|Year : 2012 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 127-133
Sub-acute effect of N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME) on biochemical indices ins rats: Protective effects of Kolaviron and extract of Curcuma longa L
Oluwatosin A Adaramoye, Ifeanyi O Nwosu, Ebenezer O Farombi
Department of Biochemistry, Drug Metabolism and Toxicology Research Laboratories, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
|Date of Submission||28-Sep-2011|
|Date of Decision||07-Nov-2011|
|Date of Web Publication||27-Jul-2012|
Oluwatosin A Adaramoye
Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: Kolaviron (KV) (biflavonoid from Garcinia kola) and extract of Curcuma longa (CL) are frequently used in folk medicine for treatment of hypertension. One of their mechanisms of action is to enhance antioxidant properties in animals. NG - nitro- l- arginine methyl- ester (L- NAME) is L- arginine analogue, which by binding to Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) may induce hypertension partly due to increase in tissues oxidative stress. Objectives: To investigate the effect of L- NAME on some biochemical indices and the possible protective effect of KV or CL. Materials and Methods: Four groups consisting of 6 rats each were used. One group served as control, second group received L- NAME (40 mg/kg/day). Third and fourth groups were treated with KV and CL, respectively and also received L- NAME. KV and CL were given at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day. Results: L- NAME caused a significant (P <0.05) increase in the levels of serum urea, creatine kinase and alanine aminotransferase relative to controls. L- NAME treated rats had markedly decreased hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione- S- transferase (GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Precisely, L- NAME decreased CAT, SOD, GST and GSH by 48, 52, 76 and 40%, respectively. L- NAME intoxication significantly decreased (P <0.05) renal GSH and SOD levels. Also, L- NAME caused a significant (P <0.05) induction of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the animals. Administration of KV or CL with L- NAME caused significant (P <0.05) inhibition of LPO and augments tissue antioxidant indices. Conclusion: These results confirm the adverse effect of L- NAME on biochemical indices and, the ability of kolaviron or Curcuma longa to ameliorate the alterations.
Keywords: Antioxidant, biochemical indices, Curcuma longa, NG - nitro- l- arginine methyl ester, kolaviron
|How to cite this article:|
Adaramoye OA, Nwosu IO, Farombi EO. Sub-acute effect of N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME) on biochemical indices ins rats: Protective effects of Kolaviron and extract of Curcuma longa L. Phcog Res 2012;4:127-33
|How to cite this URL:|
Adaramoye OA, Nwosu IO, Farombi EO. Sub-acute effect of N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME) on biochemical indices ins rats: Protective effects of Kolaviron and extract of Curcuma longa L. Phcog Res [serial online] 2012 [cited 2021 Jan 20];4:127-33. Available from: http://www.phcogres.com/text.asp?2012/4/3/127/99071
| Introduction|| |
N G - nitro- l- arginine methyl ester (L- NAME) is one of L- arginine analogues, which by binding competitively to NOS, has been shown to attenuate both production and metabolic pathway of NO. NO is known to mediate vasodilation, inhibit platelet aggregation, and prevent leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells.  One of the effects of NO on biochemical indices in relation to cardiovascular system is its action on ion channels. For instance, NO has been shown to inhibit Na + -K + ATPase or Na + /K + exchangers, both playing pivotal roles in tubular fluid and sodium reabsorption in renal tubular epithelial cells thereby regulating blood pressure. , The critical feature of rat model lacking NO synthesis is persistent activation of the rennin- angiotensin system  and regional inflammatory changes, such as monocyte chemo- attractant protein- 1 expression,  synthesis of growth factors in the endothelium and increase in neutrophil infiltration, which finally leads to myocardial remodeling (hypertrophy and fibrosis) and hypertension.  On the other hand, it has been reported that reduced plasma NO level is linearly correlated with severity of hypertension.  It is known that chronic inhibition of NOS by L- NAME can alter some biochemical indices. For example, L- NAME administration has been reported to cause a decrease of urinary sodium and potassium excretions along with a decrease of diuresis.  However, the effect of L- NAME on biochemical indices of liver and kidney function tests as well as markers of oxidative stress still remains unknown.
Nowadays, medicinal plants are being used as an alternative therapy for treatment of several illnesses including hypertension. ,,, A special attention is paid to the bioactive elements extracted from plants in order to discover new drugs toward the treatment of several pathologies.
