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   2013| July-September  | Volume 5 | Issue 3  
    Online since May 23, 2013

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Cellular responses with thymoquinone treatment in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7
Marjaneh Motaghed, Faisal Muti Al-Hassan, Shahrul Sahul Hamid
July-September 2013, 5(3):200-206
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.112428  PMID:23900121
Background: Nigella sativa or black seed extract has been reported to show various medicinal benefits. Thymoquinone which is an active compound of its seed has been reported to contain anti-cancer properties. Objective: The study addressed the anti-cancer efficiency of long-term in vitro treatment with thymoquinone towards human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7. Materials and Methods: Cell proliferation was determined with CellTiter 96 Aqueous. Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. It was followed with trypan blue exclusion test to determine the percentage of viable cells. The study incorporated cell cycle assay to distinguish cell distribution at various cell cycle phases using Cycletest Plus DNA Reagent Kit. The apoptosis detection kit was used to determine the percentage of apoptotic and necrotic cells using flow cytometry. Results: The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) value determined using the proliferation assay was 25 μM thymoquinone. Late apoptotic cell percentage increased rapidly when treatment duration was increased to 24 h with 25 and 100 μM thymoquinone. Further analysis using cell cycle assay showed thymoquinone inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation at minimal dose 25 μM and led to S phase arrest significantly at 72 h treatment (P = 0.009). It was also noted elevation sub-G 1 peak following treatment with 25 μM thymoquinone for 12 h. Increase in thymoquinone to 50 μM caused G 2 phase arrest at each time-point studied. Conclusion: In general thymoquinone showed sustained inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation with long-term treatment. Specificity of phase arrest was determined by thymoquinone dose.
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Hepatoprotective effect of commercial herbal extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in Wistar rats
Paula Cordero-Pérez, Liliana Torres-González, Marcelino Aguirre-Garza, Carlos Camara-Lemarroy, Francisco Guzmán-de la Garza, Gabriela Alarcón-Galván, Homero Zapata-Chavira, Ma de Jesús Sotelo-Gallegos, Cipactli Nadjedja Torres-Esquivel, Ethel Sánchez-Fresno, Daniel Cantú-Sepúlveda, Gerardo González-Saldivar, Judith Bernal-Ramirez, Linda E Muñoz-Espinosa
July-September 2013, 5(3):150-156
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.112417  PMID:23900881
Background : Various hepatoprotective herbal products from plants are available in Mexico, where up to 85% of patients with liver disease use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. However, only few studies have reported on the biological evaluation of these products. Objective : Using a model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 )-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, we evaluated the effects of commercial herbal extracts used most commonly in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico. Materials and Methods : The commercial products were identified through surveys in public areas. The effect of these products given with or without CCl4 in rats was evaluated by measuring the serum concentrations of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT), and histopathological analysis. Legalon® was used as the standard drug. Results : The most commonly used herbal products were Hepatisan® capsules, Boldo capsules, Hepavida® capsules, Boldo infusion, and milk thistle herbal supplement (80% silymarin). None of the products tested was hepatotoxic according to transaminase and histological analyses. AST and ALT activities were significantly lower in the Hepavida+CCl4 -treated group as compared with the CCl4 -only group. AST and ALT activities in the silymarin, Hepatisan, and Boldo tea groups were similar to those in the CCl4 group. The CCl4 group displayed submassive confluent necrosis and mixed inflammatory infiltration. Both the Hepatisan+CCl4 and Boldo tea+CCl4 groups exhibited ballooning degeneration, inflammatory infiltration, and lytic necrosis. The silymarin+CCl4 group exhibited microvesicular steatosis. The Hepavida+CCl4 - and Legalon+CCL4 -treated groups had lower percentages of necrotic cells as compared with the CCl4 -treated group; this treatment was hepatoprotective against necrosis. Conclusion : Only Hepavida had a hepatoprotective effect.
