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   2014| January-March  | Volume 6 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 12, 2013

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Effect of standardized aqueous extract of Withania somniferaon tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance in healthy human participants
Usharani Pingali, Raveendranadh Pilli, Nishat Fatima
January-March 2014, 6(1):12-18
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.122912  PMID:24497737
Background: Withania somnifera is an herbal medicine that has been known to possess memory-enhancing properties. The current study involved an assessment of cognitive and psychomotor effects of Withania somnifera extract in healthy human participants. Materials and Methods : In this prospective, double-blind, multi-dose, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 20 healthy male participants were randomized to receive 250 mg two capsules twice daily of an encapsulated dried aqueous extract of roots and leaves of Withania somnifera or a matching placebo for a period of 14 days. Cognitive and psychomotor performance was assessed pre-dose (day 1) and at 3 hrs post-dose on day 15 using a battery of computerized psychometric tests. After a washout period of 14 days, the subjects crossed-over to receive the other treatment for a further period of 14 days as per prior randomization schedule. Same battery of test procedures were performed to assess cognitive and psychomotor performance. Results: Significant improvements were observed in reaction times with simple reaction, choice discrimination, digit symbol substitution, digit vigilance, and card sorting tests with Withania somnifera extract compared to placebo. However, no effect can be seen with the finger tapping test. Conclusion: These results suggest that Withania somnifera extract can improve cognitive and psychomotor performance and may, therefore, be a valuable adjunct in the treatment of diseases associated with cognitive impairment.
  8 5,496 73
Analysis of the essential oil components from different Carum copticumL. samples from Iran
Mohammad M Zarshenas, Soliman Mohammadi Samani, Peyman Petramfar, Mahmoodreza Moein
January-March 2014, 6(1):62-66
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.122920  PMID:24497745
Background: The family Apiaceae is defined with the diversity of essential oil. Fruits of Ajwain (Carum copticum), a famous herb of Apiaceae, accumulate up to 5% essential oil which is remarked as important natural product for food and flavoring industry, as well as pharmacological approaches. It is believed that differences in essential oil profile in a certain plant are resulted from various cultivation situations and locations, time of cultivation and also different extracting method. Objective: Present study aimed to evaluate major components of ten different collected Ajwain samples from random cultivation locations of Iran. Materials and Methods: Samples were individually subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus for the extraction of essential oil. GC/MS analysis for samples was carried out using Agilent technologies model 7890A gas chromatograph with a mass detector. Results: The yield of extracted essential oil was calculated as 2.2 to 4.8% (v/w) for ten samples. Major oil components were thymol, para-cymene and gamma-terpinene. Five of ten samples have thymol as the main component with amount of 35.04 to 63.31%. On the other hand, for four samples, para-cymene was major with amount of 40.20 to 57.31% and one sample had gamma-terpinene as main constituent containing 37.43% of total oil. Accordingly, three different chemotypes, thymol, para-cymene and gamma-terpinene can be speculated from collected samples. Conclusion: While these components possess pharmacological effect, screening of different chemotypes not only represent the effect of cultivation situations and locations but also can be beneficial in further investigation.
  8 6,212 33
The efficacy of ginger added to ondansetron for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting in ambulatory surgery
Pragnadyuti Mandal, Anjan Das, Saikat Majumdar, Tapas Bhattacharyya, Tapobrata Mitra, Ratul Kundu
January-March 2014, 6(1):52-57
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.122918  PMID:24497743
Background: Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) frequently hampers implementation of ambulatory surgery in spite of so many costly antiemetic drugs and regimens. Objective: The study was carried out to compare the efficacy of ginger (Zingiber officinale) added to Ondansetron in preventing PONV after ambulatory surgery. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective, double blinded, and randomized controlled study. From March 2008 to July 2010, 100 adult patients of either sex, aged 20-45, of ASA physical status I and II, scheduled for day care surgery, were randomly allocated into Group A[(n = 50) receiving (IV) Ondansetron (4 mg) and two capsules of placebo] and Group B[(n = 50) receiving IV Ondansetron (4 mg) and two capsules of ginger] simultaneously one hour prior to induction of general anaesthesia (GA) in a double-blind manner. One ginger capsule contains 0.5 gm of ginger powder. Episodes of PONV were noted at 0.5h, 1h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 12h and 18h post- operatively. Statistical Analysis and Results: Statistically significant difference between groups A and B (P < 0.05), was found showing that ginger ondansetron combination was superior to plain Ondansetron as antiemetic regimen for both regarding frequency and severity. Conclusion: Prophylactic administration of ginger and ondansetron significantly reduced the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting compared to ondansetron alone in patients undergoing day care surgery under general anaesthesia.