Kolaviron (KV), the predominant constituent in Garcinia kola seed is a biflavonoid complex. KV has been reported to prevent hepatotoxicity mediated by several toxins.  KV is known to exhibit hypoglycemic effects in normal, alloxan and streptozotocin- diabetic animals.  Also, KV has been reported to elicit strong antioxidant activity in both in vivo and in vitro experimental models.  In a preliminary study, we demonstrated that KV elicited hypocholesterolemic effects and reduced the relative weight of heart in cholesterol fed animals.  Also, we have shown that the vasorelaxant effects of KV in smooth muscle is mediated by mechanism that involves extracellular Ca 2+ influx blockade, inhibition of intracellular Ca 2+ release and the opening of K + channels. 
Curcuma longa L (CL) (Family: Zingiberaceae) is a perennial herb that grows predominantly in the tropical regions of Asia and Africa. CL has been used by traditional Medicine Practitioners to treat several ailments, such as cough, fever, liver and urinary diseases, inflammation, palpitation, eczema, itching, measles, chicken pox, vascular disorders and hypertension.  CL has been studied for its biological activities, such as; anti- microbial,  hepatoprotective,  hypoglycemic,  anti- ulcer,  neuroprotective,  anti- hemolytic  and anti- oxidant.  The vasorelaxant effect of CL in vascular smooth muscles has been reported by many authors.  From the aforementioned, both KV and CL elicit strong biological activities including antioxidant functions in animal model. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of L- NAME on some biochemical indices and, the possible protective effects of KV or CL during co- administration with L- NAME in Wistar rats.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Inbred 8 to 9 weeks old male Wistar albino rats weighing 220 - 230 g were purchased from the Animal House of the Physiology Department, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The animals were kept in well- ventilated cages at room temperature (28- 30°C). They were maintained on normal laboratory chow (Ladokun Feeds, Ibadan, Nigeria) and water ad libitum. All animal experiments conform to the guidelines of National Institute of Health (NIH publication 85- 23, 1985) for laboratory animal care and use.
Thiobarbituric acid, Tris, bovine serum albumin, 5,5'- dithio- bis(2- nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), reduced GSH and 1- chloro- 2,4- dinitrobenzene (CDNB) were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, USA. NG - nitro- l- arginine methyl- ester (L- NAME) was purchased from BDH Chemicals Limited, Poole, Dorset, UK. Urea, creatinine, protein, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases kits were purchased from Randox chemical company, UK. Other reagents were of analytical grade and the purest quality available.
Preparation of plant materials
Garcinia kola seeds were obtained commercially in Ibadan, Nigeria and certified at the herbarium in the Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, where a voucher specimen already exists (UI- 00530). Three kilogram of peeled seeds was sliced and pulverized with an electric blender and air- dried in the laboratory (25 - 28°C). Extraction of KV was achieved by the method of Iwu et al.  Briefly, powdered seeds were extracted with light petroleum ether (b.p. 40 to 60°C) in a soxhlet extractor. The defatted, dried marc was repacked and then extracted with methanol. The extract was concentrated and diluted to twice its volume with distilled water and extracted with ethyl acetate (6 × 250 ml). The concentrated ethyl acetate fraction gave a yellow solid known as kolaviron (KV) with a percentage yield of 6%.
Fresh samples of CL (rhizome) were obtained from a local market in Ibadan, Nigeria. Their botanical identification and authentication were confirmed at the department of botany, University of Ibadan, Nigeria (The voucher specimen number is UI- 02577). The rhizome was sliced into pieces and air- dried at room temperature and then powdered. The powdered samples (1 kg) were de- fatted with n- hexane and extracted with methanol overnight in a soxhlet extractor. The methanolic extract of CL was concentrated and evaporated to dryness at 50°C with a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. The yield of the preparation was 7.9%. Prior to the experiments, KV and methanolic extract of CL were dissolved in corn oil overnight and administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage to the animals.
Twenty four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each and were given a period of two weeks for acclimatization before the commencement of the experiment. Group A received the drug vehicle (Corn oil) and served as control, while group B received L- NAME alone, group C was given L- NAME and KV, while group D received L- NAME and CL. Groups C and D were pre- treated with KV and CL, respectively, for 7 consecutive days before treatment with L- NAME. L- NAME was administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg/day,  while KV and CL were given at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day. , All drugs were given by oral gavages, 5 times in a week for a period of 3 weeks. The animals were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical decapitation under light ether anesthesia 24 h after the last dose of drugs. Blood samples were obtained directly from the heart of the animals. After dissection, liver, kidney and heart samples were obtained and processed to post mitochondrial fraction (PMF).
