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   2019| October-December  | Volume 11 | Issue 4  
    Online since November 22, 2019

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Pharmacognostic evaluation of Carapa guianensis Aubl. leaves: A medicinal plant native from Brazilian Amazon
Tássio Rômulo Silva Araújo Luz, José Antonio Costa Leite, Samara Araújo Bezerra, Ludmilla Santos Silva de Mesquita, Edilene Carvalho Gomes Ribeiro, José Wilson Carvalho De Mesquita, Daniella Patrícia Brandão Silveira, Maria Cristiane Aranha Brito, Crisálida Machado Vilanova, Flavia Maria Mendonça do Amaral, Denise Fernandes Coutinho
October-December 2019, 11(4):333-338
Background: Carapa guianensis Aubl., known as crabwood, has been used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and for the treatment of flu and colds. Objective: The present study aimed to establish the pharmacognostic features of C. guianensis leaves. Materials and Methods: The leaves were investigated according to the World Health Organization guideline on the pharmacognostic specification, which comprised macroscopic and microscopic assessment, phytochemical screening, and physicochemical characterization of the leaves, besides the microscopic analysis of the powder. Results: Leaves were characterized as a compound, coriaceous with elliptic shape, entire margin, acuminate apex, obtuse base, and opposite phyllotaxis. The epidermis has straight periclinal and anticlinal walls. Calcium oxalate crystals were observed in druses, anomocytic stomata just on a lower side (hypostomatic), and dorsiventral mesophyll. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, triterpenes, and steroids in the crude extract. The values of the physicochemical parameters such as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and loss on drying are 7.16%, 1.03% and 7.93%, respectively; the ethanol and water-soluble extractive values are 19.47% and 15.97%, respectively. Conclusions: The information obtained with botanical, physicochemical, and phytochemical studies could be used to identify C. guianensis and to certify the authenticity of commercial samples.
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Comparative evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activities and high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting of fruit peels collected from food processing industry wastes
Sarbaswarup Ghosh, Jayanta Kumar Chatterjee, Alok Kumar Hazra
October-December 2019, 11(4):346-351
Background: An enormous quantity of fruit peel is obtained from food processing industry as leftover materials which cause environmental pollution if not used judiciously. Objective: The present study was focused to explore antioxidant activities and detect bioactive compounds of three different fruit peel wastes (orange, mango, and pomegranate) collected from fruit processing centers. Materials and Methods: Peel extracts were primarily investigated for total phenolic and total flavonoid content (TFC) in three different solvent systems, namely aqueous–methanolic (20:80, v/v), ethanolic, and aqueous. These were examined for in vitro antioxidant potential by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) test. Peel waste extracts were further characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Pomegranate peel (PP) wastes exhibited significantly (P < 0.01) high concentration of total phenolic content (TPC) and TFC followed by mango peel (MP) wastes and orange peel (OP) wastes. DPPH and FRAP tests revealed significantly (P < 0.01) high antioxidant activity in aqueous–methanolic and aqueous extract of PP. The degree of antioxidant activities in each type of solvent was in the order of PP >MP >OP. Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis revealed a strong association between antioxidant activity and TPC. High concentration of gallic acid, salicylic acid, chlorogenic acid, rutin, and catechin was observed in aqueous–methanolic (20:80, v/v) extracts of PP, and these might be the reason behind the higher antioxidant activities of PP. Conclusion: Results of this study clearly suggest that PP waste contains strong antioxidant molecules and might be used as additive in commercial feed to ameliorate oxidative stress in animals.
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Chromatographic profiles, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxicity potential of extracts of Banisteriopsis pubipetala (A. Juss)
Jeane Ferreira Leal de Freitas, Flávia Dayrell França, Míriam Martins Chaves, Elytania Veiga Menezes, Afrânio Farias De Melo Júnior, Dario Alves De Oliveira, Clarice Avelar Almeida, Kamylla Santos Teixeira, Murilo Malveira Brandão, Vanessa de Andrade Royo
October-December 2019, 11(4):339-345
Background: Banisteriopsis pubipetala is a little-studied species belonging to the same genus of B. caapi, which stands out for the bioactive compounds known to be important in the degenerative diseases treatment. Objective: The objective is to analyze the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic potential and chromatographic profile of the extracts of B. pubipetala. Materials and Methods: The investigation of the chromatographic profile was performed through high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detector. Cell viability was determined by a quantitative colorimetric assay with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. In the pharmacological tests, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-10, and nitric oxide (NO) levels in cell culture supernatants were performed. Results: In the leaf were observed nine major compounds and in the stem five major compounds. The extracts of B. pubipetala demonstrated concentration-dependent behavior regarding cytotoxicity. The fraction in dichloromethane had inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) = 67.39 μg/mL whereas the extract in ethyl acetate had IC50 =103.37 μg/mL. The results showed that extracts significantly reduced the production of IL-6 and TNF-α by cells 3T3 cells, however increased the production of IL-10 and NO. Conclusion: The results of the tests indicate that the extracts of B. pubipetala evaluated have potential anti-inflammatory properties and may promote the regulation of inflammation levels.
