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   2014| April-June  | Volume 6 | Issue 2  
    Online since March 18, 2014

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Anticarcinogenic effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its ingredients
Saeed Samarghandian, Abasalt Borji
April-June 2014, 6(2):99-107
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.128963  PMID:24761112
Conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reversing the outcome of cancer diseases to any drastic extent, which has led researchers to investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is the raw material for one of the most expensive spice in the world, and it has been used in folk medicine for centuries . Chemical analysis has shown the presence of more than 150 components in saffron stigmas. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients, possible mechanisms for these activities are discussed. More direct evidence of anticancer effectiveness of saffron as chemo-preventive agent may come from trials that use actual reduction of cancer incidence as the primary endpoint. This review discusses recent literature data and our results on the cancer chemopreventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative study of antidiabetic activity of Cajanus cajan and Tamarindus indica in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with a reference to in vitro antioxidant activity
Laizuman Nahar, Fatema Nasrin, Ronok Zahan, Anamul Haque, Ekramul Haque, Ashik Mosaddik
April-June 2014, 6(2):180-187
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.129043  PMID:24761124
Background: Oxidative stress not only develops complications in diabetic (type 1 and type 2) but also contributes to beta cell destruction in type 2 diabetes in insulin resistance hyperglycemia. Glucose control plays an important role in the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Some antidiabetic agents may by themselves have antioxidant properties independently of their role on glucose control. Objective: The present investigation draws a comparison of the protective antioxidant activity, total phenol content and the antihyperglycemic activity of the methanolic extract of Cajanus cajan root (MCC) and Tamarindus indica seeds (MTI). Materials and Methods: Antidiabetic potentials of the plant extracts were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss albino mice. The plant extracts at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was orally administered for glucose tolerance test during 1-hour study and hypoglycemic effect during 5-day study period in comparison with reference drug Metformin HCl (50 mg/kg). In vitro antioxidant potential of MCC and MTI was investigated by using 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity at 517 nm. Total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power activity was also assayed. Results: There was a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose level (P < 0.001), reduction in blood glucose level (P < 0.001) in 5-days study, observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The reduction efficacy of blood glucose level of both the extracts is proportional to their dose but MCC is more potent than MTI. Antioxidant study and quantification of phenolic compound of both the extracts revealed that they have high antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: These studies showed that MCC and MTI have both hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential but MCC is more potent than MTI. The present study suggests that both MCC and MTI could be used in managing oxidative stress.
  3,166 30 4
Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats
Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo, Subhangkar Nandy, Aswini Kumar Senapati, Sarada Prasad Sarangi, Saroj Kumar Sahoo
April-June 2014, 6(2):120-126
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.129029  PMID:24761115
Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) were administered orally to rats (n = 6 animals per group) for 3 weeks. Mating behavior parameters in male rats was monitored in first week and third week week of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment, the mating performance, hormonal analysis, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio were also evaluated. Results: The polyherbal formulation showed a significant increase in mating behavior as well as mating performance, serum hormonal levels, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio with dose-dependent relationship as compared to vehicle control. But the dose of 600 mg/kg of polyherbal formulation assumes closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. Conclusion: The results of the study strongly suggest that the polyherbal formulations have a good aphrodisiac activity on rats in the above experimental models, which may be an alternative weapon for various sexual dysfunctions in future.
  2,925 25 3
The effect of 30% ethanolic extract of Indian propolis on replica of human dentin compared against commercially available desensitizing agent: A methodological SEM study in vitro
Sudhir Hongal, Nilesh Arjun Torwane, Pankaj Goel, Byarakele Chandrashekar
April-June 2014, 6(2):113-119
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.129026  PMID:24761114
Objective: This study evaluated the ability of 30% ethanolic extract of Indian propolis on dentinal tubule occlusion comparatively against CPP-ACP containing desensitizing agent GC tooth mousse. Methodology: The specimens were prepared from 30 freshly extracted sound human third molars stored in 10% formalin (pH 7.0) at a room temperature. From each specimen, a sectioned sample (5 mm length × 5 mm width × 3.5 mm depth) was obtained including the cervical area. Samples were smoothened and wet-polished with 1000- and 1200-grit aluminum oxide abrasive paper and diamond pastes, in order to stimulate the clinical aspect of hypersensitive dentin cervical surfaces. All the specimens were randomly assigned to three groups (n = 10), according to dentin surface treatments. Negative control: Untreated specimens (n = 4) and pretreated with 6% citric acid (n = 6); Test Group: 30% ethanolic extract of Indian propolis (n = 10); Positive Group: GC Tooth Mousse (n =10). All the specimens were prepared for SEM analysis. Results: GC tooth mousse promoted tubule occlusion by crystal-like deposits in the lumen of the tubules. While propolis created a thin, smooth layer over dentin surface. Conclusion: According to the SEM analysis, both desensitizing agent were able to occlude the dentinal tubules.
