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   2015| July-September  | Volume 7 | Issue 3  
    Online since June 2, 2015

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Review of clinical studies of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and its isolated bioactive compounds
Guy-Armel Bounda, YU Feng
July-September 2015, 7(3):225-236
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157957  PMID:26130933
Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PMT), officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, is one of the most popular perennial Chinese traditional medicines known as He shou wu in China and East Asia, and as Fo-ti in North America. Mounting pharmacological studies have stressed out its key benefice for the treatment of various diseases and medical conditions such as liver injury, cancer, diabetes, alopecia, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases as well. International databases such as PubMed/Medline, Science citation Index and Google Scholar were searched for clinical studies recently published on P. multiflorum. Various clinical studies published articles were retrieved, providing information relevant to pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis, sleep disorders, dyslipidemia treatment, and neurodegenerative diseases. This review is an effort to update the clinical picture of investigations ever carried on PMT and/or its isolated bio-compounds and to enlighten its therapeutic assessment.
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Evaluation of antiviral activity of essential oil of Trachyspermum Ammi against Japanese encephalitis virus
Soumen Roy, Pratibha Chaurvedi, Abhay Chowdhary
July-September 2015, 7(3):263-267
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157977  PMID:26130938
Background: Japanese encephalitis is a leading form of viral encephalitis, prevalent mostly in South Eastern Asia caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). It is transmitted by the mosquitoes of the Culex sp. The disease affects children and results in 50% result in permanent neuropsychiatric disorder. There arises a need to develop a safe, affordable, and potent anti-viral agent against JEV. This study aimed to assess the antiviral activity of ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi: Umbellifereae) essential oil against JEV. Materials and Methods: Ajwain oil was extracted by distillation method and in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed in vero cell line by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay method. JEV titer was determined by plaque assay and in vitro antiviral activity of ajwain oil was quantified by the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Results: Cytotoxic concentration of the oil was found to be 1 mg/ml by MTT assay. The titer of the virus pool was found to be 50× 10 7 PFU/ml. we observed 80% and 40% virus inhibition in 0.5mg/ml of ajwain oil by PRNT method in preexposure treatment and postexposure treatment (antiviral activity), respectively. Conclusion: Our data indicate ajwain oil has potential in vitro antiviral activity against JEV. Further, the active biomolecule will be purified and evaluated for anti-JEV activity and also to scale up for in vivo trial to evaluate the efficacy of ajwain oil in future.
  4 3,672 61
Structural elucidation of chemical constituents from Benincasa hispida seeds and Carissa congesta roots by gas chromatography: Mass spectroscopy
Gaurav M Doshi, Vivek V Nalawade, Aaditi S Mukadam, Pratip K Chaskar, Sandeep P Zine, Rakesh R Somani, Hemant D Une
July-September 2015, 7(3):282-293
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157179  PMID:26130941
Background: Benincasa hispida (BH) and Carissa congesta (CC) are regarded as ethnopharmacological imperative plants in Asian countries. Objective: Phytochemical screening of the extracts has shown the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, tannins, phenolic compounds, fixed oils, and fats in the BH and CC extracts. The presence of lupeol has been reported previously by us using high-performance thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Materials and Methods: Present research studies encompasses identification of chemical constituents in BH seeds and CC roots petroleum ether extracts by hyphenated technique such as gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (MS) which when coupled gives a clear insight of constituents. Results: The components were identified by matching mass spectra with MS libraries. There were 13 and 10 different compounds analyzed from CC and BH, respectively. The components present were Pentanoic acid, 5-hydroxy, 2,4-butylphenyl; n-Hexadecanoic acid (Palmitic acid); Sulfurous acid, 2-ethylhexylhepatdecyl ester; n-Tridecane; 6-methyltridecane; (9E, 12E)-9,12-Octadecadienyl chloride, Hexadecanoic acid, 3-(trimethylsilyl)-oxy] propyl ester; 9,12-Octadecadenoic acid, 2 hydroxy-1-(hyroxymethylethyl) ester; 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, 2,3 dihydroxypropyl ester; n-Propyl-9,12-Octadecadienoate, Lupeol; Taraxasterol; 6a, 14a-Methanopicene, perhydro-12,4a, 61a, 9,9,12a-hepatmethyl-10-hydoxy and 9-Octadecene; 2-Isoprpenyl-5-methyl-6-hepten-1-ol; n-Hexadecanoic acid, 2-hyroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ether; Butyl-9,12-Octadecadieonate; Friedoolean-8-en-3-one; friedours-7-en-3-one; 13,27-Cyclosuran-3-one; Stigmaste-7,25-dien-3-ol (3β, 5α); Stigmasta-7,16-dien-3-ol; chrondrillasterol in BH seeds and CC roots extracts respectively. Conclusion: Eluted components from the extracts could provide further researchers to work with various pharmacological activities related models and studies.
