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   2014| October-December  | Volume 6 | Issue 4  
    Online since August 6, 2014

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Antihyperlipidemic potential of Albizia amara (Roxb) Boiv. bark against Triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemic condition in rats
Rohit Gundamaraju, Kim Kah Hwi, Rajeev K Singla, Ravi Chandra Vemuri, Sartaj Banu Mulapalli
October-December 2014, 6(4):267-273
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.138237  PMID:25276061
Background: The plant Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. bark was used in traditional medical practices of India to treat cardiovascular diseases. Hyperlipidemia is the greatest risk factor of coronary heart disease. Objective: The objective of this study was to screen the potential of A. amara against the condition of hyperlipidemia in rats. Materials and Methods: The antihyperlipidemic activity of A. amara ethanolic extract (AAEE) was studied on Triton X-100 induced model of hyperlipidemia in rats. Hyperlipidemia in experimental rats was evidenced by an enhancement in the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL (VLDL) and decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL). Results: AAEE showed significant antihyperlipidemic effect by lowering the serum levels of biochemical parameters such as a significant reduction in the level of serum cholesterol, TG (104.1 ± 3.39), LDL (48.2 ± 2.19), VLDL (20.81 ± 0.67) and increase in HDL (47.25 ± 2.05) level with an increase in a dose of AAEE (41.39 ± 1.24) < (47.25 ± 2.05), which was similar to the standard drug atorvastatin. The results of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase also revealed that the plant extract was found to be safe on liver. Histopathological evaluation also revealed the positive effect of the plant extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phytoconstituents such as saponins, glycosides and tannins. The preliminary chemical constituents stood as a strong evidence for the study. Conclusion: Summing up the evidences of the pragmatic study, we can conclude that the extract of A. amara (Roxb.) Boiv. Bark aids in declining the condition of hyperlipidemia in rats.
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Anticancer potential of Syzygium aromaticum L. in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines
Parvinnesh S Kumar, Raden M Febriyanti, Ferry F Sofyan, Dimas E Luftimas, Rizky Abdulah
October-December 2014, 6(4):350-354
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.138291  PMID:25276075
Background: The common treatment for cancer is unfavorable because it causes many detrimental side effects, and lately, there has been a growing resistance toward anticancer drugs, which worsens the future of cancer treatment. Therefore, the focus has now shifted toward natural products, such as spices and plants, among many others, to save the future of cancer treatment. Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum L.) are spices with the highest antioxidant content among natural products. Besides acting as an antioxidant, cloves also possess many other functions, such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiseptic, which makes them an ideal natural source to be developed as an anticancer agent. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of cloves toward MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of water extract, ethanol extract, and essential oil of cloves were investigated for their anticancer potential in vitro through a brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT) and an MTT assay. Results: In both BSLT and MTT assays, the essential oil showed the highest cytotoxic effect, followed by ethanol and water extract. The LD 50 concentration of essential oil in the 24 hours BSLT was 37 μg/mL. Furthermore, the IC 50 values in the 24 hours and 48 hours MTT assays of the essential oil were 36.43 μg/mL and 17.6 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Cloves are natural products with excellent cytotoxicity toward MCF-7 cells; thus, they are promising sources for the development of anticancer agents.