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Effect of plain and fortified amla fruit powder on aluminum-induced Alzheimer's Disease in Wistar Rats
Thonangi Chandi Vishala, Gummalla Pitchaiah, D Pravadha, Akula Annapurna
October-December 2019, 11(4):406-409
Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and Nootropic activities of Emblica officinalis against aluminum-induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Alzheimer's was induced using aluminum chloride at a dose of 4.2 mg/kg by intraperitoneal route for 28 days. In prophylactic studies, the plain amla powder (500 mg/kg) and fortified amla powder (300 mg/kg) were administered along with the aluminum chloride. In the curative study, the fortified amla powder (500 mg/kg) was administered to Alzheimer's-induced rats. Memory impairment was confirmed by measuring the nootropic activity using Morris water maize. At the end of the treatment, the oxidative stress parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase were evaluated. Results: The present study showed statistically significant increase in nootropic activity in terms of decrease in latency period in treatment groups when compared with the controlled Alzheimer's-induced group. The administration of amla fruit powder (plain and fortified) decreased the MDA levels and increased the SOD and catalase levels. Conclusion: The present study proved that E. officinalis is a promising tool in antioxidant and neuroprotective activity against aluminum chloride-induced AD.
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Effect of geraniol and clarithromycin combination against gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid and Helicobacter pylori in rats
Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Lee Peng Hooi, Lai Pey Shyan, Lee Boon Chieh, Mayuren Candasamy, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu
October-December 2019, 11(4):356-362
Background: Previous work showed geraniol to have anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vivo and in vitro. Further, it has augmented the anti-H. pylori activity of clarithromycin in vitro. Objective: Geraniol and clarithromycin combination was investigated for anti-ulcer and anti-H. pylori activity in rats. Materials and Methods: Ulcers were induced by injecting acetic acid into the subserosal layer of the stomach followed by intragastric inoculation of H. pylori for 7 days. Geraniol (30 mg/kg) and a drug combination (geraniol, 30 mg/kg and clarithromycin, 25 mg/kg) were administered twice daily for 14 days, and parameters were measured at the end of treatment. Results: Geraniol alone or in combination with clarithromycin significantly (P < 0.05) lowered the ulcer index and improved the curative ratio. Histopathological examination showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the ulcer score in the geraniol and geraniol–clarithromycin treated animals compared with the ulcer controls. Both the treatment groups showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in the glutathione level and reduction in the malondialdehyde, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor-α level in the gastric mucosa compared to control group. Both produced a 50% reduction in the rapid urease test, which is further confirmed using modified Giemsa staining. Conclusion: Geraniol, alone or in combination with clarithromycin, showed a significant ulcer healing effect which was associated with anti-H. pylori, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects in the gastric mucosa. However, the effects of the geraniol and clarithromycin combination were not significantly different from the effects of geraniol alone in this model.
