Home | About PR | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |   Reader Login
Pharmacognosy Magazine
Search Article 
Advanced search 
Export selected to
Reference Manager
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
  Access statistics : Table of Contents
   2015| January-March  | Volume 7 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 17, 2014

  Archives   Previous Issue   Next Issue   Most popular articles   Most cited articles
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to
  Viewed PDF Cited
Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant
N'Guessan Bra Yvette Fofie, Rokia Sanogo, Kiyinlma Coulibaly, Diénéba Kone Bamba
January-March 2015, 7(1):7-13
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147131  PMID:25598628
Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus.
  14,457 48 1
Review on Polygonum minus. Huds, a commonly used food additive in Southeast Asia
Parayil Varghese Christapher, Subramani Parasuraman, Josephine Maria Arokiaswamy Christina, Mohd. Zaini Asmawi, Murugaiyah Vikneswaran
January-March 2015, 7(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147125  PMID:25598627
Polygonum minus (Polygonaceae), generally known as 'kesum' in Malaysia is among the most commonly used food additive, flavoring agent and traditionally used to treat stomach and body aches. Raw or cooked leaves of P. minus are used in digestive disorders in the form of a decoction and the oil is used for dandruff. The pharmacological studies on P. minus have demonstrated antioxidant, in vitro LDL oxidation inhibition, antiulcer activity, analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, in vitro antiplatelet aggregation activity, antimicrobial activity, digestive enhancing property and cytotoxic activity. The spectroscopic studies of essential oil of P. minus showed the presence of about 69 compounds, which are responsible for the aroma. The phytochemical studies showed presence of flavonoids and essential oils. This review is an effort to update the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological data of the plant P. minus.
  11,414 48 6
GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum leaves
Pritipadma Panda, Meera Rath, Abhisek Pal, Tripti Sharma, Debajyoti Das
January-March 2015, 7(1):110-113
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147223  PMID:25598644
Background: Clerodendrum viscosum is commonly found in India and Bangladesh. Previously, various parts of this plant were reported for treatment of different types of diseases and there was no report on GC-Ms analysis. Objective: To analyze and characterize the phytochemical compounds of methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum using GC-MS. Materials and Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening of methanol extract was carried out according to standard procedures described in WHO guidelines. Various bioactive compounds of the extract were determined by GC-MS technique. Results: The presence of steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and carbohydrate was found on phytochemical screening of methanol extract of the leaves. The GC-MS analysis showed 16 peaks of different phytoconstituents namely acetamide,N,N-carbonylbis-, 4-Pyranone,2,3-dihydro-, alpha-D-Galactofuranoside, methyl 2,3,5,6-tetra-O-methyl-, Glycerin, Xylitol, N,N-Dimethylglycine, 4H-Pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-, Benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, 2(1H)Pyrimidinone,1-methyl-, 2,4-Dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylpyrimidine, 3-Deoxy-d-mannoic lactone, 1,3-Methylene-d-arabitol, Orcinol, n-Hexadecanoic acid and Phenol,4,4'-(1-methyl ethylidene) bis etc. Conclusion: The bioactive compounds present in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum suggest the application of this extract for the treatment of various diseases by the aborigine tribes.
  3,763 38 2
Chemical Constituents from the Leaves of Euphorbia ammak Growing in Saudi Arabia
Essam Abdel-Sattar, Dina Abou-Hussein, Frank Petereit
January-March 2015, 7(1):14-17
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147136  PMID:25598629
Investigation of the chloroform extract of Euphorbia ammak leaves led to the isolation of three compounds: euphol (1), α-glutinol (2) and stigmasterol (3) Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, as well as by comparison with the reported data. Compounds 1-3 exhibited cytotoxicity in vitro against human cervical adenocarcinoma (Hela), among which, compound 1 showed the best activity.
