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   2016| July-September  | Volume 8 | Issue 3  
    Online since May 24, 2016

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In vivo toxicity studies on gall extracts of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (combretaceae)
Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa, YL Ramachandra, Sundara Rajan Subaramaihha, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura Subbaiah, Richard Surendranath Austin, Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya
July-September 2016, 8(3):199-201
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.182914  PMID:27365989
The galls of Terminala chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae) are used for the treatment of various diseases in folk medicine and has been found to posses anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-helmintic, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-aging activities. Considering the ethano-botanical and diverse pharmacological applications of galls of T. chebula, in this study, we investigate the possible toxic effects of different gall extracts of T. chebula by Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity assay. The cytotoxicity test of leaf gall extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and aqueous) of T. chebula was evaluated by Brine shrimp (A. salina) toxicity assay, which is based on the ability to kill laboratory cultured Artemia nauplii (animals eggs) and also total content of polyphenols, flavonoids with other qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extract were determined. It was observed that the petroleum ether extract was virtually nontoxic on the shrimps, and exhibited very low toxicity with LC50value of 4356.76 μg/ml. Furthermore, the chloroform extract exhibited very low toxicity, giving LC50value of 1462.2 μg/ml. On the other hand, the ethanol extract was very toxic to brine shrimps with LC50value of 68.64 μg/ml. The ethanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content of 136 ± 1.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g d.w and 113 ± 1.6 mg of quercetin equivalent/g d.w, respectively. The higher toxicity effect was positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids in the extract. This significant lethality of different extracts to brine shrimp is an indicative of the presence of potent cytotoxic components which warrants further investigation. SUMMARY
  • The present study investigates the toxicity effect of different extracts of galls of T. chebulla, which would serve as an index for formulation of drugs for treatment of various diseases. Presumably, these activities could be attributed in part to the polyphenolic features of the extract, as there was a strong correlation of higher toxic effect with that of high total phenolic and flavonoids content in the ethanolic leaf gall extracts of T. chebula.
  2 2,432 39
Evaluating the anticancer potential of ethanolic gall extract of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (combretaceae)
BE Ravi Shankara, YL Ramachandra, S Sundara Rajan, PS Sujan Ganapathy, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, SA Richard, Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya
July-September 2016, 8(3):209-212
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.182919  PMID:27365992
Plants have been an important source for discovery of anticancer compounds. With the current decline in the number of new molecular entities from the pharmaceutical industry, novel anticancer agents are being sought from traditional medicines; therefore the anticancer efficacy of many plants that are used in traditional medicine is yet to be verified. The objective of the study was to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of ethanolic leaf gall extract of Terminalia chebula are evaluated against buffalo rat liver 3A, MCF-7 (Human mammary gland adenocarcinoma) and A-549 (Human lung cancer) cell lines. The cytotoxic effect of the ethanolic extract was evaluated by MTT assay. The extract was potent and effective in inducing cytotoxic effects in all the cell lines with an IC50value of 305.18 ± 1.7 μg/mL, 643.13 ± 4.2 μg/mL, and 208.16 ± 3.7 μg/mL, respectively. The extract was more effective against A549 cell lines when compared to others. The presences of phenolics, triterpenoids, and flavonoids were identified in the extract. The extract showed total phenolic and flavonoid content of 478 ± 2.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g d.w and 538 ± 1.4 mg of quercetin equivalent/g d.w, respectively. This higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids found in the ethanolic extract was directly associated to higher cytotoxicity activity. Conclusion: The ethanolic leaf gall extract of T. chebula showed effective cytotoxic activities; which might be attributed to the phenolics/flavonoids present in higher concentration. Future work will be interesting to know the chemical composition of the extract and also better understand the mechanism of action of the constituents present in the extract to develop it as drug for therapeutic application. SUMMARY
  • The present investigation establishes the anticancer activities of T. chebula leaf gall extracts on BRL3A, MCF-.7, and A-.549 cells. Presumably, these activities could be attributed in part to the phenolics/flavanoids features of the extract that has been demonstrated to act as cytotoxic agents. The experimental evidence obtained in the laboratory model could provide a rationale for the traditional use of plant as a source of easily available effective anticancer agents to the people, particularly in developing countries.