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Two Lycopodium alkaloids from the aerial parts of Huperzia phlegmaria
Dang Kim Thu, Dao Thi Vui, Bui Thanh Tung
October-December 2019, 11(4):396-399
Background: Huperzia phlegmaria has been used to enhancing memory and alleviate brain disorders. It contains high amount of alkaloids, which are potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. Materials and Methods: Lycopodium alkaloids from aerial parts of H. phlegmaria were isolated by chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. AChE inhibitory effect of isolated compounds in vitro was evaluated using Ellman's assay. Results: These compounds were identified as fawcettidine and 12-epilycodoline N-oxide. Two compounds showed moderately AChE inhibitory effects with IC50values of 33.11 μg/mL and 64.56 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion:These isolated compounds could be promising drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
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Potent procoagulant and platelet aggregation inducing serine protease from Tridax procumbens extract
Vinod Gubbiveeranna, CG Kusuma, S Bhavana, CK Sumachirayu, H Ravikumar, S Nagaraju
October-December 2019, 11(4):363-370
Background: Tridax procumbens extract (TPE) has been widely used in tribal/folk medicine to stop bleeding and to enhance wound healing process. Based on its traditional medicinal importance, the TPE is evaluated for its possible role in blood coagulation cascade. Objective: This study has been conducted to evaluate the TPE for the presence of protease associated with fibrino (geno) lytic, collagenolytic properties, and its action on blood coagulation cascade and platelet aggregation to substantiate its procoagulant nature. Materials and Methods: The TPE was analyzed in vitro for proteolytic, fibrinogenolytic, and collagenolytic activity. It was also analyzed for its effect on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation. In vivo studies have been conducted for hemorrhagic and edema inducing activity. Results: A non-toxic serine protease having procoagulant property associated with fibrino (geno) lytic, collagenolytic (both type I and type IV), and platelet aggregation inducing was identified and evaluated from TPE. The TPE decreased the clotting time of human plasma as evaluated by recalcification time and partial thromboplastin time by 19.8 and 1.53 folds, respectively. This suggests its procoagulant nature. TPE also enhanced the adenosine diphosphate-/epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation by 1.35 and 1.38 folds, respectively. Conclusion: The TPE serine protease is a non-toxic procoagulant with fibrino (geno) lytic and collagenolytic activities and induces platelet aggregation. Further, isolation and characterization of active molecule in TPE will allow us to exploit the pharmacological potential of TPE on coagulation cascade.
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Antidiarrheal activity of some selected Nigerian plants used in traditional medicine
Christiana J Dawurung, Jurbe G Gotep, Joy G Usman, Ishaku L Elisha, Lami H Lombin, Stephen G Pyne
October-December 2019, 11(4):371-377
Context: Herbal preparations of the various parts of Vitellaria paradoxa, Neorautanenia mitis, Senna surattensis, and Hydnora abyssinica have been used in the Nigerian traditional medical practice to treat the symptoms of diarrhea in humans and animals. Aims: This study aims to validate claims of the traditional use of these plants in the treatment of diarrhea and provide a scientific basis for further studies. Materials and Methods: The median lethal dose (LD50) values of the extracts were obtained using the Limit test. Castor oil induced diarrhea and intestinal transit (motility) models in albino rats were used to determine the antidiarrheal activity. Graded doses of the extracts were administered to 3 test groups, while the positive control groups were given standard drugs (atropine and loperamide) and the negative control groups received distilled water per os. Results: The LD50was considered higher than 2000 mg/Kg for all the extracts. In the castor oil-induced diarrhea model, the highest percentage inhibition of defecation was observed in the test groups treated with the extracts of H. abyssinica (82%) followed by S. surattensis (81%), N. mitis (66%), and V. paradoxa (32%). H. abyssinica extract significantly decreased the intestinal transit of charcoal meal compared to the other extracts. Conclusion: The antidiarrheal activities of all the extracts give credence to their traditional use. H. abyssinica comparatively had the best antidiarrheal activity and has the potential as an antidiarrheal agent. Thus, the need for further studies of this extract to investigate active fractions, isolate and characterize active compounds, and determine their activities and safety.
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Anticataract activity of forskolin by inhibiting polyol pathway for the prevention of diabetic complication
Damera Sujatha, Ajmera Rama Rao, Ciddi Veeresham
October-December 2019, 11(4):352-355
Background: Cataract is the opacification or optical dysfunction of the crystalline lens. Diabetes has been considered to be one of the major risk factors of cataract. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the anticataract activity of antioxidants such as Coleus forskohlii (CF) Briq and its phytoconstituent forskolin (FS) which were subjected to prevent cataract formation in vitro on glucose-induced cataract model. Materials and Methods: Goat lenses were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer pH 7.5 (supplemented with Taxim and streptomycin) containing 55 mM glucose (cataractogenesis) with fidarestat; CF methanolic extract; and FS at a concentration of 1 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 10 μg/mL for 24 h at 37°C with 5% CO2and 95% air. Glucose-induced opacification of goat lens began 8–10 h after incubation and was complete in 24 h. Polyol (galactitol) levels in incubated lenses were estimated spectrophotometrically. Results: Cataractous lenses showed higher content of galactitol. However, lens treated with fidarestat, CF methanolic extract, and its phytoconstituent FS showed lower content of galactitol. Conclusion: CF and FS prevented the formation and progress of cataract by glucose, as evidenced by lens transparencies with photographic evaluation and lens galactitol levels.