  3,624 28 -
In vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Terminalia glaucescens
J Olorunjuwon Olugbami, Michael A Gbadegesin, Oyeronke A Odunola
January-March 2015, 7(1):49-56
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147200  PMID:25598635
Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in various pathological conditions. Synthetic antioxidants have adverse health effects, while many medicinal plants have antioxidant components that can prevent the harmful effects of ROS. Objectives: This study quantitatively determined the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of the stem bark of Terminalia glaucescens (EESTG). Materials and Methods: The objectives were achieved based on in vitro assays. Data were analyzed by Sigma Plot (version 11.0). Results: Using gallic acid as the standard compound, TPC value obtained was 596.57 μg GAE/mg extract. TFC content of EESTG, determined as quercetin equivalent was 129.58 μg QE/mg extract. Furthermore, EESTG significantly (P < 0.001) displayed higher reducing power activity than the standard compounds (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT]). Total antioxidant capacity assay, measured by phosphomolybdate method, was 358.33 ± 5.77 μg butylated hydroxytoluene equivalents [BHTE]/mg extract. β-carotene-linoleate bleaching method affirmed the potency of EESTG because of its significantly (P < 0.001) higher anti-oxidant activity when compared with quercetin and BHT. Based on DPPH assay, EESTG displayed significantly (P < 0.001) higher activity than BHT, while the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of BHT and quercetin significantly (P < 0.001) exceeded that of the extract, although EESTG still displayed a high level of activity obtained as 83.77% in comparison to 92.80% of the standard compounds. Conclusion: Findings from this study indicate the presence of promisingly potent phytoconstituents in EESTG that have the capability to act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers.
  3,598 47 6
Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis in experimental animal models
Gautam Mandal, Chandan Chatterjee, Mitali Chatterjee
January-March 2015, 7(1):18-22
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147194  PMID:25598630
Background: Bougainvillea spectabilis (BS) (family Nyctaginaceae) is said to possess hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animals. We had set forward to examine the potential anti-inflammatory activities of BS in experimental models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: Fresh dried leaves from the flowering plant of BS were collected from the local area during the flowering season and air dried (215.00 g). Methanol was extracted, and the solvent was removed on a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure. The extract was freeze-dried (lyophilized) and the yield was 8 g. This was used as an emulsion prepared in propylene glycol and orally administered (20 and 50 mg/kg). Acute anti-inflammatory activity of BS was evaluated using carrageenan and dextran whereas chronic anti-inflammatory (immunoregulatory) activity was evaluated by Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Results: BS (20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) had shown significant anti-inflammatory effects 20.6% and 67.6%, respectively, on carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory models. In dextran-induced edema, the effect was 30% and 66%, respectively. The standard drug indomethacin (87.3% and 91.5%, respectively) showed better inhibitory response in both models. In arthritic model 50 mg/kg of BS showed significant chronic anti-inflammatory effect (38.46%) in comparison to the standard drug dexamethasone (84.6%). Conclusion: Our data indicate that the methanol extract of BS (50 mg/kg) leaves has significant anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activity. Further studies involving isolation of active principles will help to pinpoint the mechanisms contributing to the observed activities of BS.
  3,138 30 2
Anti-quorum sensing potential of Adenanthera pavonina
Halkare Suryanarayana Vasavi, Ananthapadmanabha Bhagwath Arun, Punchappady-Devasya Rekha
January-March 2015, 7(1):105-109
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147220  PMID:25598643
Background: Quorum sensing (QS) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a key role in virulence factor production, biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance. Because of emerging antimicrobial resistance in P. aeruginosa, there is a need to find an alternate nonantibiotic agent for the control of infections caused by this organism. Objective: To evaluate anti-QS activity of Adenanthera pavonina L., a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine. Materials and Methods: Preliminary screening for anti-QS activity of ethanol extract of A. pavonina was carried out using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 biosensor strain and inhibition of QS-regulated violacein production was quantified using C. violaceum ATCC12472. Bioassay guided fractionation of ethanol extract resulted in ethyl acetate fraction (AEF) with strong anti-QS activity and AEF was evaluated for inhibition of QS-regulated pyocyanin production, proteolytic, elastolytic activity, swarming motility and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosaPAO1. Results: AEF, at 0.5 mg/ml, inhibited pyocyanin production completely and at 1 mg/ml of AEF, complete inhibition of proteolytic and elastolytic activities were observed. However, viability of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was not affected at the tested concentrations of AEF as observed by cell count. Swarming motility was inhibited at the concentration of 0.1 mg/ml of AEF. Thin layer chromatography and biosensor overlay of AEF showed violacein inhibition zone at Rf value 0.63. Conclusion: From the results of this study, it can be concluded that A. pavonina extracts can be used as effective anti-QS agents.