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Evaluation of the efficacy of 2% curcumin gel in the treatment of experimental periodontitis
Rajesh Ramesh Hosadurga, SN Rao, Jobin Jose, Narayana Charyulu Rompicharla, Moidin Shakil, R Shashidhara
October-December 2014, 6(4):326-333
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.138287  PMID:25276071
Context: Local drug delivery (LDD) systems have been proposed for the treatment of periodontitis. Curcumin could be a suitable agent as LDD for the treatment of periodontitis. Aim: To formulate, evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity and to assess the duration of the action and the efficacy of 2% curcumin gel in the treatment of experimental periodontitis in Wistar albino rat model. Settings and Design: Twenty-one Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to three groups. Periodontitis was induced using ligature model. Group 1: Control; group 2: Plain gel, and group 3: 2% curcumin gel. Materials and Methods: About 2% curcumin gel was prepared. The anti-inflammatory activity and duration of action was assessed. Silk ligature 5-0 was used to induce periodontitis. Gingival index (GI) and probing pocket depth (PPD) were measured. Treatment was done. The rats were sacrificed. Morphometric analysis was performed using stereomicroscope and ImageJ software. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni's test, Wilcoxon's test for inter-group comparison, Mann-Whitney test for P value computation was used. The observations are mean ± standard deviation and standard error of the mean. P < 0.01 when compared to control was considered as statistically significant. Results: About 2% curcumin gel showed 42.98% inhibition of edema and peak activity was noted at 24 h. There was statistically significant change in the GI and PPD. Morphometric analysis did not show any significant difference between groups. No toxic effects were seen on oral administration of 2000 mg/kg of curcumin. Conclusions: About 2% curcumin gel was effective in the treatment of experimental periodontitis.
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Phytochemical screening and anti-inflammatory activity of Cnidoscolus quercifolius (Euphorbiaceae) in mice
Leandra Macedo de Araujo Gomes, Thayne Mayra Dantas de Andrade, Juliane Cabral Silva, Julianeli Tolentino de Lima, Lucindo Jose Quintans-Junior, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida
October-December 2014, 6(4):345-349
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.138290  PMID:25276074
Background: Cnidoscolus quercifolius is a species popularly known as "favela" and "faveleira", and belonging to the Caatinga biome (semi-arid vegetation, Brazil), where is used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolic extract from barks (Cqb-EtOH) and leaves (Cql-EtOH) of C. quercifolius in mice using experimental models of inflammation. Materials and Methods: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract was performed. The activity was evaluated by paw edema induced by carrageenan and leukocytes migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by carrageenan methods. Results: A preliminary analysis of Cqb-EtOH revealed that it contained coumarins, flavonoids, monoterpenes/diterpenes and naphthoquinones, while the Cql-EtOH showed positive reaction to coumarins, anthracene derivatives, flavonoids, lignans and triterpenes/steroids. Cqb-EtOH and Cql-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) inhibited significantly (P < 0.01) the increase in the edema volume after administration of carrageenan. In the peritonitis test, acute pretreatment with Cqb-EtOH and Cql-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) inhibited the leukocyte migration. Conclusions: It can be concluded that extracts from the barks and leaves of C. quercifolius have anti-inflammatory activity, which supports the popular use of this plant to treat inflammation. Thus, extracts has significant anti-inflammatory properties, which are related probably to inhibition of release of mediators of the inflammatory process.
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Ameliorative effect of Phytocee™ Cool against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress
Joshua Allan Joseph, Usha Parackal Thachappully Ayyappan, Suja Rani Sasidharan, Sridhar Mutyala, Krishnagouda Shankargouda Goudar, Amit Agarwal
October-December 2014, 6(4):320-325
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.138284  PMID:25276070
Background: Antioxidants from natural sources have a major role in reversing the effects of oxidative stress and promoting health, growth and productivity in animals. Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the possible antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of Phytocee Cool on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) induced oxidative stress and liver damage in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were pretreated with Phytocee Cool for 10 days and were challenged with CCl 4 (1:1 v/v) in olive oil on the 10 th day. After 24 h of CCl 4 administration blood was collected and markers of hepatocellular damage aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were evaluated. Rats were sacrificed and oxidative stress in liver was estimated using malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Results: CCl 4 caused a significant increase in serum AST, ALT, hepatic MDA and GSH levels, whereas the SOD and catalase activities were decreased. Phytocee Cool pretreatment attenuated the MDA, AST ALT levels and increased the activities of SOD and catalase. Conclusion: Phytocee Cool demonstrated antioxidant potential and hepatoprotective effects and plausibly be used in the amelioration of oxidative stress.