  2,738 44 3
Pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid effect on hepatic biomarkers in Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis
Krishna Mohan Surapaneni, Mallika Jainu
April-June 2014, 6(2):153-162
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.129037  PMID:24761121
Background: Non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), severe form of diseases belonging to the spectrum of the Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It is an asymptomatic disease which leads to fibrosis and finally to cirrhosis, an end stage liver disease. Objective: To study the effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on hepatic biomarkers and various biochemical parameters in experimentally induced non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Materials and Methods: Male Wister rats were divided into 8 groups. The activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and γ-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) were assayed in serum. The levels of various other biochemical parameters such as serum albumin, total bilirubin, creatinine, urea, uric acid and glucose were also estimated in experimental NASH. Results: The NASH group produced severe liver injury by significantly increasing the serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and LDH compared with that of the control. However, the experimental NASH rats treated with pioglitazone, with quercetin and with hydroxy citric acid showed an obvious decrease in ALT, AST, GGT and LDH levels when compared with that of NASH induced group. A significant increase in the levels of albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, glucose and total bilirubin was noticed in experimentally induced NASH group (group 2) when compared to rats in control group (group 1). Conclusion: It could be inferred from this study that, pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid may afford protection to the liver against NASH, as evidenced by the results of this study on the levels of various biochemical parameters such as glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin. Whereas from the results of hepatic marker enzymes, it is evident that optimal protection was observed after quercetin treatment against experimental NASH whereas pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid also confers protection to some extent against NASH.
  2,313 25 6
Presence of monoterpene synthase in four Labiatae species and Solid-Phase Microextraction- Gas chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy analysis of their aroma profiles
Soodabeh Saeidnia, Ahmad Reza Gohari, Azita Haddadi, Gholamreza Amin, Marjan Nikan, Abbass Hadjiakhoondi
April-June 2014, 6(2):138-142
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.129033  PMID:24761118
Background: The family Lamiaceae (Labiatae) has included some medicinal plants. some monoterpene synthases, including linalool and limonene synthases, have been cloned and functionally characterized from several plants of Labiatae family. Materials and Methods: In this study, presence of linalool and limonene synthases, in four species of Labiatae family including Nepeta cataria, Lavandula angustifolia, Hyssopus officinalis and Salvia sclarea has been determined by molecular biological techniques together with the Head space SPME - GC-MS analysis of the aroma profile of these species. Results: Indicated that none of the plant species produced distinguishable bands with primer pairs related to d-limonene synthase. Distinguishable bands around 1800 bp in cDNA samples of L. angustifolia, H. officinalis and S. sclarea were observed regarding to the presence of linalool synthase. Head space SPME-GC-MS analysis of the aroma profiles of the above-mentioned plants showed that linalool (31.0%), linalyl acetate (18.2%), were found as the major compounds of L. angustifolia, while geraniol (5.5%), nerol (34.0%) and α- citral (52.0%) were identified as the main compounds of the N. cataria. The major components of H. officinalis and S. sclarea oils were determined as cis-pinocamphone (57.3%), and linalool (19.0%), linalyl acetate (51.5%), respectively. Conclusion: H. officinalis was rich of cyclic monoterpenes, L. angustifolia, N. cataria and S. sclarea showed considerable amount of linear monoterpenes. The aroma profile of the above-mentioned plants contained low concentration of sesquiterpenes except N. cataria, which indicated no sesquiterpene. The profiles of the main components of these plants are in agreement with molecular assays.
  2,232 22 2
Evaluation of antiepileptic activity of chloroform extract of Acalypha fruticosa in mice
Sumalatha Govindu, Sreedevi Adikay
April-June 2014, 6(2):108-112
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.128970  PMID:24761113
Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antiepileptic activity of chloroform extract of aerial parts of Acalypha fruticosa in mice. Materials and Methods: The antiepileptic activity of chloroform extract of A. fruticosa at the doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. was evaluated by maximum electroshock (MES), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and isoniazid (INH)-induced convulsions in mice. Statistical analysis was carried out by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: In MES method, the chloroform extract significantly protected the mice from convulsions induced by electroshock method in a dose-dependent manner and exhibited more activity at the dose of 300 mg/kg when compared with diazepam treated animals. In PTZ method, the extract inhibited convulsions in mice potent than phenobarbitone sodium. In INH method, it delayed the latency of convulsions in mice in a dose-dependent manner but failed to protect the mice against mortality. Conclusion: The chloroform extract exhibited significant and dose-dependent antiepileptic activity, which may be due to the presence of antioxidant principles like flavanoids.