Preparation of post-mitochondrial fraction
Tissues (liver, kidney and heart) from the animals were quickly removed and washed in ice- cold 1.15% KCl solution, dried and weighed. The samples were homogenized in 4 volumes of isotonic phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 and then centrifuged at 10,000g for 20 min to obtain the post- mitochondrial supernatant fraction. All procedures were carried out at temperature 0-4°C.
Preparation of serum
Blood samples were collected from inferior vena cava of the heart into clean centrifuge tubes and allowed to stand for 1 h. Serum was prepared by centrifugation at 3,000g for 15 min in an MSC bench centrifuge.
Protein determination: Protein contents of serum and PMF were determined according to Lowry et al, using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a standard.
Alanine and Aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST) determination: Serum ALT and AST activities were determined using Randox kits. The kits used the combined methods of Mohun and Cook  and Reitman and Frankel. 
Creatine kinase, creatinine and urea determination: Serum creatinine and urea levels were estimated using Randox kits, involving the methods of Jaffe  and, Talke and Schubert,  respectively. Creatine kinase was measured in the presence of an antibody to CK- M monomer utilizing a kit purchased from United Diagnostics Industry (Riyadh, SA).
Glutathione- S-transferase (GST) determination: The PMF GST level was determined spectrophotometrically at 37°C by the method of Habig et al. 
Reduced glutathione (GSH) determination: PMF GSH level was estimated as total non- protein sulphydryl group by the method of Moron et al. 
Superoxide dismutase and catalase determination: Superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) was measured by the nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction method of McCord and Fridovich.  Catalase (CAT) activity was assayed by measuring the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide at 240 nm as described by Aebi. 
Lipid peroxidation (LPO) determination: LPO in the PMF and serum were assayed spectrophotometrically by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method, as described by Buege and Aust. 
All values were expressed as the mean ± S.D. (n = 6 in all the groups). Data were analyzed using one- way ANOVA followed by the post- hoc Duncan multiple range test for analysis of biochemical data using SPSS version 11 (SPSS Inc Chicago, IIinois). Values were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05.
| Results|| |
In [Table 1], administration of L- NAME for 3 consecutive weeks to rats caused a significant increase (P <0.05) in the levels of serum urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) when compared to controls. Specifically, serum urea, ALT and LPO increased by 137, 88 and 118%, respectively, in L- NAME intoxicated rats. However, simultaneous treatment of rats with KV or CL attenuated the L- NAME- mediated increase in the levels of these biochemical parameters. Furthermore, L- NAME intoxication produced insignificant effect (P >0.05) on the levels of serum protein, creatinine and aspartate aminotransferase in the rats. In addition, L- NAME intoxication caused a significant (P <0.05) elevation in the activities of serum creatine kinase by 50% relative to the control, whereas supplementation with KV or CL significantly (P <0.05) decreased the activities of creatine kinase relative to L- NAME alone [Table 1].
|Table 1: Effect of kolaviron (a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds) and methanolic extract of Curcuma longa L on the levels of serum protein, lipid peroxidation and biochemical parameters of liver and kidney functions in L- NAME intoxicated rats|
Click here to view
[Figure 1] and [Figure 2] depict the effect of KV or CL on the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione- S- transferase (GST) in liver, kidney and heart of L- NAME intoxicated rats. Administration of L- NAME for 3 weeks significantly (P <0.05) decreased the levels of hepatic GSH and GST as well as renal GSH of the animals relative to controls. Supplementation with KV or CL augmented the L- NAME induced decrease in hepatic and renal GSH and GST. However, CL failed to attenuate the observed decrease in the levels of renal GSH in L- NAME treated rats. Also, L- NAME produced no effect (P >0.05) on the levels of cardiac GSH and GST in these animals when compared to the control. [Figure 3] and [Figure 4] show that the L- NAME intoxication- caused marked decrease in the activities of hepatic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and renal SOD of the animals. Precisely, the activities of hepatic CAT, SOD and renal SOD were decreased by 48, 52 and 31%, respectively relative to controls. Simultaneous treatment of rats with L- NAME and KV or CL prevented the adverse effect of L- NAME on hepatic CAT, SOD and renal SOD. In addition, treatment with KV or CL restored the activities of these antioxidant enzymes to values that were statistically (P >0.05) similar to the control.