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Extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and screening of fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. for its antimicrobial potential
Geeta Singh, Padma Kumar
July-September 2013, 5(3):162-168
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.112421  PMID:23901211
Background: Terminalia chebula is called the "king of medicines" in Tibet and is always listed first in the Ayurvedic meteria medica because of its extraordinary powers of healing. Objective: Identification, isolation and screening of pyrogallol which are responsible for antimicrobial property of fruits of Terminalia chebula. Materials and Methods: Ethyl acetate fraction of fruits of Terminalia chebula was subjected to Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the components present in the extract. Results: Sixty four constituents were identified out of which kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside flavonoid and Vitamin E has been detected for the first time in fruits of this plant. Pyrogallol (46.26%) which was the major component of the extract in GC-MS analysis was isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity against selected test pathogens by Disc Diffusion Assay. Crude ethyl acetate fraction of the fruits was showing the same activity potential as was observed for pure pyrogallol which was the major component as per GC-MS analysis. The most sensitive species among the bacteria was Enterobacter aerogenes with highest inhibition zone (IZ = 31 mm; AI = 1.409 ± 0.046) even at minimum inhibitory concentration (0.039 mg/ml). Conclusion: Hence activity shown by crude ethyl acetate fraction might be due to pyrogallol present in the extract. On the basis of results it can be advocate that achieved crude ethyl acetate fraction can be explored for preparing antimicrobial drugs in future for the infectious caused by the pathogens tested in the study.
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Antihyperlipidemic effects of ginger extracts in alloxan-induced diabetes and propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in (rats)
Ahmad Sameer Al-Noory, Abdul-Nasser Amreen, Shatha Hymoor
July-September 2013, 5(3):157-161
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.112419  PMID:23901210
Background: Diabetic mellitus and hypothyroidism lead to serum lipoproteins disorders. This study aims to investigate the potential effect of fresh ginger extracts Zingiber officinale roscoe (Family: Zingebiraceae) on serum lipid profile and on blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetes and propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in rats. Rats were divided into 11 groups: The normal G1, diabetic control rats G2, ginger 500 mg/kg treated diabetic rats G3, 10 mg/day atorvastatine-treated diabetic rats G4, [5 mg/day atorvastatine combined with 500 mg/kg ginger] treated diabetic rats G5, glibenclamid-treated diabetic rats G6, hypothyoidism control rats G7, 300 mg/kg ginger-treated hypothyroidism rats G8, 500 mg/kg ginger-treated hypothyroidism rats G9, 10 mg/day atorvastatine-treated hypothyroidism rats G10, [atorvastatine combined with 500 mg/kg ginger]treated hypothyroidism rats G11. Thirty days after treatment, samples were collected, to compare treated groups with normal and control groups, using Mann-Whitney U test P < 0.01. Results : It revealed a decrease in the levels of total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) in the serum of rats that were treated by ginger extracts, compared with the control groups. Previous extracts were also able to cause reduction in LDL to similar levels compared to normal group and that was the same effect of atorvastatin 10 mg/day. Combined effect was clear between the act of ginger at a dose of 500 mg/kg and atorvastatin; that levels of both TC and LDL in animals which received [atorvastatin 5 mg/day combined with ginger extract] was almost equal to levels in animals that received atorvastatin 10mg/day. Clear reduce in triglyceride, and clear increase in high density liopprotein were also recorded in the ginger-treated groups. Ginger was more active in hypothyroidism rats than in diabetic rats in reducing LDL and TC. Glucose levels were substantially reduced in ginger- treated diabetic groups.