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Antiallergic effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Pistia stratiotes in murine model of ovalbumin-induced allergic conjunctivitis
Samuel Abokyi, George Asumeng Koffuor, Samuel Kyei, Emmanuel A Asiamah, Clement Nsobire Atobiga, Agnes Awuah
October-December 2014, 6(4):274-279
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.138243  PMID:25276062
Aim: The aim was to investigate the antiallergic effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Pistia stratiotes (ALPS) in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic conjunctivitis (AC). Materials and Methods: Prior to topical challenge (instillation of 1.5 mg OVA in 10 μL phosphate buffered saline into their conjunctival sacs) to induce AC, groups of sensitized Imprinting Control Region mice (injected IP, on day 1 and 7, with 0.2 ml solution of 100 μg OVA and 0.01 mg aluminum hydroxide in phosphate buffered saline), were treated with 5 mg/kg cetirizine, 10, 50 or 100 mg/kg of ALPS, or 2 ml/kg normal saline per os. Conjunctival redness, lid edema, tearing and lid scratching (clinical symptoms of AC) were scored. Serum OVA specific immunoglobulins were determined using ELISA. Histopathological assessment of the conjunctival mucosal tissue was conducted. The extract was screened for secondary plant metabolites. Results: Pretreatment with the extract significantly (P ≤ 0.05-0.01) and dose-dependently reduced the scores for clinical symptoms, which were marked in vehicle-pretreated mice. Pretreatment also lowered (P ≤ 0.01-0.001) serum OVA specific immunoglobulins. Mast cell infiltration and degranulation in conjunctival stroma (measured by an inflammatory score) in histopathological studies was also significantly low (P ≤ 0.05-0.01) on pretreatment. Conclusion: The ALPS exhibited interesting antiallergic activity and hence could be useful in managing AC.
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Effect of licorice versus bismuth on eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with peptic ulcer disease
Ali Momeni, Ghorbanali Rahimian, Abass Kiasi, Masoud Amiri, Soleiman Kheiri
October-December 2014, 6(4):341-344
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.138289  PMID:25276073
Background: Different therapeutic regimens were used for eradication of Helicobacter pylori, based on the cost, effectiveness and patient's compliance. The aim of this study was the evaluation of licorice compared with bismuth in quadruple regimen on eradication of H. pylori in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Materials and Methods: In a double-blind clinical trial study, 60 patients with PUD and positive rapid urease test were enrolled. The patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups. In first group, licorice, amoxicillin, metronidazole and omeprazole and in the second (control) group, bismuth subsalicylate, amoxicillin, metronidazole and omeprazole were prescribed respectively, and 4 weeks after treatment, in order to evaluate H. pylori eradication, urea breath test was done in all patients. The outcome of the study was the preference usage of licorice as an effective medication for H. pylori eradication. Results: Mean age of the patients in the control and case groups were 40.8 ± 15.5 and 42.2 ± 15.8 years, respectively (P = 0.726). Seventeen (56.7%) patients in control group and 16 (53.3%) in the case group were female (P = 0.795). Both groups were similar based on frequency of gastric or duodenal ulcer. Response to treatment were seen in 20 (67%) and 17 (57%) patients of case and control groups, respectively (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Our study showed that licorice is as effective as bismuth in H. pylori eradication; therefore, in patients whom bismuth is contraindicated, licorice can be used safely instead.
