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Year : 2010  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 264-266 Table of Contents     

Isolation of β-sitosterol diglucosyl caprate from Alpinia galanga

1 S. N. Institute of Pharmacy, Pusad, Amravati University, MS - 445 204, India
2 Rameesh Institute of Vocational and Technical Education, Knowledge Park -II, Greater Noida - 201 306, UP, India
3 Department of Pharmacognosy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi - 110 065, India
4 Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, NIET, Knowledge Park -II, Greater Noida - 201 306, UP, India

Date of Submission23-Mar-2010
Date of Decision25-Mar-2010
Date of Web Publication07-Sep-2010

Correspondence Address:
S B Jaju
E42/2, Subhash vihar, St. No. 10, Delhi - 53
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.69129

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Background: The purpose of present investigation to isolate β-sitosterol diglucosyl caprate from the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga. Methods: The methanolic extract of the rhizomes of plant Alpinia galanga was subjected to column chromatography and was eluted with ethyl acetate-methanol (99:1) to yield compound (AG5) β-sitosterol diglucosyl caprate. Various spectral techniques such as Ultraviolet (UV), Infrared (IR), Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1HNMR), Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13CNMR), and MASS spectrometry (MS), were employed to determine and elucidate. Results: Chemical and spectral investigation of extract furnished a new steroidal glycoside. Conclusion: The isolated compound β-sitosterol diglucosyl caprate could serve as a lead compound in synthesis of steroids.

Keywords: Alpinia galanga , methanolic extract, rhizomes, β-sitosterol diglucosyl caprate

How to cite this article:
Jaju S B, Indurwade N H, Sakarkar D M, Fuloria N K, Ali M D, Basu S P. Isolation of β-sitosterol diglucosyl caprate from Alpinia galanga. Phcog Res 2010;2:264-6

How to cite this URL:
Jaju S B, Indurwade N H, Sakarkar D M, Fuloria N K, Ali M D, Basu S P. Isolation of β-sitosterol diglucosyl caprate from Alpinia galanga. Phcog Res [serial online] 2010 [cited 2021 Apr 11];2:264-6. Available from: http://www.phcogres.com/text.asp?2010/2/4/264/69129

   Introduction Top

Alpinia galanga is a perennial herb, which belongs to the Zingiberaceae family, commonly known as Kulingen. [1],[2] Various essential oil constituents, such as, cineole, methyl cinnamate, myrecene, and methyl eugenol are obtained from this plant. This plant is also reported to contain various flavones like galangin, alpinin, kampferide, and 3-dioxy-4-methoxy flavone. [3],[4] Alpinia galanga is attributed with various pharmacological activities such as, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal, anti-cancer, and gastroprotective. [5],[6],[7] The present article gives an account of the isolation of steroidal glycone and structural determination grounds by means of various spectroscopic methods like UV, IR, NMR, and MS.

   Material and Methods Top


The melting point was determined in open capillary and is uncorrected. IR spectra were recorded using KBR pellets, on a Jasco FTIR-550 spectrophotometer. IH NMR and 13C NMR spectra were recorded on Bruker DPX 300 Hz. The Mass spectra were recorded on the FAB-JEOL-MS 303 system. Purity of the isolated compound was checked by TLC aluminum sheets - silica gel 60 F254 (0.2 mm). All the reagents and solvents used in present study were of AR grade and procured from Rankem (Ranbaxy laboratory, Okhla, New Delhi).


The dried rhizomes of Alpinia galanga (Zingiberaceae) were collected in the Pusad province of India and identified by Prof. Anjula Pandey, Taxonomist, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, PUSA, New Delhi. A voucher specimen No. EP-542 has been deposited in the Natural Medicine Research Center of this Institute.

Extraction and isolation

The defatting of the dried, ground rhizomes of Alpinia galanga (3000 g) was performed with petroleum ether and successively extracted with methanol using the soxhlet apparatus. The methanolic extract was evaporated to yield a dark brown solid, which was subjected to Silica gel column chromatography (100 - 120 mesh), and eluted with EtOAc - MeOH (99:1) to give compound AG5 (78 mg).

   Results Top

The methanolic extract was column chromatographed over silica gel using EtOAc - MeOH (99:1) as an eluent to yield colorless crystals of compound β-sitosterol diglucosyl caprate (AG5) [Figure 1], which were recrystallized from acetone. The compound AG5 responded positively to the tests of steroids and showed an Rf value of 0.62 in the EtOAc - MeOH (49:1) solvent system. The melting point for isolated compound AG5 was determined by the open capillary method and was recorded as 184C - 187C, which was uncorrected. The compound AG5 showed IR bands at 3510, 3432, 3360, 2923, 2850, 1721, 1641, 1504, 1453, 1389, 1263, and 1032 cm-1. The positive FAB-MS showed m/z at 892 [M]+ (C 51 H 88 O 12 ) (1.1), 479 (16.1), 464 (33.6), and 413 (92.3). The structure of compound AG5 was further supported by the 1H-NMR and 13 C-NMR data given in [Table 1].
Figure 1: Structure of β-sitosterol diglucosyl caprate (compound AG 5)

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Table 1: 1H NMR and 13C NMR values of β-sitosterol diglucosyl caprate (compound AG 5)

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   Discussion Top

The compound AG5, named as β-sitosterol diglucosyl caprate, was obtained in a colorless crystalline form. Its IR spectrum exhibited characteristic absorption bands for hydroxyl groups (3510, 3432, 3360 cm-1 ), ester group (1721 cm -1 ), and unsaturation (1641 cm -1 ). The positive ion FAB-Mass spectrum showed a molecular ion peak generated at 413, which indicated a β-sitosterol nucleus in the molecule. The ion peak arising at m/z 479 [C22 H 39 O 11 ] + and 464 [C 21 H 36 O 11 ] + indicated the location of a diglycosidic moiety esterified with capric acid in β-sitosterol glycoside.

