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   2013| January-March  | Volume 5 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 8, 2013

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Anti-diabetic properties of flavonoid compounds isolated from Hyphaene thebaica epicarp on alloxan induced diabetic rats
Josline Y Salib, Helana N Michael, Emad Fawzy Eskande
January-March 2013, 5(1):22-29
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.105644  PMID:23598921
Background: Diabetes mellitus, becoming the third killer of mankind after cancer and cardiovascular diseases, is one of the most challenging diseases facing health care professionals today. That is why; there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products for diabetes, especially those derived from plants. Aim: To evaluate the anti-diabetic activity together with the accompanying biological effects of the fractions and the new natural compounds of Hyphaene thebaica (HT) epicarp. Materials and Methods: 500 g of coarsely powdered of (HT) fruits epicarp were extracted by acetone. The acetone crude extract was fractionated with methanol and ethyl acetate leaving a residual water-soluble fraction WF . The anti-diabetic effects of the WF and one of its compounds of the acetone extract of the (HT) epicarp were investigated in this study using 40 adult male rats. Results: Phytochemical investigation of active WF revealed the presence of ten different flavonoids, among which two new natural compounds luteolin 7-O-[6″-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-β-D-galactopyranoside 3 and chrysoeriol 7-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl (1®2)-α-L-arabinofuranoside 5 were isolated. Supplementation of the WF improved glucose and insulin tolerance and significantly lowered blood glycosylated hemoglobin levels. On the other hand, compound 5 significantly reduced AST and ALT levels of liver, respectively. Likewise, the kidney functions were improved for both WF and compound 5 , whereby both urea and creatinine levels in serum were highly significant. Conclusion: The results justify the use of WF and compound 5 of the (HT) epicarp as anti-diabetic agent, taking into consideration that the contents of WF were mainly flavonoids.
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Protective effects of Picrorhiza kurroa on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in mice
Arshad Hussain, Wahab Shadma, Ali Maksood, Shahid Hussain Ansari
January-March 2013, 5(1):30-35
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.105646  PMID:23598922
Objective: To study the immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic and aqueous extract of the rhizomes of Picrorrhiza kurroa (Scrophulariaceae) in normal and immunosuppressed mice models. Materials and Methods: The rhizomes extract of Picrorrhiza kurroa was administered orally according to their body weight in mice. The study was carried out by various hematological and serological tests. The assessment of immunomodulatory activity on specific and non-specific immunity was studied by administration of test extract. The method of cyclophasphamide-induced immunosuppression was employed with slight modification to study the immunomodulatory potential of the extract. Plant extracts were administered by oral feeding canula to the test groups (groups III-VI), group I (control animals) and group II (model control animals) received same volume of normal saline (0.2 ml). Humoral antibody response to SRBC measurement of antibody titer by hemagglutination reaction was done. The mice belonging to the all groups were antigenically challenged with SRBC (0.5x10 9 cells/ml/100 g) on 10 th day intraparitoneally. Cellular immune response (Foot pad reaction test) the edema was induced by injecting SRBC (0.025x10 9 cells) in left paw, and 0.025 ml of saline was injected in right paw. Results: The plant extract showed protective effects on humoral immunity. The change in percentage deduction in footpad volume was also found significant (P<0.001). Administration of extract remarkably ameliorated both cellular and humoral antibody response. Conclusion: It is concluded that the test extracts possessed promising immunostimulant properties. But, the alcoholic extract is more potent than aqueous extract in producing delayed type hypersensitivity response.
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Volatile constituents of Pinus roxburghii from Nepal
Prabodh Satyal, Prajwal Paudel, Josna Raut, Akash Deo, Noura S Dosoky, William N Setzer
January-March 2013, 5(1):43-48
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.105650  PMID:23598924
Background: Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Is one of 3 species of pine found in Nepal, the oil of which is traditionally used to treat cuts, wounds, boils, and blisters. Objective: To obtain, analyze, and examine the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils of P. roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Three plant parts (cone, needle, and bark) of Pinus roxburghii were collected in Biratnagar, Nepal. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, and the chemical compositions were determined by GC-MS. The needle and cone essential oils were screened for anti-microbial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Aspergillus niger; brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality; and in-vitro cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. Results: GC-MS analysis for the cone oil revealed 81 compounds with 78 components being identified (95.5% of the oil) while 98.3% of needle oil was identified to contain 68 components and 98.6% of the bark oil (38 components) was identified. The 3 essential oils were dominated by sesquiterpenes, particularly (E)-caryophyllene (26.8%-34.5%) and α-humulene (5.0%-7.3%) as well as monoterpene alcohols terpinen-4-ol (4.1%-30.1%) and α-terpineol(2.8%-5.0%). The monoterpene δ-3-carene was present only in needle and cone essential oils (2.3% and 6.8%, respectively). Bio-activity assays of the cone essential oil of P. roxburghii showed remarkable cytotoxic activity (100% killing of MCF-7 cells at 100 μg/mL) along with notable brine shrimp lethality (LC50 =11.8 μg/mL). The cone essential oil did not show anti-bacterial activity, but it did exhibit anti-fungal activity against Aspergillus niger (MIC=39 μg/mL). Conclusion: The bioactivity of P. roxburghii essential oil is consistent with its traditional medicinal use.