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UP446, analgesic and anti-inflammatory botanical composition
Mesfin Yimam, Lidia Brownell, Mandee Pantier, Qi Jia
July-September 2013, 5(3):139-145
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.112406  PMID:23901209
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease. Long-term use of currently available therapies for RA produces adverse effects that limit dosage and duration; hence there is a need for safe and effective alternatives suitable for long term chronic use. UP446, a composition consisting primarily of baicalin from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Family: Lamiaceae) and (+)-catechin from the heartwoods of Acacia catechu (Family: Mimosaceae), has been previously shown to reduce production of eicosanoids and leukotrienes through dual inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) enzymes and to decreased mRNA and protein levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Aim: To evaluate the likelihood of UP446 in moderating arthritis and its associated symptoms in an experimental animal model of RA. Materials and Methods: A RA rat model was induced by injecting Freund's complete adjuvant into left and right hind paw and base of the tail. Animals were administered UP446 (50 mg/kg), ibuprofen (150 mg/kg mg/kg) or vehicle by oral gavage 30 min prior to arthritis induction and each day thereafter for 14 days. Result: Animals treated with UP446 showed 23.7, 31.9, 33.4, 29.3, and 33.1% reduction in pain sensitivity; 46.0, 36.7, 33.7, 34.8, and 33.4% reduction in ankle diameter on days 3, 5, 7, 9, and 13; respectively; compared to vehicle. Similarly paw edema was significantly reduced with an average of 30% for the first inflammatory reaction period (day 1-8) followed by 37.1 and 33.6% reduction on day 9 and 13. Conclusion: These data indicate potential benefit of UP446 in alleviating symptoms of RA and support human clinical evaluation of this botanical composition in patients with RA.
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Evaluation of marine brown algae Sargassum ilicifolium extract for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity
Chandraraj C Simpi, Channabasappa V Nagathan, Santosh R Karajgi, Navanath V Kalyane
July-September 2013, 5(3):146-149
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.112413  PMID:23900805
Background : The methanolic extract of Sargassum ilicifolium (Pheophyceae) was used to evaluate its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in the present study. Materials and Methods: Analgesic activity was tested using Acetic acid writhing method and Eddy hot plate method in Male albino mice and Wister rats respectively at a dose level of 1, 10, 50, 100mg/kg p.o. At the same dose, its anti-inflammatory activity was also tested using Carrageenan induced rat paw edema method Result Acetic acid writhing test and Eddy's hot plate episodes were significantly and dose dependently reduced. Carrageenan (a standard inflammatory agent) induced paw edema in rats was significantly reduced after intraperitonal administration of methanolic extract. Results: showed dose dependant significant activity in comparison with standard and control. Conclusion: Methanolic extracts of the brown seaweeds Sargassum ilicifolium have potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity at moderate doses.
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Anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of Musa sapientum peel extract in the laboratory rodents
Samuel Adetunji Onasanwo, Benjamin Obukowho Emikpe, Austin Azubuike Ajah, Taiwo Olayemi Elufioye
July-September 2013, 5(3):173-178
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.112423  PMID:23900937
Background: This study investigated the anti-ulcer and ulcer healing potentials of the methanol extract of Musa sapientum peel in the laboratory rats. Materials and Methods: Methanol extract of the peels on Musa sapientum (MEMS) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer using alcohol-induced, aspirin-induced, and pyloric ligation-induced models, and for its ulcer healing employing acetic acid-induced ulcer models in rats. Results: The findings from this experiment showed that MEMS (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) anti-ulcer and ulcer healing activity (P ≤ 0.05) is dose-dependent. Also, MEMS exhibited healing of the ulcer base in all the treated groups when compared with the control group. Conclusion: The outcomes of this experiment revealed that the anti-ulcer effect of MEMS may be due to its anti-secretory and cyto-protective activity. The healing of the ulcer base might not be unconnected with basic fibroblast growth factors responsible for epithelial regeneration.