  6 3,248 43
Effect of Coleus forskohliiextract on cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats
Hebbani Nagarajappa Shivaprasad, Sushma Gopalakrishna, Bhanumathy Mariyanna, Midhun Thekkoot, Roopa Reddy, Boreddy Shivanandappa Tippeswamy
January-March 2014, 6(1):42-45
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.122916  PMID:24497741
Background: Obesity is a metabolic disorder that can lead to adverse metabolic effects on blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance and also increases the risk of coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to determine the effect of Coleus forskohlii on obesity and associated metabolic changes in rats fed with cafeteria diet. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate antiobesogenic and metabolic benefits of C. forskohlii in cafeteria diet induced obesity rat model. Materials and Methods: Rats were randomly divided into five groups of six animals in each group and as follows: Normal pellet diet group; cafeteria diet group; cafeteria diet followed by 50 mg/kg/d Coleus forskohlii extract (CFE), 100 mg/kg/d CFE and 45 mg/kg/d orlistat groups, respectively. Indicators of obesity such as food intake, body weight and alteration in serum lipid profiles were studied. Results: Feeding of cafeteria diet induced obesity in rats. Administration of CFE significantly halted increase in food intake and weight gain associated with cafeteria diet. Development of dyslipidemia was also significantly inhibited. Conclusion: The observed effects validate that supplementation of CFE with cafeteria diet could curb the appetite and mitigate the development of dyslipidemia.
  4 2,890 47
Protection of CCl 4 -Induced Liver and Kidney Damage by Phenolic Compounds in Leaf Extracts of Cnestis ferruginea (de Candolle)
Adisa A Rahmat, Farooq Ahsana Dar, Iqbal M Choudhary
January-March 2014, 6(1):19-28
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.122913  PMID:24497738
Background: The chemoprevention of chemically-induced hepatotoxicity is a crucial means of minimizing susceptibility to hepatic carcinogenesis and plants remain a rich source of anti-hepatotoxicants with antioxidant properties. Objective: The protective role of defatted-methanol (MECF) and ethyl acetate fractions (EF), obtained from Leaves of Cnestis ferruginea in rats induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) toxicity was investigated. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were orally administered MECF or EF (125 - 500 mg/kg bwt/5mL) or silymarin (25 mg/kg bwt/5 mL) separately for three days before intervention with an intraperitoneal dose of CCl 4. Biomarkers of liver and kidney toxicity as well as Ca 2+ regulation were evaluated. Results: Pre-treatment with MECF and EF significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the activities of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, levels of urea, creatinine and cholesterol. A significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced Ca 2+ -ATPase activity and lowered levels of membrane cholesterol: Phospholipid ratio were observed in liver microsomes of pre-treated as compared to CCl 4 -only treated rats. Rat liver superoxide dismutase activity was enhanced by 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg of EF and MECF, while decreases were observed at 500 mg/kg. MECF and EF, like silymarin, attenuated CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxicity, microsomal membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase inactivation and renal dysfunction. Phytochemistry of MECF revealed the presence of anthraquinones, cardiac and flavone glycosides, tannins and trihydroxyl phenol. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the mechanism of hepatoprotection elicited by MECF and EF, involve its antioxidative properties and regulation of Ca 2+ homeostasis.