  2 2,755 54
UP1306, a botanical composition with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect
Mesfin Yimam, Young-Chul Lee, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Jeong-Bum Nam, Lidia Brownell, Eujin Hyun, Qi Jia
July-September 2016, 8(3):186-192
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.182918  PMID:27365987
Background: Pain, one of the cardinal signs of inflammation, is the most common clinical manifestations of arthritis. Conventional pain relief therapy heavily relies on the use of prescription and over the counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as the first line of defense where their long-term usage causes deleterious gastrointestinal and cardiovascular-related side-effects. Hence, there is an equivocal need for evidence-based safer and efficacious alternatives from natural sources to overcome the most prominent and disabling symptoms of arthritis. Materials and Methods: Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and abdominal constriction (writhing's) assays in mouse were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of UP1306, a composition that contains a standardized blend of extracts from the heartwood of Acacia catechu and the root bark of Morus alba administered orally at dose ranges of 100–300 mg/kg. Cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays were carried out to determine the IC50of Acacia and Morus extracts. The merit of combining these two extracts was also assessed. Results: Statistically significant improvement in pain resistance and suppression of edema were observed in animals treated with UP1306, when compared to vehicle-treated diseased rats and mice. Results from the high dose of UP1306 (300 mg/kg) were similar to those achieved by ibuprofen treatment at a dose of 200 mg/kg in early hours of treatment. In vitro, UP1306 showed dose-dependent inhibition of the enzymatic activities of COX and LO with IC50values of 20.9 μg/mL, 49.2 μg/mL, and 11.1 μg/mL in COX-1, COX-2, and 5'-LO, respectively. Conclusions: These data suggest that UP1306, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory agent of botanical origin with dual COX-LO inhibition activity, could potentially be used to alleviate symptom associated to osteoarthritis. SUMMARY
  • Pain is the most common clinical manifestations of arthritis
  • Carrageenan.induced rat paw edema and abdominal constriction (writhingfs) assays in mouse are among the widely used models to evaluate the anti.inflammatory and analgesic effects of nutraceuticals
  • Cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase (LO) inhibition assays were carried out to determine the IC50 of Acacia and Morus extracts
  • Efficacy of UP1306, a composition containing a blend of two standardized extracts from the heartwood of Acacia catechu and root bark of Morus alba, was evaluated in the above models
  • UP1306 demonstrated its enhanced significance by improving the major cardinal signs of arthritis in vivo and inflammation markers in vitro
  • UP1306 could potentially be considered as a dietary supplement product for the management of arthritis.
  1 3,440 37
Homeopathy in dentistry: Is there a role?
Ujwala Rohan Newadkar, Lalit Chaudhari, Yogita K Khalekar
July-September 2016, 8(3):217-217
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.182917  PMID:27365994
  - 2,193 44
Enhanced synthesis of curculigoside by stress and amino acids in static culture of Curculigo orchioides gaertn (kali musli)
Pratibha Chaturvedi, Vincent Briganza
July-September 2016, 8(3):193-198
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.182915  PMID:27365988
Background: Curculigo orchioides Gaertn (Kali musli; Family: Hypoxidaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant used for many medicinal purposes such as impotency, aphrodisiac, tonic, jaundice, and skin ailments. Its hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-cancerous potential have also been evaluated by many scientists. Objective: The objective of this study is to enhance the curculigoside content in tissue culture of C. orchioides. Materials and Methods: The present study deals with the enhancement of an active compound of C. orchioides by incorporating various concentration of phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine, (20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/100 ml), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 ppm) into Zenk media in controlled and aseptic conditions. Results: Plant secondary metabolites are unique sources for pharmaceuticals, food additives, flavors, and industrially important biochemicals. Accumulation of such metabolites often occurs in plants subjected to stresses including various elicitors or signal molecules. A significantly remarkable enhancement in all induced samples was noted. Curculigoside content was maximum in the 