  2,231 21 2
Anti-allodynic and Anti-hyperalgesic effects of an ethanolic extract and xylopic acid from the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica in murine models of neuropathic pain
Elvis O Ameyaw, Eric Woode, Eric Boakye-Gyasi, Wonder K.M Abotsi, James Oppong Kyekyeku, Reimmel K Adosraku
April-June 2014, 6(2):172-179
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.129041  PMID:24761123
Background: Fruit extracts of Xylopia aethiopica are used traditionally in the management of pain disorders including headache and neuralgia. An animal model of vincristine-induced sensory neuropathy was developed after repeated intraperitoneal injection in rats and used in the present work to study the effects of the ethanolic extract of X. aethiopica (XAE) and its diterpene xylopic acid (XA) in vincristine-induced neuropathic pain. Materials and Methods: Vincristine (0.1 mg kg -1 day -1 ) was administered during two cycles of five consecutive days to induce chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Static tactile anti-allodynic, anti-hyperalgesic, and cold anti-allodynic effects of XAE (30-300 mg kg -1 ) and XA (10-100 mg kg -1 ) were assessed using Von Frey filaments of bending forces of 4, 8, and 15 g, the Randall-Selitto paw pressure test, and cold water (4.5°C), respectively. Results: Administration of vincristine caused the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia with no significant motor deficit, spontaneous pain, and foot deformity. XAE (30-300 mg kg -1 ) and XA (10-100 mg kg -1 ) exhibited anti-hyperalgesic, tactile, and cold anti-allodynic properties with XA exhibiting greater potency than XAE. Pregabalin (10-100 mg kg -1 ) used as control produced similar effect. Conclusion: These findings establish the anti-allodynic and anti-hyperalgesic effects of the ethanolic fruit XAE and its major diterpene XA in vincristine-induced neuropathtic pain.
  2,132 23 6
Margaritaria discoidea (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark extract attenuates allergy and Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rodents
David D Obiri, Newman Osafo, Joshua Oppong-Sarfo, Jude K Prah
April-June 2014, 6(2):163-171
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.129039  PMID:24761122
Background: Various parts of Margaritaria discoidea find use in traditional medicine in the treatment of pain and oedema. This study evaluated the anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic effects of a 70% (v/v) aqueous ethanol extract of the stem bark of Margaritaria discoidea, MDE in rodents. Materials and Methods: Systemic anaphylaxis was induced by the injection of compound 48/80 into mice and their survival rate was monitored to evaluate the anti-allergic action of the extract. The effect of MDE assessed on the maximal and total oedema responses in the mouse carrageenan-induced paw oedema was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action of the extract while the Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis model was employed to study the anti-arthritic effects of MDE. Results: MDE dose-dependently increased the time for compound 48/80-induced mortality in mice. MDE suppressed the mean maximal swelling and the total paw swellings induced over 6 h in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema when administered either prophylactically or therapeutically. MDE caused a reduction in serum levels of TNFα and IL-6 and significantly suppressed Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis. Conclusion: Margaritaria discoidea suppresses allergy and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in mice. In addition it attenuates Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis through a reduction in serum levels of TNFα and IL-6 in rats.
  1,916 24 2
Effect on eNOS/NO Pathway in MIRI rats with preconditioning of GFPC from Dang Gui Si Ni decoction
Guo-qiang Qian, Xia Peng, Chuan Cai, Guo-ping Zhao
April-June 2014, 6(2):133-137
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.129032  PMID:24761117
Objective: In order to discover whether the eNOS/NO (endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide) pathway is involved in the protective mechanisms of ischemic myocardium of DGSND (Dang Gui Si Ni Decoction) in MIRI (myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury) SD rats. Materials and Methods: We made I/R (ischemia-reperfusion) model by ligating the left anterior-descending branch of the coronary artery (LAD) for 30 min and releasing the ligature for 120 min. eNOS (nitric oxide synthase) mRNA (message ribonucleic acid) and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) mRNA were measured by the methods of real-time RT-PCR (Real time Polychainase Chain Reaction), peNOS (phosphorylated eNOS) and iNOS protein were measured by the means of western blot. Results: In PPC group, real-time RT-PCR and western-blot analysis showed that eNOS mRNA and peNOS protein increased markedly (P < 0.05); iNOS mRNA and protein decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These results indicate that ischemic preconditioning (IPC) of GFPC from DGSND plays a protective role in I/R heart through regulating the eNOS/NO signal pathway, which could increase the eNOS gene expression and decrease the expression of iNOS mRNA.