|Figure 1: Effect of kolaviron (flavonoid of Garcinia kola) and Curcuma longa L on reduced glutathione levels of L-NAME intoxicated rats.*Significantly different from control (P< 0.05), aL-NAME= NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, KV= Kolaviron, CL= Curcuma longa L|
Click here to view
|Figure 2: Effect of kolaviron (flavonoid of Garcinia kola) and Curcuma longa L on glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activities of L-NAME intoxicated rats. *Significantly different from control (P< 0.05), L-NAME= NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, KV= Kolaviron, CL= Curcuma longa L|
Click here to view
|Figure 3: Effect of kolaviron (flavonoid of Garcinia kola) and Curcuma longa L on catalase (CAT) activities of L-NAME intoxicated rats. *Significantly different from control (P< 0.05), L-NAME= NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, KV= Kolaviron, CL= Curcuma longa L|
Click here to view
|Figure 4: Effect of kolaviron (flavonoid of Garcinia kola) and Curcuma longa L on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) of L-NAME intoxicated rats. *Significantly different from control (P< 0.05), L-NAME= NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, CL= Curcuma longa L, KV= Kolaviron|
Click here to view
Furthermore, L- NAME increased the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products in the liver, kidney and heart of the animals [Figure 5] when compared to controls. Specifically, hepatic, renal and cardiac LPO were increased by 72, 87 and 101%, respectively, in L- NAME treated rats relative to the control. However, treatment with either KV or CL significantly (P <0.05) ameliorated the increased serum creatine kinase and lipid peroxidation in tissues of L- NAME treated rats.
|Figure 5: Effect of kolaviron (flavonoid of Garcinia kola) and Curcuma longa L on the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in L-NAME intoxicated rats. *Significantly different from others (P< 0.05), L-NAME= NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, KV= Kolaviron, CL= Curcuma longa L|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
L- NAME can competitively bind NO synthase (NOS), which may impair metabolic pathway of NO and causes tissue injuries, especially cardiac remodelling,  impairment of endothelial dependent relaxation and renal dysfunction.  In addition to vascular endothelial dysfunction and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, oxidative stress appears to play a prominent role in L- NAME induced hypertension.  In NO deficient hypertension induced by L- NAME, alteration in biochemical indices should therefore be expected. The present study, shows the ability of natural antioxidants (KV or CL) to prevent the L- NAME induced biochemical alterations in rats by activating other biochemical processes that may serve as alternatives to metabolic pathway of NO inhibited by L- NAME. The major findings of our study are that L- NAME intoxication increased the levels of serum biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation, urea, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase, and also decreased the hepatic levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and glutathione- S- transferase in the rats. The present study provides evidence that the natural antioxidants, kolaviron (biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seed) and extract of Curcuma longa L are effective at reversing the early consequences of biochemical alterations in rats with NO deficiency.
Several investigators have proposed that oxidative stress contributes to the generation or maintenance of hypertension through inactivation of NO, inhibiting its vasodilator and natriuretic actions, and through non- enzymatic generation of vasoconstrictor isoprostanes from arachidonic acid peroxidation.  The hypertension caused by NOS inhibition is thus associated with increased oxidative stress,  and was confirmed in this study. Duarte et al.  showed that chronic intake of oral quercetin (a flavonoid with antioxidant properties) has a protective effect in rats with hypertension from L- NAME, which further confirmed the role of oxidative stress in this model of hypertension. The kidney plays a central role in the regulation of body salt and water balance, and that any disorder in the regulation of renal functions could alter this balance in pathophysiological states including hypertension. In the present study, chronic inhibition of NOS by L- NAME caused an increase in serum urea level. Serum urea is a sensitive and reliable biochemical index for evaluation of renal function in animal model.  The increased serum urea indicates impairment to the kidney function.  Both extracts (KV and CL) normalize the serum urea levels of the treated rats. It may be suggested that both KV and CL offer protection against L- NAME induced renal dysfunction in these animals. These observations are consistent with the studies of Chidrawar et al and Bhalodi et al in which extracts of Hemidesmus indicus and Benincasa cerifera attenuate the serum urea levels of rats with cardiovascular disorder, respectively.