6-week-old tissue induced with 3 ppm of Cr (7.63%) followed by 4 weeks tissue of tissue fed with 4 ppm of Ni (5.66%) and 4-week-old tissue fed with tyrosine 7.5 mg/100 ml (2.38%) among all samples used. These results suggest that tyrosine is better enhancer than Phe in the biosynthetic pathway of curculigoside. The presence of curculigoside in all extracts was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis with standard compound of curculigoside and histology of treated samples. Conclusion: This investigation was carried out for the 1st time, and it is a significant step in understanding the biochemistry of curculigoside. The developed protocol will be beneficial for marketing in pharmaceutical industries. SUMMARY
  • Curculigo orchioides Gaertn (Kali musli; Family: Hypoxidaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant used for many medicinal purposes such as impotency, aphrodisiac, tonic, jaundice, and skin ailments
  • It was observed that dry matter % was maximum in 6.week.old tissue fed with 2.5 mg/100 ml of tyrosine and diminished beyond this concentration among all samples used
  • The nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) stress has enhanced the curculigoside in considerable amount in nontoxic range, in tissue culture of C. orchioides
  • Curculigoside content was maximum in 6.week.old tissue induced with 3 ppm of Cr (7.63%; 11.fold enhancement) followed by 4 weeks tissue of tissue fed with 4 ppm of Ni (5.66%) and 4.week.old tissue fed with tyrosine 7.5 mg/100 ml (2.38%) among all samples used. Histological studies confirmed the enhanced production of curculigoside.
Abbreviations Used: Phe: Phenylalanine; PAL: Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; mM: mille Molar; Cr: Chromium; Ni: Nickel; HPTLC: High-performance thin layer chromatography
  - 2,388 87
Efficacy of oral curcuminoid fraction from curcuma xanthorrhiza and curcuminoid cider in high-cholesterol fed rats
Flavia Maria Mauren, Yanti , Bibiana Widiati Lay
July-September 2016, 8(3):153-159
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.181468  PMID:27365981
Background: Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important risk factors for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular diseases. Objective: he present work was aimed to study the efficacy of curcuminoid fraction from Curcuma xanthorrhiza and its curcuminoid cider in reducing blood cholesterol level and four genes related to oxidative stress, including cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) in high-cholesterol fed rats in vivo. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups, namely normal group diet, high-cholesterol diet (HCD) 2%, HCD + 100 mg/kg b.w. curcuminoid fraction, HCD + 300 mg/kg b.w. curcuminoid fraction, HCD + cider 1% v/v, and HCD + curcuminoid cider 2% v/v for 4 weeks. Total cholesterol levels were measured at day 1, 14, and 28. Vascular tissues and organs from lung and liver were collected for RNA extraction, followed by quantitative analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Our results demonstrated that among all the treatment groups, curcuminoid cider at 2% v/v significantly lowered total cholesterol level compared to those of positive control. Real-time PCR data showed both curcuminoid fractions (100 and 300 mg/kg) and curcuminoid cider (1 and 2% v/v) inhibited the gene expression of CD44, ICAM-1, iNOS, and LOX-1, indicating their hypocholesterolemic effects via attenuating genes related to oxidative stress in rats in vivo. Conclusion: Oral administration of curcuminoid fraction and its cider product may exert potential inhibitory effects on oxidative stress related-genes for preventing hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in vivo. SUMMARY
  • Curcuminoid and its cider significantly inhibited the gene expression of CD44, ICAM-1, iNOS, and LOX-1 in rats in vivo
  • Curcuminoid and its cider suppressed oxidative stress-related genes inducing formation of atherosclerosis
  • Curcuminoid and its cider may offer cardioprotective effect for preventing hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis
Abbreviations Used: ROS: Reactive oxygen species, NO: Nitric oxide, NOS: NO synthase, NADPH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, CD44: Cluster of differentiation 44, ICAM-1: Intercellular adhesion molecule 1, iNOS: inducible NOS, LOX-1: lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1, HMG-CoA: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A, 5-HMF: 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, HCD: High-cholesterol diet
  - 3,314 49
Evaluation of skin anti-aging potential of Citrus reticulata blanco peel
Vinita D Apraj, Nancy S Pandita
July-September 2016, 8(3):160-168
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.182913  PMID:27365982