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Anti-atherogenic and anti-ischemic potentials of Croton membranaceus observed during sub-chronic toxicity studies
Dan K Afriyie, George A Asare, Kwasi Bugyei, Isaac Asiedu-Gyekye, Ben A Gyan, Samuel Adjei, Phyllis Addo, Archibald Sittie, Alexander K Nyarko
January-March 2013, 5(1):10-16
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.105640  PMID:23598919
Background : Croton membranaceus (CM) is used for benign prostate hyperplasia treatment. Objective : Sub-chronic toxicity studies are non-existent and provided the basis for this study. Materials and Methods : 90 days oral administration of a low dose (LD) (30 mg/kg b. wt.), medium dose (MD) (150 mg/kg b. wt.), and high dose (HD) (300 mg/kg b. wt.) CM aqueous root extract to 3 groups (n=6 each) of male Sprague-Dawley rats, alongside a control group, was undertaken. Urinalysis, hepato-renal function tests, lipid profile, cardiac enzymes, and routine hematology tests were performed. Results : Triglyceride levels (C=1.05±0.19, LD=0.64±0.08, MD=0.55±0.04, HD=0.50±0.02 mmol/L) were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Very low density lipoprotein (C=0.48±0.09, LD=0.29±0.04, MD=0.25±0.02, HD=0.23±0.01 mmol/L) decreased significantly (P<0.05). Cardiac enzymes-creatinine kinase (C=568±172, LD=315±79, MD=441±209, HD=286±81 IU/L) decreased markedly (P<0.05) alongside lactate dehydrogenase (C=2675±875, LD=1667±1229, MD=1186±442, HD=855±239 IU/L) (P<0.05). Conclusion : C. membranaceus aqueous root extract is non-toxic but demonstrates anti-atherogenic and anti-ischemic potentials.
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Flavonoid glycosides and pharmacological activity of Amphilophium paniculatum
Mahmoud I Nassar, El-Sayed A Aboutabl, Dina M Eskander, Mary H Grace, Ezzel-Din A EL-Khrisy, Amany A Sleem
January-March 2013, 5(1):17-21
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.105643  PMID:23598920
Background: Nothing is reported on Amphilophium paniculatum (L.) Kunth. This study aimed at investigation of chemical constituents of the leaves of Amphilophium paniculatum, grown in Egypt, in addition to pharmacological evaluation. Materials and Methods: Isolation of a new compound, along with 5 known flavonoids. Pharmacological activities were carried out on different extracts of A. paniculatum leaves. Results: Identification of a new flavone glycoside, acacetin 8-C-β-D- glucopyranosy l-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) in addition to 5 known flavonoids. The 70% ethanol crud extract and its successive chloroform, ethyl acetate, and 100% ethanol extracts showed significant anti-inflammatoryactivity,analgesic effect, antipyretic activity, antioxidant activity, and anti-hyperglycemic activity. Determination of the median lethal dose (LD 50 ) revealed that the different extracts were safe.
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Screening of the antidepressant-like effect of the traditional Chinese medicinal formula Si-Ni-San and their possible mechanism of action in mice
Li-Tao Yi, Jing Li, Bin-Bin Liu, Cheng-Fu Li
January-March 2013, 5(1):36-42
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.105647  PMID:23598923
Background: The traditional Chinese medicine formula Si-Ni-San has well therapeutic applications in improvement of mental diseases including depression. However, the neuropharmacological and neuroendocrine mechanisms of the formula on antidepressant-like action have not been reported. Objective: Herein, we explored the antidepressant-like effect and its mechanism of Si- Ni-San. Materials and Methods: Acute effect of Si-Ni-San on the immobility time was assessed in the mouse forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Moreover, we investigated the neurochemical, neuroendocrine, and neurotrophin systems involved in the antidepressant-like effect of this formula. Results: Si-Ni-San significantly decreased the immobility time after acute treatment in the mouse TST (1300 mg/kg) but not in the FST compared with the control group. In addition, pretreatment of mice with PCPA or AMPT prevented the anti-immobility effect of Si-Ni-San (1300 mg/kg) in the TST. Moreover, acute Si-Ni-San (1300 mg/kg) decreased serum corticosterone levels, elevated serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) levels without affecting brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the whole brain exposed to TST. Conclusion: The acute antidepressant-like action of Si-Ni-San is mediated by the monoaminergic and neuroendocrine systems although underlying mechanism still remains to be further elucidated, and this formula should be further investigated as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of depression.
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Dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs-(oregano and sage) modulates innate immunity parameters in Lumbric us terrestris
DA Vattem, CE Lester, RC DeLeon, BY Jamison, V Maitin
January-March 2013, 5(1):1-9
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.105636  PMID:23598918
Introduction: Lamiaceae herbs have are well known for their immunomodulatory effects, however, the mechanism by which they effect innate immune system is not clearly understood. Objective: The effect of dietary supplementation with two Lamiaceae herbs (oregano and sage) modulation of on innate immunological parameters was investigated in Lumbricus terrestris. Materials and Methods: Animals were fed (ad libitum) on herbs supplemented diet [(0.1% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v)] for 6 days. Changes in immune competent cell counts, viability, and relative neutrophil-like cell counts were determined in response to herb treatment. Changes in nitric oxide, phagocytic activity, and respiratory burst index were also determined in response to herb treatment relative to control. Additionally, effect of herb co-treatment cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg-BW) induced immunosuppression was also evaluated. Results: Our results suggested abrogation of CP-induced immunosuppression in response to co-treatment with herbs. Significant increase in nitric oxide-mediated immune-competent cell counts, viability, and differentiation into neutrophil-like cells were observed in response to dietary supplementation with Lamiaceae herbs. Significantly higher phagocytic activity relative to control was also noted in response to dietary intake of oregano and sage. However, the respiratory burst index did not increase exponentially in response to herb treatments, suggesting a potential enhancement in pathogen recognition and antioxidant defenses. Conclusion: Lamiaceae herbs may have potential immune-modulatory properties important for human health and merits further investigation.
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