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Year : 2009  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 192-196 Table of Contents     

Evaluation of Haematinic Potential of a Herbomineral Formulation (HMF-TE) in Haloperidol Induced Anaemic Rats

Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Tech and Engg., The M.S. University of Baroda, Kalabhavan, Baroda 390002, Gujarat, India

Date of Submission17-Apr-2009
Date of Decision02-Jun-2009
Date of Acceptance03-Jun-2009
Date of Web Publication2-Jan-2010

Correspondence Address:
S H Mishra
Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Tech and Engg., The M.S. University of Baroda, kalabhavan, Baroda 390002, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide, especially in India where 87% of pregnant women suffer from anemia and out of these about 10% have severe anemia (H < 80 g/l). In the present study a new modified herbomineral formulation (HMF-TE) containing two natural mineral sources was prepared in laboratory along with different supportive herbs. This formulation was evaluated for its haematinic potential in haloperidol induced anemic rats. The formulation (HMF-TE) exhibited significant haematinic potential by increasing parameters like haematocrit value, hemoglobin concentration, RBC count, MCV, MCH and MCHC.

Keywords: Iron deficiency anaemia, haloperidol, herbomineral, haematocrit

How to cite this article:
Trivedi A, Mishra S H. Evaluation of Haematinic Potential of a Herbomineral Formulation (HMF-TE) in Haloperidol Induced Anaemic Rats. Phcog Res 2009;1:192-6

How to cite this URL:
Trivedi A, Mishra S H. Evaluation of Haematinic Potential of a Herbomineral Formulation (HMF-TE) in Haloperidol Induced Anaemic Rats. Phcog Res [serial online] 2009 [cited 2021 May 11];1:192-6. Available from: http://www.phcogres.com/text.asp?2009/1/4/192/58092

   Introduction Top

Anemia is the most common pathological disorder affecting a large group of population of developing countries with varied prevalence, etiology and degree of severity. In a report of World Health Organization, iron deficiency is stated as the most common type of anemia estimated to affect approximately 2 billion people worldwide [1] . The world continues to lose a mother a minute, largely from preventable causes [2] . Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide, especially in India and other developing countries. Young children and women in the reproductive age group are the most vulnerable to iron deficiency anemia. Surveys in different parts of India reveal that 87% of pregnant women suffer from anemia and about 10% have severe anemia (H < 80 g/l). Variations in the prevalence rates of anemia are seen within the country with the lowest prevalence of 33% being reported from Andhra Pradesh to the highest of 98% in Rajasthan [3] .

The treatment of anemia depends on the confirmed diagnosis and severity of the disease. It includes iron therapy (oral or parenteral), iron polymaltose complex, folic acid and vitamin B12 supplement, erythropoietin, bone marrow transplantation etc. The most prominent complication of oral iron therapy is gastrointestinal distress, for these patients abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, or constipation often leads to non-compliance [4] . Chronic oral administration of additional iron failed to correct the anaemia and instead resulted in accumulation of iron in duodenal enterocytes. This has brought to focus the issue of exposing the intestine to large amounts of supplementary iron which may generate free radicals via the Fenton reaction leading to per-oxidative damage of the tissue [5] . Presumably, copper deficiency was blocking the efflux of iron out of the intestinal cells. The proposed mechanisms implicated ceruloplasmin, a copper-dependent protein with ferroxidase activity, which is important for iron efflux and the levels are reduced in iron deficiency anemia [6] .

As an alternative therapy, Herbal medicines (herbomineral formulations) are also available for anemic condition, mainly for iron deficient anemia. Some formulations like Amyron, Apimore, Geriforte, Stir, Hbcaps, Haem tabs, Efiplus caps, Herboiron caps, Navayasa tabs, Abhraloha tab, Gestone, Neobliss caps etc. are available in market for the purpose [7] .

'Rasoushadhis' (herbomineral formulations) are used in practice by ayurvedic physicians since long with a rare mention of toxicity. It is observed that herb-mineral complexes are more stable and more interactive as compared to plain herb as these lead to faster therapeutic action and have a longer shelf life [8] . In the present study a modified herbomineral formulation was prepared in laboratory based on a traditional ayurvedic formulation, which is marketed as Efiplus caps; containing Shuddha kasis (a mineral component- ferrous sulphate), powdered herbs of Cyprus rotundus, Piper longum, Zingiber officinale and aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra. The herbomineral formulation, HMF-TE prepared in laboratory was modified by adding Tamra Bhasma(a mineral component rich in copper), as a new component to the original combination of Efiplus caps; . Shuddha kasis (a mineral component- ferrous sulphate) serves as chief source for iron while as bioavailability enhancer powdered herbs of Cyprus rotundus, Piper longum, Zingiber officinale [9],[10],[11] are recommended. The aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra is added to reduce nausea-vomiting and as antioxidant [12] .