  4 2,517 29
Caffeoylquinic acids in leaves of selected Apocynaceae species: Their isolation and content
Siu Kuin Wong, Yau Yan Lim, Sui Kiong Ling, Eric Wei Chiang Chan
January-March 2014, 6(1):67-72
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.122921  PMID:24497746
Background: Three compounds isolated from the methanol (MeOH) leaf extract of Vallaris glabra (Apocynaceae) were those of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). This prompted a quantitative analysis of their contents in leaves of V. glabra in comparison with those of five other Apocynaceae species (Alstonia angustiloba, Dyera costulata, Kopsia fruticosa, Nerium oleander, and Plumeria obtusa), including flowers of Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), the commercial source of chlorogenic acid (CGA). Materials and Methods: Compound were isolated by column chromatography, and identified by NMR and MS analyses. CQA content of leaf extracts was determined using reversed-phase HPLC. Results: From the MeOH leaf extract of V. glabra, 3-CQA, 4-CQA, and 5-CQA or CGA were isolated. Content of 5-CQA of V. glabra was two times higher than flowers of L. japonica, while 3-CQA and 4-CQA content was 16 times higher. Conclusion: With much higher CQA content than the commercial source, leaves of V. glabra can serve as a promising alternative source.
  4 2,696 44
Evaluation of Phyllanthus emblica extract on cold pressor induced cardiovascular changes in healthy human subjects
Nishat Fatima, Usharani Pingali, Raveendranadh Pilli
January-March 2014, 6(1):29-35
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.122914  PMID:24497739
Background: Acute and chronic stress is a risk factor for the development and progression of coronary artery disease. Increased arterial stiffness is an independent marker for cardiovascular disease. Cold pressor test (CPT) is known to be associated with substantial activation of the autonomic nervous system. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Phyllanthus emblica extract on cold pressor stress test induced changes on cardiovascular parameters and aortic wave reflections in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Participants were randomized to receive either two capsules of P. emblica extract 250 mg (containing aqueous extract of P. emblica, highly standardized by high-performance liquid chromatography to contain low molecular weight hydrolysable tannins emblicanin-A, emblicanin-B, pedunculagin and punigluconin) or two capsules of placebo twice daily for 14 days. Pharmacodynamic parameters such as heart rate, augmentation pressure, augmentation index (AIx), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), radial and aortic blood pressure (BP) were recorded before and after CPT at baseline and end of treatment. After washout period of 14 days, subjects crossed over to the other treatment and the same test procedure was repeated again. Safety assessments were done at baseline and at the end of treatment. Results: A total of 12volunteers completed the study. Compared with baseline and placebo, P. emblica extract produced a significant decrease of mean percent change in the indices of arterial stiffness (AIx, radial and aortic BP) and increase in SEVR, an index of myocardial perfusion with CPT. Both treatments were well-tolerated and no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Proprietary P. emblica extract, showed a significant decrease in cold pressor stress test induced changes on aortic wave reflections.
  3 2,548 42
Comparative assessment on in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi , Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens
Md. Mominur Rahman, Md. Razibul Habib, Md. Anayet Hasan, Mohammad Al Amin, Ayan Saha, Adnan Mannan
January-March 2014, 6(1):36-41
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.122915  PMID:24497740
Background: Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activities of Ethanolic extract of A. bilimbi, G. sylvestre and C. frutescens. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts were evaluated using total phenolic and flavonoid contents, ferric reducing power and the free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in G. sylvestre (53.63636 ΁ 0.454545 mg/g gallic acid equivalent) and C. frutescens (26.66667 ΁ 2.081666 mg/g quercetin equivalent) respectively. Reducing power of the crude ethanol extracts increased with the concentrations of the extracts and all the extracts showed moderate free radical scavenging activity against DPPH. The plant extract displayed moderate phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to gallic acid and quercetin equivalent respectively, whereas also exhibited significant scavenging of DPPH radical and reducing power compared with ascorbic acid as standard. Conclusion: Our study suggests that G. sylvestre has significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant compound of this plant might be a therapeutic candidate against oxidative stress related diseases. Different sub-fraction of A. bilimbi and C. frutescens should be studied further to assess the effect. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of the active antioxidant agents for better treatment.