  3,094 24 3
Analysis of L-citrulline and L-arginine in Ficus deltoidea leaf extracts by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography
Armaghan Shafaei, Abdalrahim F. F. A. Aisha, Mohammad Jamshed Ahmad Siddiqui, Zhari Ismail
January-March 2015, 7(1):32-37
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147196  PMID:25598632
Background: Ficus deltoidea (FD) is one of the native plants widely distributed in several countries in Southeast Asia. Previous studies have shown that FD leaf possess antinociceptive, wound healing and antioxidant properties . These beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of primary and secondary metabolites such as polyphenols, amino acids and flavonoids. Objective: The aim was to develop a reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet detection that involves precolumn derivatisation with O-phthaladehyde for simultaneous analysis of two amino acids L-citrulline and L-arginine in FD leaf extracts. Materials and Methods: An isocratic elution program consisting of methanol: acetonitrile: Water at 45:45:10 v/v (solvent A) and 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7.5 (solvent B) at A: B v/v ratio of 80:20 on Zorbax Eclipse C18 SB-Aq column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) were used. The flow rate was set at 1 ml/min and detection was carried out at 338 nm with 30 min separation time. Results: Good linearity for L-citrulline and L-arginine was obtained in the range 0.1-1000 μg/ml at R2 ≥ 0.998. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values for both L-citrulline and L-arginine were 1 and 5 μg/ml, respectively. The average of recoveries was in the range 94.94-101.95%, with relative standard deviation (%RSD) less than 3%. Intra- and inter-day precision was in the range 96.36-102.43% with RSD less than 2%. Conclusion: All validation parameters of the developed method indicate the method is reliable and efficient for simultaneous determination of L-citrulline and L-arginine for routine analysis of FD.
  2,893 36 -
Anti-diabetic effects of ethanol extract of Bryonia laciniosa seeds and its saponins rich fraction in neonatally streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Sandip B Patel, Devdas Santani, Veena Patel, Mamta Shah
January-March 2015, 7(1):92-99
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147217  PMID:25598641
Context: Bryonia laciniosa Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) seed is used in traditional medicine for a number of ailments including metabolic disorders. Aim: This study evaluated the anti-diabetic action of the ethanol extract of B. laciniosa seeds and saponin fraction of it through its effect on hyperglycemia, dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in neonatally streptozotocin (n-STZ)-induced diabetic rats (n-STZ diabetic rats). Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg; p.o.), saponin fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o.) and standard drug glibenclamide (3 mg/kg; p.o.) were administered to diabetic rats when the rats were 6 weeks old and continued for 10 consecutive weeks. Effects of ethanol extract and saponin fraction on various biochemical parameters were studied in diabetic rats. Results: The treatment with ethanol extract and saponin fraction for 10 weeks decrease in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, serum urea, serum creatinine and diminished activities of aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. The anti-hyperglycemic nature of B. laciniosa is probably brought about by the extra- the pancreatic mechanism as evidenced from unchanged levels of plasma insulin. B. laciniosa modulated effect of diabetes on the liver malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity. Administration of ethanol extract and saponin fraction to diabetic rats showed a significant reversal of disturbed antioxidant status. Significant increase in SOD, CAT, and levels of GSH was observed in treated n-STZ diabetic rats. Conclusion: The present study reveals the efficacy of B. laciniosa seed extract and its saponin fraction in the amelioration of n-STZ diabetic rats.
  2,844 23 3
Isolation, structural characterization and in silico drug-like properties prediction of a natural compound from the ethanolic extract of Cayratia trifolia (L.)
Palanisamy Chella Perumal, Sundaram Sowmya, Prabhakaran Pratibha, Balasubramanian Vidya, Palanirajan Anusooriya, Thangarajan Starlin, Subban Ravi, Velliyur Kanniappan Gopalakrishnan
January-March 2015, 7(1):121-125
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147226  PMID:25598646
Background: Natural products have continually played an important role in drug discovery because it serves as active principles in drugs as well as templates for synthesis of new drugs. Cayratia trifolia (L.) is a medicinal plant, which has been reported to have antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activities. Objective: Therefore, the objective of this study is to isolate and identify the natural compound from the ethanolic extract of Cayratia trifolia (L.) and to predict the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME) properties of isolated natural compound. Materials and Methods: Column chromatography and thin layer chromatography were used to isolate the natural compound and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to predict the functional groups present in the isolated natural compound. The structural characterization studies were functionally carried out using 1 H, 13 C, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry methods. Results: FTIR showed that, the groups of OH, C-H, C = C may be present in the isolated natural compound. 1 H, 13 C, two-dimensional NMR and mass spectrometry data suggests that the isolated natural compound probably like linoleic acid. In silico ADME properties, prediction of the compound was under acceptable range. Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that, the isolated natural compound of linoleic acid that has been exhibited good medicinal properties.