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Protective effect of Juglans nigra on sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in rats
Solomon E Owumi, Oyeronke A Odunola, Michael A Gbadegesin, Kathleen L Nulah
July-September 2013, 5(3):183-188
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.112425  PMID:23901214
Background: Consumption of arsenic contaminated water has been implicated in metalloid-induced carcinogenesis. Dietary intake of certain plant products with chemoprotective properties may protect against the onset of diseases and promote maintenance of health. Objectives: We investigated the outcome of black walnut Juglans nigra (JN) consumption on sodium arsenite (SA)-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Wister albino rats were treated as follows: Control, SA only (positive control) (2.5 mg/kg body weight), JN only (100 mg/kg weight), and JN+SA coadministered. After 5 weeks animals were sacrificed whole blood, femur, liver and testis harvested were assessed for hepatic transaminases and clastogenicity. Histology of the liver, sperm morphology and quality were also assessed. Data were analyzed (ANOVA) and expressed as means ±SD. Results: SA treatment elevated hepatic transaminases level in serum (P < 0.05), induced histological changes in liver: fibroplasia and periportal hepatocytes infiltration by mononuclear cells. These changes were ameliorated by JN (P < 0.05) coadministration. SA induced micronuclei formation (P < 0.05). Again JN decreased (P < 0.05) micronuclei formation by 50%. Sperm count and motility decreased (P < 0.05) in all groups compared to control. Conclusion: JN showed no protection against arsenite effect on sperm quality. Hepatoprotective and anticlastogenic effects were apparent suggesting a chemopreventive potential active against arsenite genotoxicity and chromosomal instability which have implication for metalloid-induced carcinogenesis.
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Synergistic effect of aged garlic extract and naltrexone on improving immune responses to experimentally induced fibrosarcoma tumor in BALB/c mice
Soheil Ebrahimpour, Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini Tabari, Mohammad Reza Youssefi, Hamid Aghajanzadeh, Manijeh Yousefi Behzadi
July-September 2013, 5(3):189-194
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.112426  PMID:23901215
Background: Garlic, a medicinal plant, and Naltrexone (NTX), an opioid receptor antagonist, both have immunomodulatory and antitumor effects. Current study was designed to evaluate synergistic antitumor effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) and NTX. Materials and Methods: WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells were implanted subcutaneously on day 0 into right flank of 80 BALB/c mice at age of 8 weeks. Mice were randomly categorized in four separate groups: The first group received AGE (100 mg/kg, i.p.), the second group received NTX (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), the third group received both of them, and the fourth group received phosphate buffered saline as control group. Treatments were administered three times per week. Tumor growth was measured and morbidity was recorded. Subpopulations of CD4+/CD8+ T cells were determined using flowcytometery. WEHI-164 cell specific cytotoxicity of splenocytes and in vitro production of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) cytokines were measured. All statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS 16 software and P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The mice who received AGE+NTX had significantly longer survival time compared with the mice treated with AGE or NTX alone. An enhanced inhibitory effect on tumor growth was seen in combination therapy group. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio and in vitro IFN-γ production of splenocytes were significantly increased in AGE+NTX and NTX groups. WEHI-164 specific cytotoxicity of splenocytes was also significantly increased at 25:1 E:T ratio in AGE+NTX treated mice. Coadministration of AGE with NTX resulted in improvement of immune responses against experimentally implanted fibrosarcoma tumors in BALB/c mice. Conclusions: AGE showed synergistic effects with NTX on inhibition of tumor growth and increment of survival times.