Our study shows that serum creatine kinase (CK) was elevated in L- NAME hypertensive rats when compared to the control. CK is a cardiac necrotic marker that is released from the damaged heart tissue to the blood stream during severe hypertension.  Animals pretreated with KV or CL demonstrates marked protection against L- NAME- induced biochemical alterations in the values of CK. This protection was manifested by the normalization of cardiac necrosis marker, CK and indicates the protective effects of KV or CL. In support of our findings, Hung et al reported that polyphenolics from red grapes offered protection against ischemic reperfusion injury in rat heart via reduction of cardiac infarct size, and amelioration of plasma levels of lactate dehydrogenase and CK.
A major outcome of the present study is the evidence provided that L- NAME intoxication caused a significant increase in various oxidative stress parameters in the blood, kidney, liver and heart of the animals. In the present study, L- NAME treated rats exhibited marked depletion of renal and hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH). Reduced GSH is an endogenous antioxidant that acts among the first line of defence against pro- oxidant status.  Decreased hepatic GSH contents result in increased susceptibility to injuries via induction of lipid peroxidation and TNF- alpha.  Furthermore, significant decreases in the activities of glutathione- S- transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were observed in the liver and kidney of L- NAME treated rats. On the other hand, L- NAME intoxication increased the levels of lipid peroxidation products in the blood, kidney, liver and heart of the animals. Interestingly, treatment with KV or CL offered remarkable protection against oxidative stress induced by L- NAME by normalizing the values of biochemical markers of oxidative stress. Several lines of evidence previously reported support the superb cardiac, renal and hepatic protective capabilities of KV and CL. ,,
In conclusion, our results support potent tissues protective roles for KV and CL by reversing the altered biochemical indices observed during L- NAME administration in rats. The protection may be primarily attributed to the antioxidant effectiveness of these natural products, and suggests that pretreatment with KV or CL may contribute in developing novel strategies in prevention and treatment of the cardiotoxic agents that are capable of inducing free radicals. Further studies are needed to determine whether the beneficial effect of KV or CL on biochemical indices can be extended to hemodynamic parameters in L-NAME treated rats.
| Acknowledgements|| |
L- NAME used for this study was purchased from fund given to OAA by Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) and The Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS).
| References|| |
|1.||Kelm M, Schrader J. Control of coronary vascular tone by nitric oxide. Circ Res 1990;66:1561- 75. |
|2.||Roczniak A, Burns KD. Nitric oxide stimulates guanylate cyclase and regulates sodium transport in rabbit proximal tubule. Am J Physiol 1996;270:F106-15. |
|3.||Kone BC, Higham S. Nitric oxide inhibits transcription of the Na+-K+ ATPase á1-subunit gene in an MTAL cell line. Am J Physiol 1999;276:F614-21. |
|4.||Takemoto M, Egashira K, Usui M, Numaguchi K, Tomita H, Tsutsui H, et al. Important role of tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in the pathogenesis of coronary vascular and myocardial structural changes induced by long-term blockade of nitric oxide synthesis in rats. J Clin Invest 1997;99:278-87. |
|5.||Koyanagi M, Egashira K, Kitamoto S, Ni W, Shimokawa H, Takeya M, et al. Role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in cardiovascular remodeling induced by chronic blockade of nitric oxide synthesis. Circulation 2000;102:2243-48. |
|6.||Sanada S, Kitakaze M, Node K, Takashima S, Ogai A, Asanuma H, et al. Differential sub-cellular actions of ACE inhibitors and AT(1) receptor antagonists on cardiac remodeling induced by chronic inhibition of NO synthesis in rats. Hypertension 2001;38:404-11. |
|7.||Node K, Kitakaze M, Yoshikawa H, Kosaka H, Hori M. Reduced plasma concentrations of nitrogen oxide in individuals with essential hypertension. Hypertension 1997;30:405-8. |