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Antilipidemic properties of Calpurnia aurea leaf extract on high-fat diet induced hyperlipidemia
Welde Mengistu, Seifu Daniel, Natesan Gnanasekaran
October-December 2019, 11(4):389-395
Background: Hyperlipidemia is described by raised in the plasma lipids including triglycerides (TG), cholesterols, cholesterol esters, phospholipids as well as plasma lipoproteins, for example, very low-density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL, and reduction in the circling high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Objective: To explore the antilipidemic properties of the hydromethanolic extract of Calpurnia aurea (HMECA) leafs against high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic male albino Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty albino Wistar rats of 60–75 days and weights of 150–200 g were isolated arbitrarily into six groups of five each. Group I fed with normal diet in as typical control, Group II got high-fat-eating routine (48.8% fat w/w) containing fat produced using hamburger fat and blended with hydrogenated vegetable oil, Group III fed with high fat diet plus 3.5 mg/kg/day atorvastatin as standard control, and the remaining Groups IV, V, and VI fed with high fat diet along with different does of HMECA at 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg/day separately for 60 days. Food intake, body weight, body mass index, serum lipid profiles, and liver histopathology were studied. Results: The results of this investigation exposed that HMECA has dose-dependent antilipidemic exercises. HMECA treatment of 400 mg/kg caused a noteworthy bringing down of P < 0.05 of serum LDL from 28.53 ± 12.2 mg/dl to 9.70 ± 5.77 mg/dL; the serum cholesterol level from 92.00 ± 13.0 mg/dl to 60.33 ± 8.60 mg/dl; the serum TG leve1 from 84.73 ± 19.4 mg/dl to 71.83 ± 13.0 mg/dl mg/dl; and increased the serum HDL-cholesterol levels from 11.66 ± 1.23 mg/dl to 29.66 ± 1.52 mg/dl. At the medium dosage of 300 mg/kg, it was not successful as 400 mg/kg and at the insignificant dosage of 200 mg/kg brought numerical contrast not statistically noteworthy among the serum lipid profile. Conclusion: This research discovered that the HMECA possesses a significant antilipidimic activity in dose dependent manner. The molecular mechanism of antilipidemic exercises of this medication should be contemplated.
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Production of antioxidant exopolysaccharide from Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizing heavy oil as a solo carbon source
Anas A Darwish, Omar A. M. Al-Bar, Rakan H Yousef, Said S Moselhy, Youssri M Ahmed, Khalid Rehman Hakeem
October-December 2019, 11(4):378-383
Aim/Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of utilizing heavy oil hydrocarbons as a sole carbon source. P. aeruginosa produce exopolysaccharide (EPS) in an inorganic medium in the presence of crude oil. Several environmental factors affect the majority of EPS production. Materials and Methods: Strain of P. aeruginosa were managed under various media (maintenance medium, inoculum, and basal media). Different heavy petroleum oil concentrations (5, 10, 20, and 30 ml/L) were used as solo carbon source to the basal medium. Various conditions of bacterial growth were monitored. The growth of cells was estimated by measuring the absorbance of the mixture of 1 ml of the basal medium diluted with 1 ml of distilled water at 600 nm spectrophotometrically. P. aeruginosa was grown aerobically in a production medium at 37°C and 150 rpm on a rotary shaker. The culture broth was centrifuged to separate the cells. The precipitated polysaccharide was separated by centrifugation and washed with ethanol, acetone, and ether, and then dried under reduced pressure oven at 45°C. The DPPH test was carried out as described by Burits and Bucar to monitor the free radical scavenging activities of the extracts. Results: The preferable culture conditions for EPS production were at 10 ml/L heavy oil, with 0.5 g/L NaNO3as best N sources at pH 6.0 after 5 days incubation. The net weight of purified EPS production was 0.5 g/L. Conclusion: The obtained polysaccharide showed antioxidant activity that possesses DPPH radical scavenging activity, with an EC50 =0.201.