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Difficulty for consumers in choosing commercial bilberry supplements by relying only on product label information
Masao Yamamoto, Katsunori Yamaura, Makiko Ishiwatari, Koichi Ueno
July-September 2013, 5(3):212-215
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.112432  PMID:23901216
Background: Various kinds of bilberry supplements have recently become available on the market. However, it is doubtful whether consumers receive accurate information to be able to compare different supplements. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether consumers can obtain the expected benefits by relying only on the information printed on the product labels of commercial bilberry supplements. Materials and Methods: The quality of 20 supplements was investigated by the spectrophotometric method and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Each peak was identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and quantified using an external standard. The percentage of the actual measured value relative to the indicated value on the product label was determined using the spectrophotometric method. The daily dosage was calculated from the total amount of anthocyanins quantified by UHPLC and information on the product label. Results: In 14 of 20 supplements, the total anthocyanin content expressed as delphinidin equivalents was within 20% of the labeled value. However, the extent of degradation could not be determined by the spectrophotometric method. In fresh bilberry fruit, anthocyanidins were barely detected. In 8 of 20 supplements, the anthocyanidin content was >1.0%. The daily dosage of anthocyanins varied by about 66-fold among supplements, and the dosage of 6 supplements was less than the recommended level in Japan. Conclusions: Consumers cannot always obtain the expected benefits by relying only on product label information. Therefore, new rules concerning product label information are required to make it possible for consumers to take the equivalent amounts of anthocyanins for whichever bilberry supplement they choose.
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Phytochemical screening studies on Melia orientalis by GC-MS analysis
Srinivasan Marimuthu, Balakrishnan Padmaja, Sudarsan Nair
July-September 2013, 5(3):216-218
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.112433  PMID:23901217
Background: Melia orientalis (MO) is an important Ayurvedic medicinal plants. The plant part such as leaves and roots are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes, edema, traumatic swelling, skin diseases, oligospermia and bleeding disorders. Objective: To investigate the phytochemical identification of ethanol leaf extract of MO. Materials and Methods: The fresh leaves of MO (1000g) were collected and shade dried at room temperature for 30 days and the dried leaves were made into a fine powder. The ethanol leaf extract obtained was dried and used for phytochemical identification by GC-MS analysis. Results: The phytochemical screening studies have been carried out and identified ten chemical constituents present in the leaf extract of MO. Conclusion: Thus, our results show that MO possess important phytocomponents such as phytol, squalene and stigmasterol.
  2 2,120 25
Seasonal variation in content of camptothecin from the bark of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Grah.) Mabb., using HPLC analysis
Sandeep R Pai, Nilesh V Pawar, Mansingraj S Nimbalkar, Parthraj R Kshirsagar, Firdose K Kolar, Ghansham B Dixit
July-September 2013, 5(3):219-223
PMID:23901218
Objective: To study and compare seasonal variation in camptothecin (CPT) content from bark samples of Nothapodytes nimmoniana obtained from geographically and climatologically isolated populations. Methods: A standard High Performance Liquid Chromatography methodology was used to analyze and quantify CPT from bark samples of N. nimmoniana. Results: Sample collected from Amboli yielded highest CPT content 1.337 g/100 g dry bark powder during the monsoon compared to other localities in study. Monsoon (August) showed to accumulate higher levels of CPT in barks of N. nimmoniana as compared to summer (May). Amboli averaged highest accumulation of CPT compared to other localities under study. Conclusion: These findings indicate season to have control over accumulation of CPT. Locality Amboli has highest CPT content in all seasons and were the elite population during the study. The study also suggests the need for further investigation in lights of biosynthesis in the plant.
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Phytochemical screening and cytotoxicity studies of Chrysophyllum pruniforme Pierre ex Engl. barks
Sophie Aboughe Angone, L Mewono, M Boukandou Mounanga, S Medzegue, HF Ella Mendene, JG Mba Ndong, JF Djoba Siawaya, A Souza
July-September 2013, 5(3):195-199
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.112427  PMID:23900977
Background: Chrysophyllum pruniforme of family sapotaceae is a plant used in traditional medicine in Gabon. Materials and Methods: In this study, C. pruniforme barks were subjected to phytochemical screening and cytotoxicity investigations. Different concentrations of aqueous and total phenolic extract were tested on mice and on human erythrocytes. Results: Phytochemical screening of C. pruniforme barks revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, and tannins, reducing sugars, polyphenols and traces of anthraquinones. When tested in vitro, aqueous and the phenolic extracts showed hemolytic activities on human erythrocytes with phenolic compounds being more cytotoxic than aqueous extracts. In vivo study of toxicity, allowed to determine the LD 50 at 90 mg/kg for the doses of 50, 150 and 250 mg/kg of body weight. Conclusion: These data indicate in one hand that C. pruniforme is rich in phenolic compounds and that the aqueous and total phenolic extracts could be considered as toxic for mice and maybe potentially toxic to humans in the other hand.