Background: The peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco is traditionally used as tonic, stomachic, astringent, and carminative. It is also useful in skin care. Objective: To study the anti-aging potential of alcoholic extracts of C. reticulata Blanco peel using in vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays. Materials and Methods: Plant extracts were obtained by Soxhlation (CR HAE- Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata) and maceration method (CR CAE- Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata). Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis was performed. Further, in vitro antioxidant, anti-enzyme, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were performed. Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of CR HAE were found to be higher than CR CAE. EC50value of CR HAE and CR CAE for 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, Superoxide anion, and 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays were 250.33 ± 40.16 μg/ml and 254.73 ± 15.78 μg/ml, 221.27 ± 11.25 μg/ml and 354.20 ± 23.79 μg/ml, and 59.16 ± 2.17 μg/ml and 59.12 ± 6.21 μg/ml, respectively. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity values for CR HAE and CR CAE were found to be 1243 and 1063 μmoles 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetra methylchromane-2-carboxylic acid equivalent/g of substance, respectively. Anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activities were evaluated for both CR HAE and CR CAE. EC50values of CR HAE and CR CAE for anti-collagenase and anti-elastase were 329.33 ± 6.38 μg/ml, 466.93 ± 8.04 μg/ml and 3.22 ± 0.24 mg/ml, 5.09 ± 0.30 mg/ml, respectively. CR HAE exhibited stronger anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activity than CR CAE. GC-MS analysis of CR HAE was carried out because CR HAE exhibited higher antioxidant and anti-enzyme potential than CR CAE. Conclusion: C. reticulata peel can be utilized in anti-wrinkle skin care formulations. SUMMARY
  • Skin anti-aging potential of Citrus reticulata Blanco peel was evaluated through
  • In vitro antioxidant and anti-enzyme assays
  • Two types of extraction were performed and extracts were subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis. Extract obtained by Soxhlation (CR HAE) showed higher total phenolic and flavonoid contents than extract obtained by maceration (CR CAE)
  • CR HAE demonstrated strong DPPH and Superoxide free radical scavenging activity whereas, ABTS scavenging activity of both the extracts were found to be similar. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of CR HAE was found to be more; indicating its strong antioxidant potential
  • In vitro collagenase and elastase enzyme inhibition activities were evaluated for both the extracts and CR HAE showed strong anti-collagenase and anti-elastase potential indicating its anti-aging ability
  • GC-MS analysis of CR HAE revealed the presence of various compounds mainly including Polymethoxyflavones. CR HAE exhibited promising antioxidant and anti-enzymatic activity and can be used as a potent anti-wrinkle agent in anti-aging skin care formulations.
Abbreviation Used: ECM: Extracellular matrix, UV: Ultra violet, ROS: Reactive Oxygen Species, MMP: Matrix metalloproteinase, Chc: Clostridium histolyticum collagenase, DPPH: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, GC-MS: Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy, RT: Room Temperature, μg GAE/ mg: Microgram Gallic acid equivalent / milligram, W/V: Weight by Volume, μg QE/ mg: Microgram Quercetin equivalent / milligram, CR HAE: Hot Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco, CR CAE: Cold Alcoholic Extract of Citrus reticulata Blanco, EC50: Half Maximal Effective Concentration, PMS NADH: Phenazine methosulfate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NBT: Nitroblue tetrazolium, DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, APS: Ammonium Persulphate, AAPH: 2,2 -azobis(2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride, TROLOX: (±) 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl chromane-2-carboxylic acid, ORAC: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity, FALGPA: N-[3-(2-Furyl) acryloyl)]-Leu-Gly-Pro-Ala, SANA: Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Ala-p-nitroanilide, Rf: Retardation Factor, MSD: Mass Selective Detector
  - 5,455 125
Assessment of effectiveness of Barleria prionitis on oral health
Devanand Gupta, Rajendra Kumar Gupta, Ankita Jain, Suresh Bindhumadhav, Sangeeta , Purnima Garg, Saurabh Chaturvedi, Vijay Kumar Chattu
July-September 2016, 8(3):169-172
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.181456  PMID:27365983
Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Barleria prionitis extract mouthwash in comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash on the oral health. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects were randomly divided into two groups, B. prionitis group and the CHX gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the effect of the two drug regime. Results: Our result showed that the CHX and the B. prionitis were statistically equally effective against dental plaque. Although the action of CHX was more pronounced. Conclusions: This study has confirmed antimicrobial potential of the plant B. prionitis, thus supporting its folklore application as preventive remedy against oral microbial diseases. SUMMARY
  • Within the limitation of this trial, herbal mouthwash has been shown to demonstrate similar effects on plaque as compared to the standard drug CHX. Further long term research needs to be done to check the efficacy and effectiveness of herbal products over standard drug regime
  - 2,868 40
Evaluation of efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion uterofix liquid in treatment of various reproductive disorders in Cows: A field study
Satinder Verma, Adarsh Choudhary, Shivi Maini, K Ravikanth
July-September 2016, 8(3):173-175
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.181459  PMID:27365984
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid in the treatment of various reproductive disorders in cows. Materials and Methods: Based on symptoms of endometritis, anestrous, metritis, and repeat breeders, 28 cows were selected to study the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid (M/S Ayurvet Limited) in uterine infections study. Group T0 (n = 8) cows served as control group, no treatment was given to this group, Group T1 (n = 5) repeat breeder cows, Group T2 (n = 5) endometritis effected cows, Group T3 (n = 5) anoestrus cows, and Group T4 (n = 5) metritis suffered cows were treated with Uterofix liquid (25 ml as intrauterine infusion once a day for 3–5 days). Total observational period was 60 days. Number of treatments needed, nature of discharge in first posttreatment estrus (physical examination), after treatment number of animal showing heat/estrus out of total treated, and posttreatment conception rate were used as criteria to judge the success or failure of treatment. Results: Results revealed that 18 out of 20 animals (90%) showed signs of heat with clear discharge, recovered completely without causing any irritation, or severe irritation/sloughing of genital mucous membrane after Uterofix liquid treatment. Conclusion: Herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid significantly treated the uterine infections in cows. SUMMARY
  • Uterine infection is a major problem in reproductive management. A wide variety of genital tract diseases of female domestic animals are known to produce significant losses and responsible for poor fertility. Amongst these highly prevalent are metritis and repeat breeding in high-producing dairy cows which if remains untreated are associated with low conception rate per artificial insemination (AI), extended interval to pregnancy, increased culling, and economic losses. As herbal remedy the Uterofix liquid (Ayurvet Limited, India) was highly efficacious as an intrauterine infusion to treat different reproductive disorders.
  - 2,543 50
Effects of five Bangladeshi plant extracts on In vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity
Raju Dash, Talha Bin Emran, Arkajyoti Paul, Mohammad Kutub Uddin Siddique, Mohammad Arfad Khan, Md. Golamur Rahman, Md. Shahid Sarwar, Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin
July-September 2016, 8(3):176-180
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.181403  PMID:27365985
Background: Piper Betle, Pterospermum acerifolium, Saraca indica, Argyreia speciosa, and Rhaphidophora glauca are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. To examine, whether organic extracts of these plants possess thrombolytic properties with minimal or no toxicity is our main aim of the study. Materials and Methods: In vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effects using streptokinase (SK) as a positive control and water as a negative control. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate (VS) as positive control. Results: Among herbal drugs, different organic extracts of P. betle, P. acerifolium, S. indica, A. speciosa, and R. glauca showed significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001) clot lysis activity viz., 31.58% ±0.76%, 40.50% ±0.94%, 49.70% ±1.69%, 35.81% ±0.86%, and 43.80% ±0.91%, respectively, compared to reference drug SK (79.32% ±1.629%). In brine shrimp cytotoxic assay, mortality achieved by the extracts showed lethal concentration 50 (LC50) values 274.64 ± 3.46, 215.60 ± 4.59, 478.40 ± 6.98, 233.37 ± 2.56, and 209.32 ± 1.98 μg/ml, respectively, with reference to VS (LC50,0.05 ± 0.34). Conclusion: In this study, S. indica, R. glauca, and P. acerifolium possessed effective thrombolytic activity. Further studies can be undertaken to identify certain structure of the ingredients in the extracts and to elucidate the precise mechanism of action. SUMMARY