|8.||Kang DG, Hur TY, Lee GM, Oh H, Kwon TO, Sohn EJ, et al. Effects of Cudrania tricuspidata water extract on blood pressure and renal functions in NO-dependent hypertension. Life Sci 2002;70:2599-609. |
|9.||Tahraoui A, El-Hilali J, Israili ZH, Lyoussi B. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in the south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province). J Ethnopharmacol 2007;110:105-17. |
|10.||Nithiya P, Mohan K. Antioxidative Effect of Trichosanthes tricuspidata Root Extract on Sildenafil Induced Migraine in Albino Mice. Pharmacognosy Res 2009;1:402-5. |
|11.||Lahon K, Das S. Hepatoprotective activity of Ocimum sanctum alcoholic leaf extract against paracetamol-induced liver damage in Albino rats. Pharmacognosy Res 2011;3:13-8. |
|12.||Onasanwo SA, Singh N, Saba AB, Oyagbemi AA, Oridupa OA, Palit G. Anti-ulcerogenic and in vitro antioxidant activities of Lagenaria breviflora (LB) whole fruit ethanolic extract in laboratory animals. Pharmacognosy Res 2011;3:2-8. |
|13.||Adaramoye OA, Adeyemi EO. Hepatoprotection of D-galactosamine-induced toxicity in mice by purified fractions from Garcinia kola seed. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2006;98:135-41. |
|14.||Iwu MM, Igboko OA, Okunji CO, Tempesta MS. Anti-diabetic and aldose reductase activities of biflavanones of Garcinia kola. J Pharm Pharmacol 1990;42:290-92. |
|15.||Adaramoye OA, Farombi EO, Adeyemi EO, Emerole GO. Inhibition of human low density lipoprotein oxidation by flavonoids of Garcinia kola seeds. Pak J Med Sci 2005a;21:331-9. |
|16.||Adaramoye OA, Nwaneri VO, Anyanwu KC, Farombi EO, Emerole GO. Possible anti- atherogenic effect of kolaviron (A Garcinia kola seed extract) in hypercholesterolemic rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2005b;32:40-6. |
|17.||Adaramoye OA, Medeiros IA. Endothelium independent vasodilation induced by kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, in rat superior mesenteric arteries. J Smooth Muscle Res 2009;45:39-53. |
|18.||Bakhru HK. Herbs that Heal Natural Remedies for Good Health. Orient Paperbacks. New Delhi: Division of Vision Book Pvt. Ltd; 1998. p. 164-6. |
|19.||Lutomski J, Kedzia B, Debska W. Effect of an alcohol extract and of active ingredients from Curcuma longa on bacteria and fungi. Planta Med 1974;26:9-19. |
|20.||Farombi EO, Shrotriya S, Na HK, Kim SH, Surh YJ. Curcumin attenuates dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury in rats through Nrf2-mediated induction of heme oxygenase-1. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46:1279-87. |
|21.||Sharma S, Kulkarni SK, Chopra K. Curcumin, the active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa), ameliorates diabetic nephropathy in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2006;33:940-5. |
|22.||Kositchaiwat C, Kositchaiwat S, Havanondha J. Curcuma longa L. in the treatment of gastric ulcer comparison to liquid antacid: A controlled clinical trial. J Med Assoc Thai 1993;76:601-5. |
|23.||Rajakrishnan V, Viswanathan P, Rajasekharan KN, Menon VP. Neuroprotective role of curcumin from Curcuma longa on ethanol-induced brain damage. Phytotherapy Res 1999;13:571-4. |
|24.||Mathuria N, Verma RJ. In vitro Aflatoxin induced hemolysis and its amelioration by turmeric extracts and curcumin. Acta Pol Pharm 2007;64:165-8. |
|25.||Adaramoye OA, Adesanoye OA, Olusola A, Akinloye O. Antioxidant activity of turmeric extracts (Curcuma longa L.) and its effect on iron/ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation. Biokemistri 2002;12:127-35. |
|26.||Adaramoye OA, Anjos RM, Almeida MM, Veras RC, Silvia DF, Oliveira FA, et al. Hypotensive and endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effects of methanolic extract from Curcuma longa L. in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;124:457-62. |
|27.||Afkir S, Nguelefack TB, Aziz M, Zoheir J, Cuisinaud G, Bnouhama M, et al. Arbutus unedo prevents cardiovascular and morphological alterations in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Part I: Cardiovascular and renal hemodynamic effects of Arbutus unedo in L- NAME-induced hypertensive rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;116:288-95. |