The 1H NMR of compound AG5 exhibited signals at δ 5.32 (Vinylic, 1H, d, H-6), δ 0.91(3H, d, CH3, C-21), δ 0.82 (3H, d, CH3, C-26) and δ 0.80 (3H, d, CH3, C-27), δ 0.65 (3H, br, C-18), 0.95 (3H, br, C-19). Anomeric C-1 proton and other protons of the glucose moiety were observed at δ 5.01 (H-1'), δ 4.38 (H-2'), δ 4.03 (H-3'), and δ 3.09 (H-6'). A broad signal integrating 12 protons at δ 1.23 was attributed to the methylene protons. 13 C NMR spectral data of AG5 showed the presence of 51 carbon atoms in the molecule. Signals at δ 140.38, δ 121.22, and δ 73.38 were assigned to C-5, C-6 unsaturated carbons, and C-3 carbinol carbon, respectively. The anomeric carbon appeared at δ 100.79 (C-1'). The remaining sugar carbons resonated in the range of δ 73.86 - 63.07. A signal at δ 18.03 was attributed to methyl position (C-10'''). The deshielding of the C-2' Carbon signal at δ 81.29 in the 13C NMR and a one proton doublet at δ 4.38 (J = 4.8 Hz) indicated the attachment of the second glucose moiety at C-2'. The shifting of the oxygenated C-6'' methylene proton signal at δ 3.69 (J = 11.3 Hz) and δ 3.64 (J = 11.3 Hz) and the methylene carbon at δ 63.07 (C-6'') suggested the location of the ester group at C-6''. A signal at δ 171.61 was assigned to C-1''' ester carbon. The 1H-1H COSY spectra showed the correlation of H-3(δ H, 3.25 ppm) with H2 -2/H 2-4, H-6 (δ H, 5.32 ppm) with H2-7, and H-8 (δ H, 1.78 ppm) with H2-7/H-9/H-14. The C-H HMBC spectra exhibited the correlation of carbon at δc 140.38 (C5) with H 2 -1/H 2 -4/H 3-19, carbon at δc 36.25 (C10) with H-9/H-6/H3-19, and δc 41.05 (C13) with H-17/H2 -15/H 3 -18. In addition to this, correlation of H-3 with G-1'/G-1'' corresponded to the linkage between sitosterol and diglucopyranose. The HMBC and 1H-1H COSY spectra showed the correlation of carbon at δc 45.15 (C24) with H2-28, whereas, δH 1.20 (H-24) with H2-28. The acid hydrolysis of AG5 yielded capric acid, β-D-glucose, and β-Sitosterol. Thus the structure of compound AG5, β-sitosterol-3-β-D-glucopyranosyl (2 →1'')-β-D-glucopyranosyl 6''-n-decanoate was determined.

   Conclusion Top

The present study deals with isolation and structural elucidation of a newer steroidal glycoside compound AG5. The data obtained by UV, IR, 1 H-NMR, 13 CNMR, MASS spectrometry, and a chemical test, has resulted in compound AG5, and has confirmed that the compound is steroidal in nature and is elucidated as β-sitosterol-3-β-D-glucopyranosyl (2 →1'')-β-D-glucopyranosyl 6''-n-decanoate for the first time.

   References Top

1.Asolkar LV, Kakkar KK, Chakre OJ. Glossary of Indian Medical Plants with active principles, Second Supplement. New Delhi: National institute of science communication; 1992. p. 50-1.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Kirtikar KR., Basu BD, Indian Medicinal Plants,Volume second. Deraduhun: International Book Distributor; 1996. p. 2445.  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Chadha YR. The Wealth of India, Raw materials. revised edition, Vol 1.New Delhi; Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; 2003. p.196.   Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN, Compendium of Indian Medicinalplants. Vol 2; New Delhi; National Institute of science communication and CSIR; 2006.p. 33.  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Janssen AM, Scheffer JC. Acetoxychavicol acetate an antifungal component of Alpinia galanga. Planta Med 1985;6:507-11.   Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Jirawan O, Tomoko S. Antimicrobial properties and action of galanga (Alpinia galanga Linn.) on Staphylococcus aureus. LWT-Food Sci Tech 2006;39:1214-20.  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Matsuda H., Morikawa. Gastro protective effects of phenyl propanoids from the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga in rats: Structural requirements and mode of action. Eur J Pharmacol 2005;471:59-67.  Back to cited text no. 7      


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1]

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