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   2015| June  | Volume 7 | Issue 5  
    Online since June 2, 2015

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Cinnamon: Mystic powers of a minute ingredient
Pallavi Kawatra, Rathai Rajagopalan
June 2015, 7(5):1-6
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157990  PMID:26109781
Cinnamon, due to its exotic flavor and aroma, is a key ingredient in the kitchen of every household. From the beginning of its use in 2800 BC by our ancestors for various purposes such as anointment, embalming and various ailments, it has instigated the interest of many researchers. Recently many trials have explored the beneficial effects of cinnamon in Parkinsons, diabetes, blood, and brain. After extensive research on PubMed and Google scholar, data were collected regarding its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antilipemic, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, and anticancer effect. This systematic review underlines the surplus health benefits of this clandestine ingredient and the scope of further research in these clinical scenarios.
  4,081 24 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Quantification of total polyphenols, catechin, caffeine, L-theanine, determination of antioxidant activity and effect on antileishmanial drugs of ethiopian tea leaves extracts
Alemu Tadesse, Ariaya Hymete, Adnan A Bekhit, Salahuddin Farooq Mohammed
June 2015, 7(5):7-14
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157991  PMID:26109792
Objective: In this study four tea samples Gumero black, Wushwush black and Wushwush green from Agri- Ceft Plc and East Africa black tea leaves from East African Agribusiness Plc were investigated for total polyphenols, caffeine, catechin and L-theanine content. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extracts were investigated for their antioxidant and antileishmanial property and effect on amphotericin B, miltefocine and sodium stibogluconate, the commonly used antileishmanial drugs. Antileishmanial studies were conducted on L. aethiopica. Results: Wushwush green tea had the highest content of polyphenol (19.98 ± 1.15 mg gallic acid equivalent /100 g dry leaf weight), catechin (37.06 mg/g) and L-theanine (48.54 mg/g but the lowest caffeine content). It exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant effect of Wushwush green tea may be attributed to the highest polyphenol content. East African black tea had the lowest L-theanine (20.72 mg/g) and antioxidant activity but the highest caffeine (16.60 mg/g) content. Conclusion: Wushwush green tea showed slight inhibitory effect on L. aethiopica while the lack tea extracts (Gumero, East Africa and Wushwush) exhibited no antileishmanial activity. Wushwush green tea did not show any synergistic or antagonistic effect on the antileishmanial drugs used in this study while Gumero, East Africa and Wushwush black tea extracts exhibited dose dependant inhibitory activity to the commonly used antileishmanial drugs included in this study.
  2,802 23 1
Analgesic and anti-Inflammatory effect of UP3005, a botanical composition Containing two standardized extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba
Mesfin Yimam, Young-Chul Lee, Tae-Woo Kim, Breanna Moore, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Hyun-Jin Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Jin-Sun Oh, Sabrina Cleveland, Eu-Jin Hyun, Min Chu, Qi Jia
June 2015, 7(5):39-46
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157995  PMID:26109786
Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic debilitating degenerative joint disease characterized by cartilage degradation and synovial inflammation exhibited by clinical symptoms such as joint swelling, synovitis, and inflammatory pain. Present day pain relief therapeutics heavily relies on the use of prescription and over the counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as the first line of defense where their long-term usage causes detrimental gastrointestinal and cardiovascular-related side-effects. As a result, the need for evidence based safer and efficacious alternatives from natural sources to overcome the most prominent and disabling symptoms of arthritis is a necessity. Materials and Methods: Describe the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of UP3005, a composition that contains a standardized blend of two extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, abdominal constriction (writhing's) and ear swelling assays in mouse with oral dose ranges of 100-400 mg/kg. Results: In vivo, statistically significant improvement in pain resistance, and suppression of paw edema and ear thickness in animals treated with UP3005 were observed compared with vehicle-treated diseased rats and mice. Ibuprofen was used a reference compound in all the studies. In vitro, enzymatic inhibition activities of UP3005 were determined with IC50 values of 12.4 μg/ml, 39.8 μg/ml and 13.6 μg/ml in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-1), COX-2 and lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme activity assay, respectively. Conclusions: These data suggest that UP3005, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent of botanical origin with balanced dual COX-LOX inhibition activity, could potentially be used for symptom management of OA.