   Material and Methods Top

Preparation of modified herbomineral formulation (HMF-TE)

HMF-TE was prepared in the laboratory by adopting standard procedure stated in the ayurvedic formulary. The components were first procured from standard suppliers and were then evaluated for their purity using standard procedures [13] . The Suddha Kasis was prepared by the procedure described in Rasamrta [14] . The mixing of the mineral and plant components were performed in geometrical proportions according to the formula given in [Table 1]. Both the formulations were evaluated phytochemically and also for their haematinic potential in haloperidol induced anemic rats.

HPTLC fingerprint of formulation

TLC studies of HMF-TE showed the presence of alkaloids; glycosides, saponins, sterols etc. HPTLC fingerprint of methanol extract both the formulations was developed as standardization measure for formulation.

Evaluation of haematinic potential of herbomineral formulation Animals and diet

Adult Wistar rats of either sex, weighing range 190 to 225 gms were randomly assigned to 5 groups (A, B, C, D, E) (n =5). Iron deficient diet was prepared in the laboratory as per AIG- 93 of Dytes Co. that contained 35ppm of iron, being very less quantity in feed. The chemical composition of diet includes 640 gm potato starch, 210 gm casein, 80 mL groundnut oil, 30 gm mineral mix and 40 gm vitamin mix [15] . Animals were fed above diet approximately 10-20 gm/rat/day during the study and deionized water was given ad libitum. The experiment was in accordance to CPCSEA guideline and approved by IAEC.

Anemia induction

Haloperidol injection (2.5 mg/kg/day i.m.) was administered for five days to all the groups to reduce the haemoglobin levels in animals [16] . They were kept on iron deficient diet for the whole study. The rats were considered anemic, when their haemoglobin levels fell to 12g/dL.

The following parameters were selected to assess haematinic potential of herbomineral formulations [17] Haemoglobin concentration, Haematocrit value, RBCs (Red blood cells) count, MCV (Mean corpuscle volume), MCH (Mean Cell Haemoglobin).

Statistical analysis

All the data were analyzed using one way ANOVA and tabulated as mean values of 5 determinants with ± SEM. Nonparametric statistical methods were used to evaluate significance with the probability level at which the null hypothesis was rejected set at P>0.05 (Graph pad prism V.5.0). All the estimations were carried out using standard procedures.

   Results Top

HMF-TE and HMF-TE double dose were evaluated in haloperidol induced anaemic rats. Haemoglobin levels were reduced to 11 g/dL in all the groups on day 5 of treatment (haloperidol i.m.). The drug was given orally for 15 days to check the haematinic potential of herbomineral formulation. Haemoglobin levels were significantly increased (p<0.01 as compared to control) on day 15 of drug treatment. Haematocrit levels were also significantly increased (p<0.01 as compared to control) on day 15 of drug treatment. MCV was reduced on day 5 and increased significantly (p<0.05 as compared to control) on day 20 of study for HMF-TE double dose group. RBC morphology shows irregular cell walled and hypochromic cell on treatment with haloperidol on 5th day as compared to control and this was corrected with the treatment of herbomineral formulation on day 20 of the study.

   Discussion Top

The neuroleptic therapy is associated with anemia and it was reported to decrease in blood level of iron with haloperidol treatment [18] , which was further confirmed with the presence of iron deficient anemia by biochemical parameters. The rats treated with haloperidol injection showed anisocytosis and hypochromic cells [19] . The peripheral blood smear has been reported to reveal characteristic changes in the size and the hemoglobin content of the red cells, observed in some types of anemia although the degree of anisocytosis is correlated with the severity of IDA [20] . Study shows that young rats fed with a low iron diet develop severe hypochromic anemia within 4-5 wk [21] .

A decline in the hematocrit and hemoglobin values was reported by Olivetti and co-workers in rats under iron deficient diet control conditions [22] .

Chronic administration of iron in anemic rats resulted in accumulation of iron in intestine. Higher mucosal ferritin and lower serum ceruloplasmin ferroxidase activity impaired the mobilization of intestinal iron. This contributed to greater peroxidative stress in the intestine of iron supplemented rats [23] . Many proteins play significant role in absorption of iron from intestine (such as hespidin, DMT-1, ceruloplasmin) and also required for efflux of iron from enterocytes [24] . Iron supplements require bioavailability enhancer to minimize the side effects. Herbomineral formulations can be used to reduce various side effects as the processing of various herbal juices with already processed and micro fined minerals lead to the formation of herbomineral complexes. This complexes upon interaction with digestive juices, adopt a colloidal form, to get absorbed fast. Sometimes they play a catalytic role facilitating absorption of other nutrients and correcting a disease process.