  2 4,190 43
Extraction and elemental analysis of Coleus forskohlii extract
Haritha Kanne, Narayan Pandurang Burte, V Prasanna, Ravi Gujjula
July-September 2015, 7(3):237-241
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157966  PMID:26130934
Background: Coleus forskohlii Willd. is a popular traditional medicine used since ancient times for treatment of heart diseases, abdominal colic and respiratory disorders. Objective: The aim of this study was to characterize the root extract of the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. Materials and Methods: Dry roots of C. forskohlii were used to extract Forskolin using toluene as a solvent. Thus, obtained extract of C. forskohlii was standardized to 30% and used for further studies. Results: The physical properties of the extract were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy analysis, while the characterization of root extract through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and element analysis. The morphological feature of the C. forskohlii extract showed a flake like structure and the XRD showed sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) and trimer of sulfur trioxide (S 3 O 9 ). Through element analysis, elements such as carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorous, and sulfur were identified. Carbon showed the highest weight of 75.49% in comparison to all other elements.
  2 4,198 39
Chemopreventive effect of methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica on experimental Trypanosoma brucei induced oxidative stress in dogs
Temidayo O Omobowale, Ademola A Oyagbemi, Oyefunbi A Oyewunmi, Olumuyiwa A Adejumobi
July-September 2015, 7(3):249-258
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157972  PMID:26130936
Introduction: The medicinal properties of Azadirachta indica have been harnessed for many years in the treatment of many diseases in both humans and animals. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five apparently healthy dogs weighing between 3 and 8 kg were randomly divided into five groups with five dogs in each group. Ameliorative effect of A. indica on erythrocyte antioxidant status and markers of oxidative stress were assessed. Liver and kidney function tests were also performed. Results: Pre-treatment with methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (MEAI) at different doses did not significantly alter the values of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity in Trypanosoma brucei infection. Although, serum creatinine significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with pre-treatment with 50 mg/kg A. indica, after 2 weeks of T. brucei infection. However, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content of the erythrocyte increased significantly in animals pre-treated with 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of A. indica respectively. Markers of oxidative stress such as malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide generated were higher in animals infected with T. brucei with no significant (P >0.05) difference compared to the values obtained in pre-treated animals. Pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of A. indica significantly (P < 0.05) decreased serum myeloperoxidase activity at 2 weeks post-infection with T. brucei. Conclusion: From this study, MEAI showed significant ability to attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation during experimental T. brucei infection.
  2 2,939 25
Quantitative analysis of the nutritional components in leaves and seeds of the Persian Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori
Gholamreza Asghari, Abbasali Palizban, Behnosh Bakhshaei
July-September 2015, 7(3):242-248
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157968  PMID:26130935
Background: Moringa peregrina (M. peregrina) is an important tropical tree recognized for its nutritional and medicinal properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional component in the leaves and seeds of the Persian M. peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. Materials and Methods: The M. peregrina leaves and seeds of wild cultivated trees were collected from the areas of arid environment located in the South-East of the Iran. The leaves and seeds of M. peregrina were dried and grounded to a fine powder and kept in dark for the day of experiment. The acidic digested leaves and seeds were analyzed for Vitamins C and A, calcium, and potassium using atomic adsorption and flame emission spectrophotometer. Results: The analytical data revealed that the leaves and seeds of the Persian M. peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori contain sufficient amounts of Vitamin C: 83 ± 0.5 and 14 ± 0.6 mg/100 g/DW; and Vitamin A: 6.8 ± 0.7 and 24.8 ± 0.7 mg/100 g/DW, respectively. The elemental analysis in the leaves and seeds showed that the calcium content are 764.8 ± 1.6 and 1164.8 ± 43.4 mg/100 g/DW and for potassium content are 900.2 ± 14 and 572 ± 10 mg/100 g/DW, respectively. Conclusions: The nutritional characteristics of the Persian M. peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori, investigated in this study revealed that, daily use of leaves and seeds of this plant could significantly provide the recommended dietary allowance for the Vitamins C and A, and minerals, such as calcium and potassium.