  • Five Bangladesh medicinal plants, named Piper betle, Pterospermum acerifolium, Saraca indica, Argyreia speciosa, and Rhaphidophora glauca were subjected to comparative antithrombotic and toxicity based analysis. In comparative study, Saraca indica showed highest clot lysis (49.70 ± 1.69%) activity among the other plant with lowest toxicity (LC50: 478.40 ± 6.98)
Abbreviations Used: h: Hour; min: Minutes; sec: Second; kg: Kilogram; g: Gram; μg: Microgram; L: Liter; mL: Millilitre; μL: Micro liter; μg/mL: Microgram per Milliliter; mg/kg: Milligram per kilogram; %: Percent; °C: Degree Celsius; et al.: et alliori (and others); w/w: Weight by Weight; v/v: Volume by Volume; SEM: Standard Error Mean; LC50: lethal concentration at 50%
  - 2,854 48
Analgesic and antioxidant activities of stem bark extract and fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus
Celestina Ifeoma Orabueze, Sunday Adeleke Adesegun, Herbert Alexander Coker
July-September 2016, 8(3):181-185
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.182912  PMID:27365986
Background: Petersianthus macrocarpus (Lecythidaceae) is widely used in the folk medicine in Nigeria to relieve pain and fever associated with malaria. This study evaluated the analgesic and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract and fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was determined in mice using hotplate and acetic acid-induced writhing models. Morphine sulphate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and aspirin (100 mg/ml, p.o.) were used as reference analgesic agents. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; reducing power, iron chelating properties and determination of total phenolic content. Results: The extract at 200 and 500 mg/kg, produced an insignificant (P > 0.05) increase in pain threshold in hotplate but a significant (P < 0.05) increase at 1000 mg/kg. The extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the writhing induced by acetic acid in mice in a dose dependent manner. Fractionation increased the analgesic activities significantly (P < 0.05) in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (200 mg/kg). The extract demonstrated strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 0.05 mg/ml, good reducing power and weak iron chelating activities. The total phenol content was 142.32 mg/gin term of gallic acid. The antioxidant effects were more pronounced in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that the extract has strong analgesic and antioxidant activities which reside mainly in the polar fractions thus confirming the traditional use of the plant to alleviate pains. SUMMARY
  • Analgesic and antioxidant activities of extract and solvent fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus investigated indicated that extract has analgesic and antioxidant properties that reside mainly in the polar fractions.
Abbreviations Used: DMSO: Dimethyl sulphoxide, ANOVA: analysis of variance, EDTA: ethylene diamne tetraacetic acid, SDM: standard deviation of mean, PGE: prostaglandins E, PDF: prostaglandins F.
  - 2,374 34
Croton grewioides Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) shows antidiarrheal activity in mice
Anne Dayse Soares da Silva, Karoline de Melo e Silva, José Clementino Neto, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira Costa, Hilzeth de Luna F Pessôa, Josean Fechine Tavares, Marcelo Sobral da Silva, Fabiana de Andrade Cavalcante
July-September 2016, 8(3):202-205
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.181465  PMID:27365990
Based on chemotaxonomy, we decided to investigate the possible antidiarrheal activity in mice of a crude ethanolic extract obtained from aerial parts of Croton grewioides (CG-EtOH). We tested for any possible toxicity in rat erythrocytes and acute toxicity in mice. Antidiarrheal activity was assessed by determining the effect of CG-EtOH on defecation frequency, liquid stool, intestinal motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females. CG-EtOH produced a significant and equipotent antidiarrheal activity, both in defecation frequency (ED50 = 106.0 ± 8.1 mg/kg) and liquid stools (ED50 = 105.0 ± 9.2 mg/kg). However, CG-EtOH (125 mg/kg) decreased intestinal motility by only 22.7% ±4.4%. Moreover, extract markedly inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal contents (ED50 = 34.6 ± 5.4 mg/kg). We thus conclude that CG-EtOH is not orally lethal and contains active principles with antidiarrheal activity, and this effect seems to involve mostly changes in intestinal secretion. SUMMARY
  • CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females.