  2,809 27 3
Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activity on Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. Leaf
Richa Gupta, Jagjit Kaur
January-March 2015, 7(1):126-130
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147227  PMID:25598647
Background: Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. is an important medicinal plant of family Boraginaceae. Traditionally, its leaves are used to treat fever, headache, and joint pain but its medicinal activities have not been proven by research. Objective: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of C. dichotoma G. Forst. leaf extract. Material and Methods: The various extracts of leaf powder were prepared by using soxhlet apparatus. The methanol extract was selected for pharmacological study. To evaluate analgesic activity, Eddy's hot plate method, to study anti-inflammatory activity, carageenan-induced rat paw edema method, and to study antipyretic activity, yeast-induced pyrexia method was used. SD female rats (180-200 g) were used for the study. Results: In all three tests, the methanol extract high dose (400 mg/kg) was found to be highly significant as compared to standard drug. Conclusion: This study proved the traditional uses of plant leaves and concluded the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of the leaf methanol extract.
  2,792 34 2
Evaluation of antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Alternanthera brasiliana against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice
Pavan Kumar Samudrala, Bibin Baby Augustine, Eshvendar Reddy Kasala, Lakshmi Narendra Bodduluru, Chandana Barua, Mangala Lahkar
January-March 2015, 7(1):66-73
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147211  PMID:25598637
Objective : The main objective of the present study was to explore the antitumor activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the Alternanthera brasiliana (EAAB) and its antioxidant status against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Based on the preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity studies, EAAB was selected for anti-tumor and antioxidant effects. Anticancer activity of EAAB was evaluated against EAC in Swiss albino mice at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. EAAB was administered for 14 consecutive days after induction of cancer. After 24 h of the last dose and 18 h of fasting, half of the mice were sacrificed and rest were kept alive for assessing any increase in life span. The antitumor effect of EAAB was assessed by evaluating tumor volume, viable and nonviable tumor cell count, tumor weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of EAC bearing host. Furthermore, the antioxidant and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: EAAB treatment has shown significant decrease in tumor volume, viable cell count, tumor weight and elevated the life span of EAC tumor bearing mice in a dose dependent manner. In hematological profile count of RBC, hemoglobin, and WBC were found reverted to normal. EAAB also significantly decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and significantly increased the levels of GSH, SOD and Catalase. Conclusion: From the above results it may be concluded that EAAB has potent dose dependent antitumor activity and is comparable to that of 5-flourouracil.
  2,778 32 3
A novel reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for standardization of Orthosiphon stamineus leaf extracts
Noor Hafizoh Saidan, Abdalrahim F.A. Aisha, Mohd Shahrul Ridzuan Hamil, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Zhari Ismail
January-March 2015, 7(1):23-31
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147195  PMID:25598631
Background: Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lamiaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant which has been used in treating various ailments such as kidney diseases, bladder inflammation, arthritis and diabetes. The leaves contain high concentration of phenolic compounds, thus, rosmarinic acid (RA), 3'-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4'- tetramethoxyflavone (TMF), sinensetin (SIN) and eupatorin (EUP) were chosen as a marker compounds for standardization of various O. stamineus leaf extracts. Objective: The aim was to develop and validate a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for quantification of 4 marker compounds (RA, TMF, SIN, EUP) in various O. stamineus leaf extracts. Materials and Methods: The method was developed and validated using RP-HPLC-diode-array detection at 320 nm for accuracy, precision and limits of detection and was applied for quantification of it markers in five different extracts prepared in solvents with increasing polarity, using a gradient mobile phase 0.1% formic acid: Acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1 ml/min on reverse phase acclaim polar advantage II C18 column (3 μm, 3 × 150 mm) with 18 min separation time. Results: The developed method provided satisfactory precision, and the accuracy of this method was in the range of 90.2% to 105.5%. All of 4 compounds showed good linearity at R2 > 0.999. Conclusion: The developed method is a simple, cost effective with shorter run time (18 min) in comparison to previous methods (30 min) and utilization of environmental-friendly solvents system. Therefore, this method has the potential to replace currently used methods in the routine standardization work of O. stamineus extracts, raw materials and its commercial products.