  2 3,351 45
In-vitro cytotoxicity study of methanolic fraction from Ajuga Bracteosa wall ex. benth on MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma and hep-2 larynx carcinoma cell lines
Akiriti Pal, Fedelic Ashish Toppo, Pradeep K Chaurasiya, Pradeep K Singour, Rajesh S Pawar
January-March 2014, 6(1):87-91
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.122923  PMID:24497749
Objective: Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth (Labiatae) is popularly known in India as "Neelkanthi." A decoction of the leaves, flowers, and barks is used in India for the treatment of cancer including diabetes, malaria, and inflammation etc. The main objective of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic potential of Ajuga bracteosa. Materials and Methods: Successive solvent extraction of Ajuga bracteosa in petroleum ether, methanol, and water extracts was done. These extracts were tested against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and larynx carcinoma (Hep-2) tumor cell lines, using the thiazolyl blue test (MTT) assay. Results: The methanolic fraction of Ajuga bracteosa had shown the significant results against MCF-7 and Hep-2 tumor cell lines. The methanolic, petroleum ether and aqueous extract from Ajuga bracteosa, presented an IC50 value at 24 h of 10, 65, 70 μg/ml and 5, 30, 15 μg/ml on MCF-7 and Hep-2 cells, respectively. Steroids compounds namely β-sitosterol and unknown constituents were identified in the most active methanol extract of Ajuga bracteosa wall ex Benth. These known and unknown compounds exhibited cytotoxic potential against MCF-7 and Hep-2 cancer cells. Conclusion: Among all the tested extracts, methanolic extract can be considered as potential sources of anti-cancer compounds. Further studies are necessary for more extensive biological evaluations.
  2 2,141 32
The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the fruits of Balanites aegypticea in Alloxan-induced diabetic rats
Abdella Emam Abdella Baragob, Waleed Hassan AlMalki, Imran Shahid, Fatimah Abdullah Bakhdhar, Hanouf Saeed Bafhaid, Omar Muhammad Izz Eldeen
January-March 2014, 6(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.122909  PMID:24497735
Background: Balanites aegypticea is used medically for many purposes e.g. anti-spasmodic, stomach pain, malaria, and yellow fever. The extract of the fruit is also used to reduce the blood glucose levels. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the hypoglycemic effects of the aqueous extract of the fruits of the Balanites aegypticea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five adult male Vistar rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly collected and divided into 5 groups (5 rats in each group). The untreated rats (negative control group) received basal diet and tap water only for 15 days. The experimental rats became diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight). The fruit of Balanites aegypticea was powdered, extracted, and dried using organic solvents. The diabetic rats received aqueous extract 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 800 mg/kg, respectively, for 2 weeks. Plasma glucose levels were measured by using Glucose GOD-PAP method through spectrophotometer. Results: The results showed that 800 mg/kg aqueous extract decrease significantly the plasma glucose level (P ≤ 0.05) in diabetic rats, and there is a considerable gain in body weight (P ≤ 0.05) compared to the diabetic control group. Four-hundred mg/kg aqueous extract has a mild effect on body weights and plasma glucose levels, while 200 mg/kg aqueous extract has no significant effect on plasma glucose level and a little effect on body weight. Conclusions: The results of the presented study revealed that the aqueous extract of Balanites aegypticea has hypoglycemic properties. It can decrease the plasma glucose level and can improve weight in diabetic experimental animals.