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Novel strategies for optimized delivery of select components of Allium sativum
Avinash G Phadatare, Vivek Viswanathan, Alka Mukne
October-December 2014, 6(4):334-340
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.138288  PMID:25276072
Background: Garlic (Allium sativum) has been known to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities which are attributed mainly to the organosulfur compounds present in it. Allicin and garlic oil, components obtained from garlic, have been explored and found to be biologically active on various fronts. Allicin is known to have major stability issues due to rapid degradation even at low temperatures, whereas garlic oil, being lipophilic, shows poor bioavailability after oral administration. Objective: To develop novel strategies for optimum delivery of allicin and garlic oil so as to achieve effective availability in the physiological system. Materials and Methods: Garlic cloves were lyophilized to obtain allicin-releasing garlic powder (ARGP). This powder was analyzed spectrophotometrically and was used to formulate buccal tablets. Garlic oil was obtained by hydrodistillation of garlic cloves and analyzed by gas chromatography. Self-nanoemulsifying systems (SNS) containing garlic oil were prepared using suitable surfactants and cosurfactants. The SNS were adsorbed on Aerosil 200 and filled in hard gelatin capsules. Both the formulations were suitably evaluated. Results: Buccal tablets containing ARGP showed satisfactory physical parameters as well as in vitro drug release, mucoadhesive strength, moisture uptake capacity and drug content. Evaluation of capsules containing SNS of garlic oil also gave satisfactory results. The adsorbed SNS when dispersed in water formed nanoemulsions. Conclusion: Buccal tablets as well as capsules containing garlic oil SNS provide promising strategies to overcome the difficulties associated with formulation of allicin and garlic oil.
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Antiproliferative effects of Plumbago rosea and its purified constituent plumbagin on SK-MEL 28 melanoma cell lines
Alexander Ronaldo Anuf, Rajesh Ramachandran, Rajaram Krishnasamy, PS Sudhakar Gandhi, Sureshkumar Periyasamy
October-December 2014, 6(4):312-319
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.138280  PMID:25276069
Background: Plumbago rosea is used in traditional systems of medicine for the preparation of formulations used for treating inflammations, cough, bronchitis, and gastrointestinal disorders, and also in conjunction with cancer chemotherapy. In the present study, the cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects of plumbagin, and the ethanolic root extract of P. rosea (ETPR) was evaluated on SK-MEL 28 melanoma cell lines and human lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: MTT and apoptotic assays were used for the evaluation of cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects, respectively. In addition, the effect of Plumbagin and ETPR in down regulation of BCL-2 expression is investigated using RT-PCR analysis. Results: Both plumbagin and ETPR dose-dependently decreased the cell viability more potently in melanoma cell lines. P. rosea extract demonstrated significant synergy in inhibiting BCL-2 expression than plumbagin. Moreover plumbagin showed more toxicity in human lymphocytes. Conclusion: Plumbagin has anti-cancer potential, but the side effects limits its use; yet plumbagin, in combination with other ingredients in Plumbago rosea extract, displays significant synergy leading to a stronger anticancer effect with significantly less toxicity.
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A Study of the Protective Effect of Triticum aestivum L. in an Experimental Animal Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Mukundam Borah, Phulen Sarma, Swarnamoni Das
October-December 2014, 6(4):285-291
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.138251  PMID:25276064
Background: Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Keeping in view the proven antioxidant activity of Triticum aestivum L., this study has been undertaken to explore the potential therapeutic benefit of this plant in the treatment of CFS. Objective: To study the protective effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Triticum aestivum (EETA) in an experimental mice model of CFS. Materials and Methods: Five groups of albino mice (20-25 g) were selected for the study, with five animals in each group. Group A served as the naïve control and Group B served as the stressed control. Groups C and D received EETA (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w.). Group E received imipramine (20 mg/kg b.w.). Except for Group A, mice in each group were forced to swim 6 min each for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was measured on every alternate day. After 7 days, various behavioral tests (mirror chamber and elevated plus maize test for anxiety, open field test for locomotor activity) and biochemical estimations (malondialdehyde [MDA] and catalase activity) in mice brain were performed. Results: Forced swimming in the stressed group resulted in a significant increase in immobility period, decrease in locomotor activity and elevated anxiety level. The brain homogenate showed significantly increased MDA and decreased catalase levels. The extract-treated groups showed significantly (P < 0.05) improved locomotor activity, decreased anxiety level, elevated catalase levels and reduction of MDA. Conclusion: The study confirms the protective effects of EETA in CFS.