  2,768 33 2
Acute oral toxicity studies of Swietenia macrophylla seeds in Sprague Dawley rats
Madhu Katyayani Balijepalli, Velan Suppaiah, An-me Chin, Ayuba Sunday Buru, Sreenivasa Rao Sagineedu, Mallikarjuna Rao Pichika
January-March 2015, 7(1):38-44
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147197  PMID:25598633
Background: Swietenia macrophylla King. (Meliaceae) seeds (SMS); commonly known as sky fruit and locally known in Malaysia as Tunjuk Langit; have been used in traditional Malay medicine for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. The people eat only a tiny amount of raw seed, weighing not more than 5 mg. Aim: To evaluate the safety of Swietenia macrophylla seeds (SMS) at a single-dose oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight (bw) in sprague dawley (SD) rats. Materials and Methods: Eight-week old male and female SD rats were administered a single-oral dose of 2g/kg bw. The rats' general behavior, and toxic signs were observed throughout the 14-day study period. The food and water intake by rats and their body weight were monitored during the study period. At the end of the study period, the relative weights of the organs (lung, liver, spleen, heart, kidney, testis, stomach); the hematological and biochemical parameters were measured; the architecture and histology of the organs (liver, kidney and lungs) were observed. Results: Oral administration of SMS to rats did not affect, either food or water intake; relative organ weight of vital organs; the hematological and biochemical parameters; did not show significant changes in the architecture and histology of vital organs. Overall, there were neither signs of toxicity nor deaths recorded during the study period. Conclusion: The rat dose of 2 g/kg bw is equivalent to the human dose of 325 mg/kg bw, which is well below the usual amount consumed by people, did not show any signs of toxicity in rats.
  2,662 37 4
In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of four Alkanna species growing in Iran
Iraj Salimikia, Ali Reza Yazdinezhad, Fereshteh Golfakhrabadi, Hamid Reza Monsef Esfahani
January-March 2015, 7(1):100-104
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147218  PMID:25598642
Background: Medicinal plants are recognized as sources of natural antioxidants that can protect biological system from oxidative stress. Objective: In this study, the antioxidant activities of four species of the Alkanna genus (Alkanna bracteosa, Alkanna frigida, Alkanna orientalis and Alkanna tricophila) were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The dried roots of plant samples (100 g) were extracted separately by percolation method with MeOH/H 2 O (80/20) and four fractions were provided respectively with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antioxidant activities were investigated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid methods and compared with quercetin (as positive control). Results: The results indicated that the butanol fractions of four species had the highest antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity compared with the other fractions studied (P < 0.05). The 50% effective concentration (half - effective doses) values of butanol fractions are less than quercetin and other fractions, so, these fractions showed potent antioxidant activity. This indicated that the active compounds in the root parts of Alkanna species dissolved in the butanol. All the fractions of four species of Alkanna had antioxidant activity, while, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between the total antioxidant activities of same fractions. The total antioxidant activity values of Alkanna fractions in a descending order are as follows: Butanol fraction > ethyl acetate fraction > total extract > hexane fraction > chloroform fraction > aqueous fraction. Conclusion: The antioxidant activities of butanol fractions of samples were higher than quercetin. This may be because most of the active compounds of Alkanna species dissolved in the butanol.
  2,625 32 1
Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (Cupressaceae) grown in R. Macedonia
Floresha Sela, Marija Karapandzova, Gjose Stefkov, Ivana Cvetkovikj, Svetlana Kulevanova
January-March 2015, 7(1):74-80
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147212  PMID:25598638
Background: There are no information of the yield, chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of berries (EOB) or leaves (EOL) of Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (Cupressaceae) growing wild in R. Macedonia. Materials and Methods: Plant material was collected from two localities during two seasons. Essential oil composition was analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC/FID/MS) and antimicrobial screening was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method. Results and Discussion: EOB yield ranged from 1.6-9.4 ml/kg and from 8.9-13.9 ml/kg for EOL. Two chemotypes of essential oil were differentiated, α-pinene-type (with 70.81% α-pinene in EOB and 33.83% in EOL), also containing limonene, β-pinene and β-myrcene while the sabinene-type (with 58.85-62.58% sabinene in EOB and 28.52-29.49% in EOL), was rich in α-pinene, β-myrcene, limonene, cis-thujone, terpinolene and α-thujene. The most sensitive bacteria to the antimicrobial activity of EOB was Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 31 μl/ml). EOL have showed high activity towards: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 μl/ml). The pinene-type of essential oil showed moderate activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium spp. and Campylobacter jejuni (MIC >50%). The sabinene-type of the oil showed moderate activity to Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemopilus influenzae, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli (MIC >50%). No activity was observed toward Candida albicans. Conclusion : The analysis of EOB and EOL revealed two chemotypes (α-pinene and sabinene type) clearly depended on the geographical origin of the Macedonian Juniperus excelsa which also affected the antimicrobial activity of these oils.