  1 2,712 37
Effect of Momordica dioica fruit extract on antioxidant status in liver, kidney, pancreas, and serum of diabetic rats
Poonam Sharma, Rambir Singh
January-March 2014, 6(1):73-79
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.122922  PMID:24497747
Background: Fruits, leaves, and tuberous roots of Momordica dioica are used as a folk remedy for diabetes mellitus (DM) in India. The aqueous extract of Momordica dioica fruit possesses very good anti-diabetic activity and is having high margin of safety. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidative effect of Momordica dioica fruits in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Effect of aqueous extract of Momordica dioica (AEMD) on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxide (HP), non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants in liver, kidney, pancreas, and serum was evaluated in diabetic rats after 21 days treatment. Results: Increase in the levels of TBARS, HP and decrease in the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants and activity of enzymatic antioxidants was observed in liver, kidney, pancreas, and serum of diabetic rats when compared with normal healthy rats. TBARS and HP levels were reduced while non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant enzymes activity was increased in AEMD and glibenclamide-treated rats. Furthermore, histological examination of liver, kidney, and pancreas of diabetic rats showed degenerative changes. AEMD treatment for 21 days rejuvenated liver, kidney, and pancreas histoarchitecture. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present results showed the protective role of AEMD on liver, kidney, and pancreas in severe diabetic rats justifying support for its anti-diabetic use in folk medicine.
  1 3,145 45
Synergistic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract from Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae) and Fagara tessmannii (Rutaceae) on male sexual organs and hormone level in rats
Dieudonné Massoma Lembč, Manuel Gasco, GF Gonzales
January-March 2014, 6(1):80-86
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.121451  PMID:24497748
Background: Lepidium meyenii is a plant, which has been used in folk medicine to treat infertility and to increase sexual desire. However, few reports have investigated the administration of this plant with other plants having the same properties. Objective: The present investigation was designed to evaluate whether the combination of Lepidium meyenii and Fagara tessmannii can improve spermatogenesis and testosterone level in rats. Materials and Method: Twenty male rats were treated daily for 2 weeks with the hydroalcoholic extract of Fagara tessmannii and Lepidium meyenii (Fag + MN) as follow: (vehicle), (0.01 g + 0.5 mg), (0.1 g + 5 mg) and (1 g+ 50 mg)/kg BW. Results: At doses Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg and Fag 0.1 g/MN 5 mg, the weight of seminal vesicle, prostate, and testis significantly decreased (P < 0.05) while at dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg, the weight of epididymis and testis significantly increased (P < 0.05) when compared to the control. We noticed a significant increase of the number of spermatids/test (P < 0.05), epididymis sperm count (P < 0.05), and DSP/test of the rats at dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg while at dose Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg and Fag 0.1 g/MN 5 mg, sperm count was reduced in male organs, particularly in vas deferens (P < 0.05) and epididymis (P < 0.001). The serum testosterone concentration significantly decreased (P < 0.05) at lowest dose Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg. However, at highest dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg, the serum testosterone concentration increased significantly (P < 0.05). The length of stage VII-VIII and IX-I of the seminiferous tubule significantly (P < 0.05) increased while the length of stage II-VI significantly (P < 0.05) decreased. Conclusion: The results indicated that the combination of Lepidium meyenii (Black Maca) with Fagara tessmannii can improve male reproductive organs activities.
  1 1,372 15
Ethanolic extracts of Alstonia Scholaris and Bacopa Monniera possess neuroleptic activity due to anti-dopaminergic effect
Rajiv Jash, K Appana Chowdary
January-March 2014, 6(1):46-51
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.122917  PMID:24497742
Background: An increased inclination has been observed for the use of herbal drugs in chronic and incurable diseases. Treatment of psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia is largely palliative and more importantly, a prominent adverse effect prevails with the majority of anti-psychotic drugs, which are the extrapyramidal motor disorders. Existing anti-psychotic drug therapy is not so promising, and their adverse effect is a matter of concern for continuing the therapy for long duration. Objective: This experimental study was done to evaluate the neuroleptic activity of the ethanolic extracts of two plants Alstonia Scholaris and Bacopa Monnieri with different anti-psychotic animal models with a view that these plant extracts shall have no or at least reduced adverse effect so that it can be used for long duration. Materials and Methods: Two doses of both the extracts (100 and 200 mg/kg) and also standard drug haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg) were administered to their respective groups once daily with 5 different animal models. After that, the concentration of the dopamine neurotransmitter was estimated in two different regions of the brain viz. frontal cortex and striatum. Results: The result of the study indicated a significant reduction of amphetamine-induced stereotype and conditioned avoidance response for both the extracts compared with the control group, but both did not have any significant effect in phencyclidine-induced locomotor activity and social interaction activity. However, both the extracts showed minor signs of catalepsy compared to the control group. The study also revealed that the neuroleptic effect was due to the reduction of the dopamine concentration in the frontal cortex region of the rat brain. The results largely pointed out the fact that both the extract may be having the property to alleviate the positive symptoms of schizophrenia by reducing the dopamine levels of dopaminergic neurons of the brain. Conclusion: The estimation of dopamine in the two major regions of brain indicated the alteration of dopamine levels was the reason for the anti-psychotic activity as demonstrated by the different animal models.