  1 2,557 29
Amelioration of insulin resistance by Rk 1 + Rg 5 complex under endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions
Shree Priya Ponnuraj, Fayeza Siraj, Sera Kang, Hae Yong Noh, Jin-Woo Min, Yeon-Ju Kim, Deok-Chun Yang
October-December 2014, 6(4):292-296
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.138257  PMID:25276065
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome exaggerated by stress conditions. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) impairs the insulin signaling pathway making the diabetic conditions worsen. Pharmacological agents are supplied externally to overcome this malfunction. Ginsenosides from Panax ginseng C.A Meyer possesses many pharmacological properties and are used for the treatment of diabetes. Objective: To investigate the effects of the Rk 1 +Rg 5 complex on the amelioration of insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 cells under endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions. Materials and Methods: Heat-processed ginseng extracts are found to contain many pharmacologically active ginsenosides. Among them Rk 1 +Rg 5 is found to be present in higher concentrations than the other minor ginsenosides. The Rk 1 +Rg 5 complex was tested for its effect in the 3T3-L1 insulin-resistant model and subjected to the MTT assay, glucose oxidase assay and gene expression studies using RT-PCR and real-time PCR under endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions. Results: Rk 1 +Rg 5 treatment is found to increase the glucose uptake into the cells when compared to that of a positive control (tunicamycin treatment group, TM). Further we have analyzed the role at gene expression level. The Rk 1 +Rg 5 complex was found to show an effect on the IGF 2R receptor, CHOP-10, and C/EBP gene at a particular treated concentration (50 μM). Moreover, stress condition (about 50% decreases) was overcome by the ginsenoside treatments at 50 μM. Conclusion: The present results showed that under endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions Rk 1 +Rg 5 complex exhibits a potential protective role in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 cells.
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Effects of L-citrulline diet on stress-induced cold hypersensitivity in mice
Yoshinori Kobayashi, Kazuki Narita, Kotaro Chiba, Hiroaki Takemoto, Masahiko Morita, Koji Morishita
October-December 2014, 6(4):297-302
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.138269  PMID:25276066
Background: L-citrulline is an amino acid discovered in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, Cucurbitaceae) and is a known component of the nitric oxide (NO) cycle that plays an important role in adjusting blood circulation and supplying NO and a key component of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of L-citrulline on a newly established stress-induced cold hypersensitivity mouse model. Materials and Methods: When normal mice were forced to swim in water at 25°C for 15 min, their core body temperature dropped to 28.9°C, and then quickly recovered to normal temperature after the mice were transferred to a dry cage at room temperature (25°C). A 1-h immobilization before swimming caused the core body temperature to drop to ca. 24.1°C (4.8°C lower than normal mice), and the speed of core body temperature recovery dropped to 57% of the normal control. We considered this delay in recovery from hypothermia to be a sign of stress-induced cold hypersensitivity. Similar cold hypersensitivity was induced by administration of 50 mM L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester, a NO synthesis inhibitor. Results: In this study, we showed that recovery speed from the stress-induced hypothermia remarkably improved in mice fed a 1% L-citrulline-containing diet for 20 days. Furthermore, the nonfasting blood level of L-arginine and L-citrulline increased significantly in the L-citrulline diet group, and higher serum nitrogen oxide levels were observed during recovery from the cold. Conclusions: These results suggested that oral L-citrulline supplementation strengthens vascular endothelium function and attenuates stress-induced cold hypersensitivity by improving blood circulation.