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Inhibitory effect of Salvadora persica (Miswak) against cigarette smoke-induced mutagenicity and sperm abnormalities in rats
Syed Imam Rabbani, Sultan Sajid, Vasudevan Mani, Omar Khan, M A. A. Salman
October-December 2019, 11(4):384-388
Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Salvadora persica against the cigarette smoke-induced mutagenicity and sperm damages in rats. Materials and Methods: Young male Wistar rats of weight 120–140 g were exposed to the cigarette smoke for 8 weeks. The lyophilized decoction of S. persica was administered daily for 4 weeks by oral route at the doses 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg. The somatic and germinal cells damages were determined by peripheral blood micronucleus and sperm abnormalities tests, respectively. In vitro antioxidant activity of the decoction was determined by hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Ginseng was used as a standard herbal agent. The results were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test.P <0.05 was considered to indicate the significance of results. Results: The data from the present study indicated that cigarette smoke exposure significantly (P < 0.01) increased the population of micronucleated erythrocytes and sperm shape abnormalities and, reduced the polychromatic: normochromatic (P/N) ratio, and total sperm count compared to control. The administration of S. persica produced a dose-dependent inhibition on somatic and male germinal cell damages induced by cigarette smoke and the significant (P < 0.05) activity was observed at 200 mg/kg. However, none of the tested doses enhanced significantly the P/N ratio. Ginseng at 100 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.01) prevented the cigarette smoke-mediated damages. The in-vitro antioxidant activity indicated both S. persica and ginseng possess scavenging activity against the hydrogen peroxide free radicals. Conclusion: The observation suggests that the decoction of S. persica can prevent the somatic and germinal cell nuclear damages induced by cigarette smoke exposure. These actions could be related to its antioxidant property.
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Antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of Canavalia species in high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Anitha Kuttiappan, Sabapathi Mohana Lakshmi, SV Satyanarayana
October-December 2019, 11(4):400-405
Background:The present study is to enlighten the antioxidant effect of ethanolic seed extracts of Canavalia species in high-fat diet and streptozotocin (HFD + STZ)-induced diabetic screening model. Objectives: The dispute between free radicals and antioxidants plays a key role in causing alteration of normal physiological conditions. Inadequate antioxidant in body leads to multiple pathological diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic seed extracts of Canavalia species have been investigated for its antioxidant activity in HFD + STZ-induced screening models. The potential of antioxidants on oxidative stress is measured through certain serum biomarkers such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase. Enzymatic markers include lipid peroxidation, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH). Enzymatic parameters were studied in liver and kidney homogenates by measuring these observed biomarkers. Results: SOD, GSH, and CAT were decreased in the diabetic group. However, restoration of SOD, GSH, and CAT levels by treatment with ethanolic seed extracts of Canavalia species was observed and tabulated. Histopathological studies of the pancreas of animals showed comparable regeneration of tissues with EECE. Conclusion: Further the characterization studies will be carried out to know the extract mechanism of antioxidant potential of Canavalia species.
  534 57 -
Carqueja (Baccharis trimera) essential oil chronic treatment induces ventricular repolarization disorder in healthy rats but not in type 2 diabetic rats
Alice Pereira Duque, Carole Sant'ana Massolar, Cristiane Barbosa Rocha, Ana Paula Machado Da Rocha, Ricardo Felipe Alves Moreira, Luiz Fernando Rodrigues Junior
October-December 2019, 11(4):410-413
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. The pharmacological treatment of T2DM can increase cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. Carqueja (Baccharis trimera) is an antioxidant and hypoglycemic medicinal plant with promising action for T2DM non-pharmacological treatment. Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate carqueja essential oil safety on the cardiovascular system of diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Four experimental groups were used to analyze the carqueja essential oil effects: control group (n = 5), carqueja-treated control group (n = 4), diabetic control group (n = 4), and carqueja-treated diabetic group (n = 5). T2DM was induced by hypercaloric diet followed by streptozotocin administration. Electrocardiogram parameters were used to analyze the alterations in the cardiovascular system. Results: Diabetic rats showed ventricular repolarization dysfunction with prolongation of QT and corrected QT intervals. The treatment increased ventricular repolarization duration in the control group. Conclusion: Carqueja essential oil treatment worsens ventricular repolarization in nondiabetic rats, increasing the arrhythmogenic risk.
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