  1 2,373 36
GC-MS analysis of bio-active compounds in methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata DC
Lakshmi Kanta Kanthal, Akalanka Dey, K Satyavathi, P Bhojaraju
January-March 2014, 6(1):58-61
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.122919  PMID:24497744
Background: The presence of phytochemical constitutes has been reported from species of the Compositae (Asteraceae). Hitherto no reports exist on the phytochemical components and biological activity of Lactuca runcinata DC. Objective: The present study was designed to determine the bioactive compounds in the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening of the entire herb of Lactuca runcinata DC revealed the presence of some bio-active components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata was performed on a GC-MS equipment (Thermo Scientific Co.) Thermo GC-TRACE ultra ver.: 5.0, Thermo MS DSQ II. Results: The phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, phlobatannin, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, volatile oils, carbohydrates, and protein/amino acids in methanolic extract of L. runcinata. The GC-MS analysis has shown the presence of different phytochemical compounds in the methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata. A total of 21 compounds were identified representing 84.49% of total methanolic extract composition. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that Lactuca runcinata contains various phytocomponents and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance.
  1 3,207 73
Comparative study to evaluate the anti-viral efficacy of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract and ribavirin against the Newcastle disease virus
Muhammad Ovais Omer, Waleed Hassan AlMalki, Imran Shahid, Shahzada Khuram, Imran Altaf, Saeed Imran
January-March 2014, 6(1):6-11
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.122911  PMID:24497736
Background: The Newcastle disease represents as one of the most infectious viral disease, which afflicts almost every species of the birds. The causative agent of the disease is a single-stranded RNA virus with rapid replication capability. Objective: This study was performed to evaluate the comparative anti-viral efficacy and toxicity of Glycyrrhiza glabra aqueous extract and ribavirin against the Newcastle disease virus. Materials and Methods: The embryonated eggs were divided into six groups (A, B, C, D, E and F). Groups A, B, C, and D were further subdivided into three subgroups. The virus was identified by hemagglutination inhibition test. Spot hemagglutination test and viability of embryos were also evaluated. Three different concentrations i-e., 30 mg/100 ml, 60 mg/100 ml, and 120 mg/100 ml of the Glycyrrhiza aqueous extract and 10 μg/ml, 20 μg/ml, and 40 μg/ml ribavirin in deionized water were evaluated for their toxicity and anti-viral activity in the embryonated eggs. Results: 60 mg/100 ml concentration of Glycyrrhiza extract did not produce any toxicity in the embryonated eggs and showed anti-viral activity against the virus. Similarly, 20 μg/ml ribavirin was non-toxic in the embryonated eggs and contained anti-viral activity. Conclusion: It may conclude from the presented study that 60 mg/100 ml Glycyrrhiza extract inhibits replication of Newcastle disease virus and is non-toxic in the embryonated eggs. So, Glycyrrhiza glabra extract may be further evaluated in future to determine the potentially active compounds for their anti-viral activity against Newcastle disease virus. Furthermore, the mechanism of action of these active phytochemicals as an antiviral agent would be helpful to elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease.
  1 2,913 81