  2,516 34 3
Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts
Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa, Shanthi Iyer, Sundara Rajan Subaramaihha, S Austin Richard, Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya
January-March 2015, 7(1):114-120
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147225  PMID:25598645
An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of  gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications. Future work will be interesting in knowing the chemical composition and better understand the mechanism of action of the antioxidants present for development as drug for its therapeutic application.
  2,502 26 2
Effect of Butea monosperma leaf extracts on cyclophosphamide induced clastogenicity and oxidative stress in mice
Amarjeet Singh, Mohanjit Kaur, Adarsh Choudhary, Bimlesh Kumar
January-March 2015, 7(1):85-91
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147215  PMID:25598640
Background: Butea monosperma is a medium sized deciduous tree of family Fabaceae. It is widely used by rural people in India to cure many disorders. It possesses antioxidant and anticancer activity which is a prerequisite for anticlastogenic activity. Objective: To evaluate the effect of Butea monosperma leaf extracts on cyclophosphamide induced clastogenicity and oxidative stress in mice. Materials and Methods: The present study assessed the role of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of B. monosperma (AQEBM and ETEBM) on cyclophosphamide (CP) induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in mice using micronucleus assay for anticlastogenic activity and biochemical estimation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) for antioxidant activity. The frequency of the micronucleated erythrocytes and mitotic index was studied in peripheral blood and bone marrow after 24 and 48 h of clastogenic exposure. Results: CP treatment led to a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the frequency of micronuclei and decrease in the mitotic index (MI) in bone marrow and peripheral blood cells. Moreover, CP also significantly increased the lipid peroxidation as evidenced by an increase in the MDA content and decreased the antioxidant enzyme (GSH) in mice liver. Pretreatment with AQEBM and ETEBM reduced the frequency of micronuclei and increased the MI in the bone marrow and peripheral blood cells and also restored the MDA and GSH levels in mice liver. Conclusion: The AQEBM and ETEBM do contain compounds capable of inhibiting the CP induced oxidative stress and subsequent DNA damage in both the peripheral blood and bone marrow cells in mice.
  2,457 19 1
The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO 2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method
Hossein Kamali, Noushin Aminimoghadamfarouj, Ebrahim Golmakani, Alireza Nematollahi
January-March 2015, 7(1):57-65
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147209  PMID:25598636
Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Materials and Methods: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique. Results: Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5° C , 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2° C , 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic). Conclusion: The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO 2 /g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method.
  2,352 29 2
Cycloolivil, a lignan from the roots of Stereospermum suaveolens
B Abdul wahab Sab, Janani Jacob, Gururaja Giligar Manjunath, Vineet Kumar Singh, Deepak Mundkinajeedu, Shashidhara Shankarappa
January-March 2015, 7(1):45-48
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147198  PMID:25598634
Background: Stereospermum suaveolens DC. (Syn. S. chelonoides) belonging to family Bignoniaceae is an important medicinal plant in India. Traditionally, it is mainly used as analgesic, liver stimulant, astringent, wound healing and antidyspeptic. Roots of this plant are one of the ingredients of Dashamularishta. The plant has been studied for many pharmacological actions, only few were concerned with isolation of active compounds. Objective: The present work deals with the isolation and identification of phytochemical constituents present in the roots of Stereospermum suaveolens. Material and Methods: The compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from the methanol extract of S. suaveolens by using open silica gel column chromatography and HPLC was carried out for all the fractions to target the major peaks in fractions. Results and Conclusion: The isolated compounds structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data (UV, IR, 1D-NMR, and MS) and characterized as Cycloolivil (1) reported for the first time from this plant species, Lapachol (2) and β-sitosterol (3), respectively.
  2,141 24 -
Evaluation of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites for anthelmintic activity
ML Vijaya Kumar, B Thippeswamy, IL Kuppust, KJ Naveenkumar, CK Shivakumar
January-March 2015, 7(1):81-84
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147213  PMID:25598639
Objective: To assess the anthelmintic acivity of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites. Materials and Methods: The successive solvent extractions with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The solvent extracts were tested for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma at 20 mg/ml concentration. The time of paralysis and time of death of the worms was determined for all the extracts. Albendazole was taken as a standard reference and sterile water as a control. Results: All the sample extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity in paralyzing the worms comparable with that of the standard drug. The time of death exhibited by BP metabolites was close to the time exhibited by standard. Conclusion: The study indicates both bacteria Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus have anthelmintic activity indicating potential metabolites in them.
  2,060 21 -