis to costus: Removal of haptens with polymers. Acta Derm Venereol 1981;61:525-9.   Back to cited text no. 5
6.Chhabra BR, Gupta S, Jain M, Kalsi PS. Sesquiterpene lactones from Saussurea lappa. Phytochemistry 1988;9:801-4.   Back to cited text no. 6
7.De Kraker JW, Franssen MC, de Groot A, Shibata T, Bouwmeester HJ. Germacrene from fresh costus roots. Phytochemistry 2001;58,481-7.   Back to cited text no. 7
8.Lee GI, Ha JY, Min KR, Nakagawa H, Tsurufuji S, Chang IM, et al. Inhibitory effects of oriental herbal medicines on IL-8 induced in lipopolysacharide activated rat macrophages. Planta Med 1995;61:26-30.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Jeong SJ, Itokawa T, Shibuya M, Kuwano M, Ono M, Higuchi R, et al. Costunolide, a sesquiterpene lactone from Saussurea lappa inhibits the Veger kdr/flk-1 signaling pathway. Canadian Lett 2002;187:129-33.   Back to cited text no. 9
10.Bhattacharya SK. Hand book of medicinal plants. Jaipur: Pointer Publisher's; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Clevenger JF. Apparatus for the determination of volatile oil. J Am Pharm Assoc 1928;17:345-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Adams RP. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, USA: Carol Stream, IL, Allured Publishing; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.Davies NW. Gas Chromatographic retention indices of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes on methyl silicone and Carbowax 20M phases. J Chromatogr A 1990;503:1-24.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Arctander S. Perfume and chemicals. Montclaire, Newyork USA; 1969.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Cha JD, Jeong MR, Jeong SI, Moon SE, Kil BS, Yun SI, et al. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Cryptomeria japonica. Phytochemistry Res 2007;21:295-9.   Back to cited text no. 15
16.Chang KM, Kim GH. Comparison of Volatile aroma components from Saussurea Lappa C.B. Clarke Root Oils. J Food Sci Nutr 2008;13:128-33.  Back to cited text no. 16
17.Tan G, Lin L, Wang Z, Yin S. Inhibition of mouse pancreatic cancer combined with β-elemene. Zhonghua Shiyan Waike Zazhi 2003;23:113-4.  Back to cited text no. 17


  [Table 1]

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