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Anticancer Active Homoisoflavone from the Underground Bulbs of Ledebouria hyderabadensis
Yakaiah Chinthala, Srinivas Chinde, Arigari Niranjana kumar, K.V.N. Satya Srinivas, Jonnala Kotesh Kumar, Kakaraparthy Pandu Sastry, Paramjit Grover, M Venkat Ramana
October-December 2014, 6(4):303-305
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.138272  PMID:25276067
Background: Ledebouria is a genus of deciduous or weakly evergreen bulbs in the Hyacinthaceae family. This is recognized as the first collection made of the new taxon Ledebouria hyderabadensis, exist in the Hyderabad city of Andhra Pradesh, India. Objective: The goal of this work was to investigate the phytochemical constituents present in the new specifies and also to evaluate the cytotoxic properties of the extracts and pure compounds against human cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The anticancer activity was evaluated in in vitro mode by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test. Results: Phytochemical investigation of underground bulbs of indigenous, rare, and recently identified herb L. hyderabadensis yielded a bioactive homoisoflavanone, Scillascillin 1. The structure of the compound was established on the basis of various nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectral data. The compound Scillascillin was isolated for the first time from L. hyderabadensis. In vitro anticancer activity, performed using MTT assay, showed compound 1 as significantly active against human cancer cell lines MCF-7 (breast cancer) and DU-145 (prostate cancer) with inhibitory concentration (IC) 50 values 9.59 and 11.32 μg/ml respectively when compared with herb methanol extract (IC 50 values 36.21 and 44.86 μg/ml respectively).
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A comparative study of the effect of some nutritional medicinal plants effect on lead accumulation in the liver following different modes of administration
Chukwuemeka Nwokocha, Novie Younger-Coleman, Magdalene Nwokocha, Daniel Owu, Moses Iwuala
October-December 2014, 6(4):306-311
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.138278  PMID:25276068
Context and Objectives: Lead (Pb) toxicity leads to cell damage in many organs of the body. Using different treatment interventions and modes of administration we comparatively examined the protective ability of some medicinal plants on liver Pb accumulation. Materials and Methods: Rats were fed on either 7% w/w Zingiber officinale, 7% w/w Allium sativum, 10% w/w Lycopersicon esculentum, 5%, w/w Garcinia kola (all in rat chow), while Pb (100 ppm) was given in drinking water. The additives were administered together with (mode 1), a week after exposure to (mode 2) or a week before metal exposure to (mode 3) the metal for a period of 6 weeks. The metal accumulations in the liver were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry and compared using analysis of variance. Results: Some additives significantly (P < 0.05) reduced, while others enhanced Pb accumulation. Mode 2 yielded the highest mean % protection and mode 3 the lowest, no significant interaction between modes of administration and time of measurement in their relationships to percentage protection, but there was statistically significant (P < 0.05) interaction between modes of administration and additive used in their relationships to percentage protection. Conclusion: Protective effects of medicinal plants are varied and depend on the nature of lead exposure.
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Antimalarial activity of Malaysian Plectranthus amboinicus against Plasmodium berghei
Norazsida Ramli, Pakeer Oothuman Syed Ahamed, Hassan Mohamed Elhady, Muhammad Taher
October-December 2014, 6(4):280-284
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.138248  PMID:25276063
Context: Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by parasitic protozoa from the genus of Plasmodium. The protozoans have developed resistance against many of current drugs. It is urgent to find an alternative source of new antimalarial agent. In the effort to discover new antimalarial agents, this research has been conducted on Plectranthus amboinicus. Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity and antiplasmodial properties of P. amboinicus. Materials and Methods: Acute oral toxicity dose at 5000 mg/kg was conducted to evaluate the safety of this extract. Twenty mice were divided into control and experimental group. All the mice were observed for signs of toxicity, mortality, weight changes and histopathological changes. Antimalarial activity of different extract doses of 50, 200, 400 and 1000 mg/kg were tested in vivo against Plasmodium berghei infections in mice (five mice for each group) during early, established and residual infections. Results: The acute oral toxicity test revealed that no mortality or evidence of adverse effects was seen in the treated mice. The extract significantly reduced the parasitemia by the 50 (P = 0.000), 200 (P = 0.000) and 400 mg/kg doses (P = 0.000) in the in vivo prophylactic assay. The percentage chemo-suppression was calculated as 83.33% for 50 mg/kg dose, 75.62% for 200 mg/kg dose and 90.74% for 400 mg/kg dose. Body weight of all treated groups; T1, T2, T3 and T4 also showed enhancement after 7 days posttreatment. Statistically no reduction of parasitemia calculated for curative and suppressive test. Conclusion: Thus, this extract may give a promising agent to be used as a prophylactic agent of P. berghei infection.
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