  2,419 21 4
Hematological effects of repeated graded doses of the methanol extract of Paullinia pinnata (Linn.) leaves in Wistar albino rats
Oluwatoyin A Adeyemo-Salami, Emmanuel O Ewuola
June 2015, 7(5):34-38
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.150522  PMID:26109785
Background: Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases, including anemia in West Africa. Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of increasing doses of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata on hematological parameters in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were grouped into six groups of six animals each. Five doses; 50,100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the P. pinnata extract were administered separately to five groups. The sixth group served as a control and received only the vehicle (70% physiological saline: 30% Tween 80 [v/v]). Administration was done orally daily for 28 days at 24 h interval. On day 29, the animals were made inactive, blood was then collected from the heart and various hematological parameters were evaluated. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance was employed. Results: The packed cell volume and red blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups except at 200 mg/kg dose. The hemoglobin concentration increased in all the treatment groups. The values for the neutrophils at 50, 100, 200 and 800 mg/kg doses were higher than that of the control. The white blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) at 50 and 400 mg/kg doses compared to the control and exceeded the normal physiological range. Conclusion: The maximum tolerable dose is 200 mg/kg body weight of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata and the extract has anti-anemic property with the ability to increase neutrophils count.
  2,257 38 -
Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial, and antidiabetic potential of two traditional medicinal plants of India: Swertia cordata and Swertia chirayita
Priyanka Roy, Fatima I Abdulsalam, DK Pandey, Aniruddha Bhattacharjee, Naveen Reddy Eruvaram, Tabarak Malik
June 2015, 7(5):57-62
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157997  PMID:26109789
Background: Swertia cordata and Swertia chirayita are temperate Himalayan medicinal plants used as potent herbal drugs in Indian traditional systems of medicine (Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha). Objective: Assessment of Antioxidant, antibacterial, and antidiabetic potential of Swertia cordata and Swertia chirayita. Materials and Methods: Phytochemicals of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the two Swertia species were analyzed. The antioxidant potential of all the extracts was assessed by measuring total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and free radical scavenging potential was assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, antibacterial activity was assessed against various pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria in vitro by Kirby-Bauer agar well diffusion method and antidiabetic activity was assessed by α-amylase inhibition. Results: Methanolic leaf extracts of both the species of Swertia contain significant antibacterial as well as anti-diabetic potential, whereas methanolic root extracts of both species were found to have potential antioxidant activity. However, Swertia chirayita showed better activities than Swertia cordata although both species have good reputation in traditional Indian medicine. Conclusion: Both the species are having high medicinal potential in terms of their antioxidant, antibacterial and antidiabetic activities. Studies are required to further elucidate antioxidant, anti-diabetic and antibacterial potentials using various in-vitro, in-vivo biochemical and molecular biology techniques.
  2,241 16 2
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials
MV Pravin Charles, Arunava Kali, Noyal Mariya Joseph
June 2015, 7(5):69-73
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.150528  PMID:26109791
Background: In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media for speciation of Candida clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: Sputum samples of 382 patients were screened for the presence of Candida spp. by Gram stain and culture on sabouraud dextrose agar. Candida species were identified using Gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and morphology on HiCrome Candida differential agar. All the Candida isolates were inoculated on HiCrome Candida agar (HiMedia, Mumbai, India). Results: The sensitivity and specificity of HiCrome agar for identification of Candida albicans were 90% and 96.42%, respectively whereas sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate fermentation test were 86.67% and 74.07%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values of HiCrome agar for detection of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata were above 90%. Conclusions: We found HiCrome agar has high sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the conventional method. In addition, use of this differential media could significantly cut down the turnaround time as well as cost of sample processing.