|28.||Lowry OH, Rosenbrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with Folin-phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951;193:265-75. |
|29.||Mohun AF, Cook LJ. Simple method for measuring serum level of glutamate- oxaloacetate and glutamate- pyruvate transaminases in laboratories. J Clin Chem 1957;10:394-9. |
|30.||Reitman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum level of glutamate- oxaloacetate and pyruvate transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol 1957;28:56-63. |
|31.||Jaffe M. Ueber den Neiderschlag, welchen Pikrinsäure im normalen harn Erzeught und über eine neue Reaction des Kreatinins. Z Physiol Chem 1886;10:391-400. |
|32.||Talke H, Schubert GE. Enzymatische Harnstoff bestimmung in Blut and serum in Optischen Test nach Warburg. Klin Wochschr 1965;43:174-5. |
|33.||Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Jakoby WB. Glutathione-S-transferases. The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem 1974;249:7130-9. |
|34.||Moron MA, Depierre JW, Mannervick B. Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S- transferase activities in rat lung and liver. Biochem Biophys Acta 1979;582:67-78. |
|35.||McCord JM, Fridovich I. Superoxide dismutase, an enzymatic function for erythrocuperin. J Biol Chem 1969;244:6049-55. |
|36.||Aebi H. Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. In: Bergmeyer HV, editor. Catalase estimation. New York: Verlag Chemic; 1974. p. 673-84. |
|37.||Buege JA, Aust SD. Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 1978;52:302-10. |
|38.||Opie LH, Cammerford PJ, Gerch BJ. Pfeffer MA. Controversies in cardiology 4 Controversies in ventricular remodeling. Lancet 2006;367:356-76. |
|39.||Vardi N, Ozturk F, Fadillioglu E, Otlu A, Yagmurca M. Histological changes in the rat thoracic aorta after chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition. Turkish J Med Sci 2003;33:141-7. |
|40.||Rossoni G, Manfredi B, De Gennaro Colonna V, Berti M, Guazzi M, Berti F. Sildenafil reduces L-NAME-induced severe hypertension and worsening of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion damage in the rat. Br J Pharmacol 2007;150:567- 76. |
|41.||Ortiz MC, Manrý´quez MC, Romero JC, Juncos LA. Antioxidant block angiotensin II-induced increases in blood pressure and endothelin. Hypertension 2001;38:655-9. |
|42.||Duarte J, Jimenez R, O'Valle F, Galisteo M, Perez-Palencia R, Vargas F, et al. Protective effects of the flavonoid quercetin in chronic nitric oxide deficient rats. J Hypertens 2002;20:1843-54. |
|43.||El Daly E. Effect of Methimazole and fish oil treatment on gentamicin hephrotoxicity in rats. J Islamic Acad Sci 1996;9:37-48. |
|44.||Jaramillo-Juarez F, Rodriquez-Vazquez ML, Rincon-Sanchez AR, Consolación Martínez M, Ortiz GG, Llamas J, et al. Acute renal failure induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats with hepatic cirrhosis. Ann Hepatol 2008;7:331-8. |
|45.||Chidrawar VR, Ushir YY, Sudarshan S, Patel KN, Patel NJ, Vadalia KR. Possible Role of Natural Nephroprotective; Hemidesmus indicus in Congestive Heart Failure. Pharmacognosy Res 2009;1:367-74. |
|46.||Bhalodia YS, Patel NJ, Patel RK, Vaghasiya JD, Jivani NP, Sheth NR. Benincasa cerifera Ameliorates Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Hyperlipidemic Rat. Pharmacognosy Res 2009;1:406-9. |
|47.||Kaski JC, Holt DW. Myocardial Damage. Early Detection by Novel Biochemical Markers. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1998. p. 111-25 |
|48.||Hung L, Su M, Chen J. Resveratrol protects against myocardial ischemic- reperfusion injury through both NO-dependent and NO-independent mechanisms. Free Radic Biol Med 2004;36:774-81. |
|49.||Halliwell BD, Gutteridge J. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine 3 rd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1999. p. 530-3. |
|50.||Colell A, Coll O, Garcia-Ruiz C, París R, Tiribelli C, Kaplowitz N, et al. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid protects hepatocytes from ethanol- fed rats against tumor necrosis factor-induced cell death by replenishing mitochondrial glutathione. Hepatology 2001;34:964-71. |
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]