  1 4,488 47
Gastrointestinal protective efficacy of Kolaviron (a bi-flavonoid from Garcinia kola) following a single administration of sodium arsenite in rats: Biochemical and histopathological studies
Akinleye S Akinrinde, Ebunoluwa Olowu, Ademola A Oyagbemi, Olutayo T Omobowale
July-September 2015, 7(3):268-276
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157978  PMID:26130939
Background: Arsenic intoxication is known to produce symptoms including diarrhea and vomiting, which are indications of gastrointestinal dysfunction. Objective: We investigated whether Kolaviron (KV) administration protected against sodium arsenite (NaAsO 2 )-induced damage to gastric and intestinal epithelium in rats. Materials and Methods: Control rats (Group I) were given a daily oral dose of corn oil. Rats in other groups were given a single dose of NaAsO 2 (100 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) alone (Group II) or after pretreatment for 7 days with KV at 100 mg/kg (Group III) and 200 mg/kg (Group IV). Rats were sacrificed afterward and portions of the stomach, small intestine and colon were processed for histopathological examination. Hydrogen peroxide, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were measured in the remaining portions of the different gastrointestinal tract (GIT) segments. Results: NaAsO 2 caused significant increases (P < 0.05) in MDA levels and MPO activity, with significant reductions (P < 0.05) in GST, GPX, CAT and SOD activities in the stomach and intestines. KV significantly reversed the changes (P < 0.05) in a largely dose-dependent manner. The different segments had marked inflammatory cellular infiltration, with hyperplasia of the crypts, which occurred to much lesser degrees with KV administration. Conclusion: The present findings showed that KV might be a potent product for mitigating NaAsO 2 toxicity in the GIT.
  1 2,870 27
Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management
Arshad H Rahmani
July-September 2015, 7(3):217-224
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157956  PMID:26130932
Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control.
  1 4,594 52
Are herbal mouthwash efficacious over chlorhexidine on the dental plaque?
Devanand Gupta, Swapna Nayan, Harshad K Tippanawar, Gaurav I Patil, Ankita Jain, Rizwan K Momin, Rajendra Kumar Gupta
July-September 2015, 7(3):277-281
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.155874  PMID:26130940
Aim: To compare the effect of herbal extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: The subjects (60 healthy medical students aged ranges between 20 and 25 years) were randomly divided into two groups, that is, the herbal group and the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the two groups. Results: Our result showed that the chlorhexidine group shows a greater decrease in plaque score followed by herbal extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The results indicate that herbal mouthwash may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce plaque level, especially in low socioeconomic strata.
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Study of colouring effect of herbal hair formulations on graying hair
Vijender Singh, Mohammed Ali, Sukirti Upadhyay
July-September 2015, 7(3):259-262
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.157976  PMID:26130937
Objective: To screen the hair colouring properties of hair colorants/ herbal hair colouring formulations. Materials and Methods: The dried aqueous herbal extracts of Gudhal leaves (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), Jatamansi rhizome (Nardostachys jatamansi), Kuth roots (Saussurea lappa), Kattha (Acacia catechu), Amla dried fruit (Embelica officinalis), were prepared. Coffee powder (Coffea arabica)and Henna powder (Lowsonia inermis) were taken in the form of powder (# 40). Fourteen herbal hair colorants were prepared from these dried aqueous herbal extracts and powders. Activities of hair colorants were observed on sheep wool fibers. On the basis of the above observation six hair colorants were selected. These six formulations were taken for trials on human beings. Observation: The formulation coded HD-3 gave maximum colouring effect on sheep wool fibers as well as on human beings and percentage of acceptance among the volunteers were in the following order: HD- 3 > HD- 4 > HD-1 > HD-13 > HD-14 > HD-11. Results and Discussion: The remarkable results were obtained from five herbal hair colorants, viz., HD-1, HD- 3, HD- 4, HD-13 and HD-14 on sheep wool fibers and human beings. Formulation HD-3, having gudhal, jatamansi, kuth, kattha, amla, coffee and henna, was the maximum accepted formulation and suggested that these herbs in combination acts synergistically in hair colouring action. It also concluded that jatamansi, present in different hair colorants, was responsible to provide maximum blackening on hair
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