  2,205 21 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Toxicological and phytoprotective effect of Keayodendron bridelioides and Monodora myristica extracts in Wister rats
Solomon E Owumi, Abiodun C Oloidi, Cinzia O Oloye, Oludare O Oladeji, Moses O Obadare, Oyeronke A Odunola
June 2015, 7(5):26-33
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.150508  PMID:26109784
Objectives: The potential toxicity of Keayodendron bridelioides (KB), Monodora myristica (MM) were examined, and phytoprotection of MM and KB stemming from their phytochemical contents against sodium arsenite (SA) induced clastogenicity in Wister's rat. Materials and Methods: Dose range studies of KB in rats, genotoxicity of MM and KB by SOS-inductive respomse were investigated using E. coli PQ37. Male rats were exposed to varying concentrations of MM, KB over a five week period to evaluate MM and KB phytoprotectives properties were also evaluated against sodium arsenite induced micronucleated erythrocytes, hepatotoxicity and sperm quality and morphology. Results: In contrast to KB, MM induced micronuclei formation in rat erythrocytes, MM and KB were however not genotoxic. MM, SA alone and in combination were hepatotoxic, characterized by elevated hepatic transaminases. Hepatoxicity were ameliorated by co-administration of KB (P < 0.05). MM and KB did not induce changes in semen morphology (P > 0.05); but decreased sperm count and motility (P < 0.05). Extracts exhibited anti-clastogenic (KB > MM), hepatoprotective (KB > MM) activities and maintained semen viability against SA treatment. Conclusion: Finding applications as herbal medicinal and food components KB and MM may be useful in mitigating the effect of toxicants in biological systems susceptible to oxidative damage.
  2,112 28 1
Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum Linn. in mice: A preliminary experimental study
K Latha, B Rammohan, B. P. V. Sunanda, MS Uma Maheswari, Surapaneni Krishna Mohan
June 2015, 7(5):47-51
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157996  PMID:26109787
Objectives: To evaluate the anxiolytic effect of Coriandrum sativum (CS) aqueous extract in mice. To compare the antianxiety activity of CS against standard drug diazepam (3 mg/kg). Materials and Methods: After obtaining Institutional Animal Ethics Committee approval, Swiss albino mice (18-25 g) of either sex were randomly divided into five groups of six animals each. Dried powder of CS leaves was boiled with distilled water, cooled, filtered, placed on a hotplate for complete evaporation, finally weighed and stored. The control group, test group, and standard drugs group received saline, CS extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), diazepam (3 mg/kg), respectively, by oral feeding. The antianxiety effect was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) in mice. Results: In EPM, it implied that CS 50 mg/kg (Group III), 100 mg/kg (Group IV), and 200 mg/kg (Group V) significantly (P < 0.001) increases the number of entries in open arms compared to control. The time spent in open arms also increased in all the doses of CS extract significantly. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates statistically significant dose-dependent antianxiety activity of CS leaves.
  2,108 15 -
Antioxidant and Antiacetylcholinesterase Activity of Teucrium hyrcanicum
Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi, Fatemeh Yousefbeyk, Tahmineh Mirnezami, Pedram Laghaei, Mannan Hajimahmoodi, Mahnaz Khanavi
June 2015, 7(5):15-19
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157993  PMID:26109782
Background: Teucrium hyrcanicum belonging to the Lamiaceae family is a native plant in Iran; it is called Maryam nokhodi-e-jangali in Farsi. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibition (AChEI), antioxidant activity and flavonoids content of T. hyrcanicum methanol extract. Materials and Methods: The air-dried and the ground aerial parts of T. hyrcanicum were extracted by percolation method with methanol. Antioxidant activity of the extract was investigated by using 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) methods. In addition, AChEI and flavonoid content of T. hyrcanicum methanol extract were measured. Results: The results showed that total flavonoid content of T. hyrcanicum in reference to the standard curve for quercetin was 20.70 ± 0.05 mg quercetin equivalents/g of extract. In the FRAP method, the antioxidant activity of T. hyrcanicum extract and butyl hydroxyanisole (BHA) (as a positive control) were 657.5 ± 0.04 and 880 ± 0.06 mmol Fe II/1 g dried extract. According to results of DPPH assay, half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) value for DPPH radical-scavenging activities of T. hyrcanicum methanol extract, vitamin E and BHA were 74.6, 14.12 and 7.8 μg/mL, respectively. IC 50 value for AChEI of T. hyrcanicum and donepezil as a positive control were 2.12 mg/mL and 0.013 mg/mL. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed T. hyrcanicum is a natural antioxidant that the flavonoid content can be responsible for extract effects.