  • CG-EtOH probably contains active metabolites with antidiarrheal activity.
  • CG-EtOH reduced the frequency and number of liquid stools.
  • Metabolites presents in the CG-EtOH act mainly by reducing intestinal fluid and, to a lesser extent, reducing intestinal motility.
Abbreviations Used: CG-EtOH: crude ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of C. grewioides; WHO: World Health Organization; ED50: dose of a drug that produces 50% of its maximum effect; Emax: maximum effect
  - 2,415 32
Hepatoprotective and cytotoxic activities of abietic acid from Isodon wightii (bentham) H. hara
Madhusudhanan Gogul Ramnath, Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan, Sadasivam Mathusalini, Palathurai Subramanium Mohan
July-September 2016, 8(3):206-208
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.182920  PMID:27365991
Isodon (Lamiaceae) is a known source of bioactive terpenoids. Diterpenoids isolated from Isodon wightii (Bentham) H. Hara showed antibacterial, antiacetylcholinesterase, antioxidant, anticancer, and anticarcinogenic activities, etc., Hepatoprotective activity of ABA against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced liver injury in BALB/c mice was studied. Cytotoxic activity of ABA was tested against cervical cancer cells (HeLa) using MTT assay followed by propidium iodide (PI) staining to identify apoptosis. Histopathological analysis revealed that 1.5 μg/mL LPS induced liver damage was attenuated by ABA in a dose dependent manner. ABA showed cytotoxicity with IC50value of 176.28 ± 0.02 μg/mL and PI staining of treated cells showed apoptosis. This study proves that ABA would be a promising natural compound for herbal drug preparation. SUMMARY
  • In the present study, abietic acid isolated from I.wightii had potent hepatoprotective effect on LPS induced liver damage in BALB/c mice. Abietic acid also showed cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells followed by apoptosis induction confirmed by PI staining.
Abbreviation Used: ABA: Abietic acid; LPS: Lipopolysacharride; PBS: Phosphate buffer saline; PI: Propidium iodide; NMR: Nuclear magnetic resonance; COSY: Correlation spectroscopy; HSQC: Heteronuclear single quantum correlation; HMBC: Heteronuclear multi - bond correlation; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide
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Inhibition of group IIA secretory phospholipase A2and its inflammatory reactions in mice by ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata, a well-known medicinal food
V Kishore, NS Yarla, F Zameer, MN Nagendra Prasad, MS Santosh, SS More, DG Rao, Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya
July-September 2016, 8(3):213-216
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.182916  PMID:27365993
Andrographis paniculata Nees is an important medicinal plant found in the tropical regions of the world, which has been traditionally used in Indian and Chinese medicinal systems. It is also used as medicinal food. A. paniculata is found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities; however, its inhibitory potential on inflammatory Group IIA phospholipases A2(PLA2) and its associated inflammatory reactions are not clearly understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory/neutralizing potential of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata on the isolated inflammatory PLA2(VRV-PL-VIIIa) from Daboii rusellii pulchella (belonging to Group IIA inflammatory secretory PLA2[sPLA2]) and its associated edema-induced activities in Swiss albino mice. A. paniculata extract dose dependently inhibited the Group IIA sPLA2enzymatic activity with an IC50value of 10.3 ± 0.5 μg/ml. Further, the extract dose dependently inhibited the edema formation, when co-injected with enzyme indicating that a strong correlation exists between lipolytic and pro-inflammatory activities of the enzyme. In conclusion, results of this study shows that the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata effectively inhibits Group IIA sPLA2and its associated inflammatory activities, which substantiate its anti-inflammatory properties. The results of the present study warranted further studies to develop bioactive compound (s) in ethanolic extract of A. paniculata as potent therapeutic agent (s) for inflammatory diseases. SUMMARY
  • This study emphasis the anti-inflammatory effect of A. paniculata by inhibiting the inflammatory Group IIA sPLA2 and its associated inflammatory activities such as edema. It was found that there is a strong correlation between lipolytic activity and pro-inflammatory activity inhibition. Therefore, the study suggests that the extract processes potent anti-inflammatory agents, which could be developed as a potential therapeutic agent against inflammatory and related diseases.
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