In the present study it was found that HMF-TE double dose has the faster effect in rats upon the selected parameters haemoglobin, haematocrit, RBCs, MCV, MCH.[Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Figure 1]

   References Top

1.Wagstaff, Adam, Claeson Marian. 2004. The Millennium Development Goals for Health-Rising to the Challenges. World Bank. Washington, D.C  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Global Governance Initiative Annual Report 2005, world economic forum  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Seshadri S. Nutritional anaemia in south Asia. In Malnutrition in South Asia. A Regional Profile. Ed. Gillespie S. UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia, Kathmandu, Publication No.5, p75. , 1997  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Harrison's principles of internal medicine, 15th edition; 586-626  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Slivka A., Kang J. and Cohen G. Hydroxyl radicals and the toxicity of oral iron. Biochem Pharmacol. 35: 553, 1986.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Patel B. N. & David S. (1997) A novel glycosylphosphatidylinositol-an­chored form of ceruloplasmin is expressed by mammalian astrocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 20185-20190.   Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Ayurvedline, Mumbai; 5th edition. 576-591  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.Chauhan Vijay Singh, Nicholas Piramal India Ltd, Mumbai, Herbal (Ayurvedic) Drug Industry for Compliance to Quality parameters, Regional Train­ing Course at India International Centre, New Delhi  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Rasamrta, Adhyaya:-3, Ayurvedic text book  Back to cited text no. 9      
10.Atal C.K., Zutshi Usha and Rao P. G. Scientific evidence on the role of Ayurvedic herbals on bioavailability of drugs. Journal of Ethanopharmacology. V 4(2) p.229, 1989  Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Michael A. Weiner, Herbal Antioxidants in Clinical Practice The Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol. 9, No. 3, 1994  Back to cited text no. 11      
12.Grrontved A., Hentzer E, "Vertigo-reducing effect of ginger root: a con­trolled clinical study', Journal of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 1986, Vol 48(5), P-288.  Back to cited text no. 12      
13.Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India vol I-III  Back to cited text no. 13      
14.Rasamrta, Adhyaya:-3, verse no.; 148 p.p218. Ayurvedic text book  Back to cited text no. 14      
15.batra Jyoti, Seth P.. Effect of iron deficiency on developing rat brain. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. 2002 17 (2); 108-11  Back to cited text no. 15      
16.Mukherjee Kanai, Medical Laboratory Technology, Vol. I, 226-258  Back to cited text no. 16      
17.Ben I, Shachar D & Youdim MB. Neuroleptic-induced super sensitivity and brain iron: iron deficiency and neuroleptic- induced dopamine D2 re­ceptor super sensitivity. J Neurochemistry 1990; 54(4): 1136-41  Back to cited text no. 17      
18.Wasti A, Ghani R, Manji MA & Siddiqui NA, "Haloperidol induced varia­tions in haematological indices", Pakistan Jouranal of Medical Sciences. 2004 20(3); 197-200  Back to cited text no. 18      
19.Bessman JD & Feinstein DI. Quantitative anisocytosis as a discriminant between iron deficiency and thalassemia minor. Blood 1979; 53: 288-93  Back to cited text no. 19      
20.Rakusan Karel, Cicutti N. and KLolar F., Effect of anemia on cardiac func­tion, microvascular structure, and capillary hematocrit in rat hearts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 280: H1407-H1414, 2001  Back to cited text no. 20      
21.Olivetti G, Lagrasta C, Quaini F, Ricci R, Moccia G, Capasso JM, and Anversa P. Capillary growth in anemia-induced ventricular wall remodel­ing in the rat heart. Circ Res. 65: 1182-1192, 1989.  Back to cited text no. 21      
22.Srigiridhar K. and Madhavan Nair K. Iron deficient intestine is more susceptible to peroxidative damage during iron supplementation in rats. Free Rad Biol Med 25: 660, 1998  Back to cited text no. 22      
23.Iron absorption and its implications on strategies to control iron defi­ciency anaemia. ICMR bulletin, feb 2000, vol 30 (2).  Back to cited text no. 23      
24.Vijay Singh Chauhan, Nicholas Piramal India Ltd, Mumbai, Herbal (Ayurvedic) Drug Industry for Compliance to Quality parameters, Regional Train­ing Course at India International Centre, New Delhi.  Back to cited text no. 24      


  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]


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