  1,995 24 1
Chemical composition analysis, antioxidant and antibacterial activity evaluation of essential oil of Atalantia monophylla Correa
Ramaraj Thirugnanasampandan, Ramya Gunasekar, Madhusudhanan Gogulramnath
June 2015, 7(5):52-56
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.152009  PMID:26109788
Background: Atalantia monophylla Correa. a small tree belongs to the family Rutaceae. It is distributed throughout India and in Tamil Nadu the species is commonly seen in foothills of dry vegetation. Objective: The aim was to hydrodistillate and analyze the chemical composition of essential oil from the fresh leaves of A. monophylla Correa. collected in two different seasons (December, 2013 and May, 2014) and to evaluate antioxidant and antibacterial activities of isolated essential oil. Materials and Methods: Chemical composition of isolated essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activity of oil was assessed using five different antioxidant test systems. Antibacterial activity of oil was tested against six pathogenic bacteria by broth dilution method. Results: Essential oil obtained from the leaves collected during May, 2014 had shown more compounds. Antioxidant activity of oil was moderate when compared with positive control. Minimum inhibitory concentration value of oil was ranges between 139.32 ± 0.001 and 541.11 ± 0.003 µg/mL against all the tested bacteria. Conclusion: Result clearly indicates essential oil collected during May, 2014 showed more bioactive compounds.
  1,950 27 -
Antidermatophytic Activity of Mikania micrantha Kunth: An Invasive Weed
Madhavankutty Jyothilakshmi, Mathew Jyothis, Mukalel Sankunni Latha
June 2015, 7(5):20-25
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157994  PMID:26109783
Context: The incidence of dermatophytosis has risen dramatically in recent years. Limited availability of side-effect free drugs has led to a search for new antidermatophytic agents. Objective: The objective was to investigate antidermatophytic activity and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity (protease inhibition assay) of whole plant (aerial parts only) of Mikania micrantha. Materials and Methods: The dried and powdered aerial parts of M. micrantha were extracted separately with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antidermatophytic activity was determined by agar tube dilution method against Epidermophyton floccosum var. nigricans, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton rubrum. The activities of various parts of the plant - flowers, leaves and stem were separately analyzed using their ethyl acetate extract. Fungicidal efficacy and trypsin inhibiting activity of the whole plant, flowers and leaves were also analyzed using the ethyl acetate extracts. Statistical Analysis Used: For trypsin inhibition assay results are expressed as mean ± standard division. For antidermatophytic assay, the significance of the difference between control and test was analyzed statistically using Fisher's exact test. Results: Ethyl acetate extract of M. micrantha exhibited excellent antidermatophytic activity, followed by petroleum ether and methanolic extracts. Ethyl acetate extracts of whole plant, flowers, leaves and stem completely inhibited the growth of dermatophytes at the tested concentration of 2 mg/mL. Furthermore, ethyl acetate extracts of whole plant, leaves and flowers were fungicidal, and the percentages of trypsin inhibition exhibited were 33.73 ± 0.306, 39.0 ± 0.505 and 35.53 ± 0.503, respectively. Conclusions: Since M. micrantha possesses antidermatophytic as well as anti-inflammatory activities, the plant is an excellent candidate for the development of new medicaments against dermatophytoses in traditional as well as modern medicine.
  1,885 22 1
Induction of rat hepatic mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore opening by leaf extract of Olax subscorpioidea
Oluwatobi Samuel Adegbite, Yetunde Ifeoma Akinsanya, Ayobami Jahdahunsi Kukoyi, Wisdom O Iyanda-Joel, Oluwatoyin O Daniel, Abiodun Humphrey Adebayo
June 2015, 7(5):63-68
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157998  PMID:26109790
Background: The induction of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MMPT) pore has been implicated in the cascade of events involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death). Olax subscorpioidea is traditionally used for the treatment of several diseases and infection. However, its role on MMPT is not yet established. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of varying concentrations of the methanol leaf extract of O. subscorpioidea (MEOS) on MMPT pore opening, mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), and mitochondrial lipid peroxidation. Materials and Methods: Opening of the pore was spectrophotometrically assayed under succinate-energized conditions. Results: In the absence of triggering agent (calcium), MEOS induced MMPT pore opening by 350, 612, 827, 845% at 36, 60, 86 and 112 μg/ml, respectively. MEOS further induced MMPT pore opening in the presence of a triggering agent by 866, 905, 831, 840, 949% at 12, 36, 60, 86 and 112 μg/ml, respectively. The extract significantly induced mitochondrial membrane lipid peroxidation in all the concentration used. MEOS also significantly increased mitochondrial ATP hydrolysis by mitochondrial ATPase in all concentration of the extract used. Conclusion: It may be deduced from this results, that MEOS contains certain bioactive components that may find use in pathological conditions that require an enhanced rate of apoptosis.
  1,612 15 -
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