  1,905 25 2
Inhibitory effects by ayurvedic plants on prostate enlargement induced in rats
Rahul K Dumbre, Manisha B Kamble, Vijay R Patil
April-June 2014, 6(2):127-132
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.129031  PMID:24761116
Background: Ayurveda recommends several plants and plant preparation for conditions of urogenital disorders as per its principles. Objectives: Ayurvedic plants Tamala (Cinnamomum tamala); Daruhalad (Berberis aristata); Ativish (Aconitum heterophyllum) were studied for mechanisms of prostatic hyperplasia induced in rats. Materials and Methods: Prostatic enlargement was induced in castrated rats by testosterone injection s.c. for 21 days and simultaneously plants were dosed orally daily. On day 22 rats were sacrificed and prostate was removed; weight and volume of prostate was measured; histopathology performed. Inflammation was induced by injecting carrageenan in rat hind paw and inhibition was studied by measuring rat paw oedema at different time points. Results: Tamala showed significant effect where it reduced prostatic enlargement and improved hyperplastic changes, while Daruhalad and Ativisha did not show any significant effect. All of them showed mild to moderate anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: Study concludes that Tamala may benefit in prostate disorder by virtue of inhibition of androgen mechanisms in prostate and modulating inflammatory mediators in prostate. Daruhalad and Ativisha did not show any effect in this model of prostate enlargement while the anti-inflammatory effect may propose one of the useful properties when included in various formulations.
  1,750 26 1
Development and validation of a high performance thin layer chromatographic method for determination of 1, 8-Cineole in Callistemon Citrinus
Archana Shaha, Vijay R Salunkhe
April-June 2014, 6(2):143-147
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.129034  PMID:24761119
A new, simple, precise, rapid, and selective high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed and validated for the estimation of 1, 8-cineole in volatile oil of leaves of Callistemon citrinus obtained by hydro distillation. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and can be utilized for routine analysis. The retention factor for 1, 8-cineole was found to be 0.52. The linearity was found to be in the range of 3 μg-12 μg. The recovery obtained for 1, 8-cineole was 98%, which is satisfactory. The result obtained in validation indicate the accuracy, reproducibility, and reliability of the developed HPTLC method for determination of 1, 8-cineole.
  1,610 27 -
Biphasic effect of Solanum nigrum fruit aqueous extract on vascular mesenteric beds in non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Shahla Sohrabipour, Fatemah Kharazmi, Nepton Soltani, Mohammad Kamalinejad
April-June 2014, 6(2):148-152
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.129036  PMID:24761120
Background: In Asia, Solanum nigrum fruit is traditionally used to manage, control, and treat diabetes. Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the endothelium and nitric oxide roles in Solanum nigrum-induced vasorelaxation in non-diabetic and diabetic rat vessels. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin. Eight weeks later, superior mesenteric arteries of non-diabetic and diabetic groups were isolated and perfused according to the McGregor method. Solanum nigrum fruit extract (SNE) at concentrations of 0.00001 to 0.6 mg/ml was added to the medium and perfusion pressure was recorded. Results: Baseline perfusion pressure of diabetic group was significantly higher than non-diabetic rats in both intact and denuded endothelium. The low concentrations of SNE have vasodilatory effect in the diabetic and non-diabetic, but high concentrations of SNE produce initial significant contractions, followed by secondary relaxations in normal and diabetic rats. We observed vasorelaxation at low and high concentrations of SNE in both diabetic and non-diabetic groups after endothelium denudation. SNE-induced vasorelaxation in diabetic group is mediated by both endothelium and smooth muscle, but the relaxatory effect of SNE in non-diabetic group is not mediated by endothelium, and SNE has direct action on the smooth muscle. Conclusion: Although the part of SNE-induced relaxation in diabetic vessel was mediated by endothelium, nitric oxide didn't play any role in this action, and maybe we can use SNE in the management of diabetes vessel complications in future.
  1,591 20 1
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Anticonvulsant activity of Morus alba and its effect on brain gamma-aminobutyric acid level in rats
Gaurav Gupta, Mohammad Afzal, Sheba Rani David, Rohit Verma, Mayuren Candaswamy, Firoz Anwar
April-June 2014, 6(2):188-189
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.129046  PMID:24761125
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