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Protective effects of Vernonia amygdalina against sodium arsenite-induced genotoxicity in rat
Adewale Adetutu, Emmanuel Bukoye Oyewo, Ayoade A Adesokan
July-September 2013, 5(3):207-211
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.112431  PMID:23900237
Objectives: Contamination of the environment with arsenic (As) from both human and natural sources is known as a global problem. This study investigated the chemoprotective potential of Vernonia amygdalina leave extract against sodium arsenite-induced genotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods : Genotoxic effects were evaluated in the rat bone marrow using micronuclei. The gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were assayed in rat serum. Results : Pre-treatment with extract of V. amygdalina at doses 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg significantly decreased the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs). The GGT and ALP activities were elevated more than fourfold, in the liver of rats treated with sodium arsenite, while it was reduced almost to half when the sodium arsenit-treated rats were fed fresh V. amgdalina leave extracts The phytochemical constituents of V. amygdalina assayed in this study may be responsible for high radical scavenging of the DPPH free radical observed. Conclusion : The present results indicate that V. amygdalina extract is capable of suppressing the chromosomal aberration induced by sodium arsenite in rat. Thus, V. amygdalina may be a potent chemoprotective agent against the toxicity of sodium arsenite in rats.
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Volatile constituents of Saussurea costus roots cultivated in Uttarakhand Himalayas, India
Garima Gwari, Ujjwal Bhandari, Harish Chandra Andola, Hema Lohani, Nirpendra Chauhan
July-September 2013, 5(3):179-182
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.112424  PMID:23901213
Background: Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipschitz, syn Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke, one of the best-known species within this genus, is commonly known as costus. Due to the remarkable biological activity of S. costus and its constituents it will have an appropriate place in various systems of medicines all over the globe. Objective: The main aim is to study the volatile constituents of S costus cultivated in Uttarakhand Himalayas. Material and Methods: The volatile constituents were isolated from the root of S costus cultivated in Chamoli district of Uttrarakhand by hydro distillation and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Results: A total 35 aroma compounds representing about 92.81% of the total composition were identified. Aldehyde like (7Z, 10Z, 13Z)-7, 10, 13-hexadecaterinal (25.5%) was found as a major compound including other ketones like dehydrocostus lactone (16.7%), alcohols like elemol (5.84%), γ-costol (1.80%), vulgarol B (3.14%), valerenol (4.20%), and terpinen-4-ol (1.60%), etc. Esters and acids were found to be completely absent in our samples. Conclusion: S. costus volatile oil constituents are superior in terms of total identified constituents. Where relative area quantum is higher in Uttarakhand Himalayas samples, when compared with those originated to China and Korea.
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Bronchodilatory effect of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Nyctanthes arbortristis
Ramadan B Sopi, Muhammad Feroz Hayat Khan
July-September 2013, 5(3):169-172
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.112422  PMID:23901212
Background: Nyctanthes arbortristis has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of asthma and cough. Aim: In this study, bronchodilatory effect of ethanolic extract of the N. arbortristis was investigated under in vitro conditions. The concentration-response curve of the tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) to histamine was recorded in presence or absence of ethanolic extract and Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Dose-response effect of ethanolic extract on pre-constricted tissues was investigated. The ethanolic extract inhibited the histamine-induced maximum contractile responses of TSM ( P < 0.001). Ethanolic extract also cause dose-dependent relaxation of TSM. These effects were reversed by L-NAME. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of typical plant constituents. These results suggest the possible use of extract of the leaves of N. arbortristis as a bronchodilator in therapeutic treatment of asthma.
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