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   2012| October-December  | Volume 4 | Issue 4  
    Online since October 11, 2012

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In vitro erythrocyte membrane stabilization properties of Carica papaya L. leaf extracts
Priyanga Ranasinghe, Pathmasiri Ranasinghe, WP Kaushalya M. Abeysekera, GA Sirimal Premakumara, Yashasvi S Perera, Padmalal Gurugama, Saman B Gunatilake
October-December 2012, 4(4):196-202
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.102261  PMID:23225962
Background : Carica papaya L. fruit juice and leaf extracts are known to have many beneficial medical properties. Recent reports have claimed possible beneficial effects of C. papaya L. leaf juice in treating patients with dengue viral infections. This study aims to evaluate the membrane stabilization potential of C. papaya L. leaf extracts using an in vitro hemolytic assay. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in between June and August 2010. Two milliliters of blood from healthy volunteers and patients with serologically confirmed current dengue infection were freshly collected and used in the assays. Fresh papaya leaves at three different maturity stages (immature, partly matured, and matured) were cleaned with distilled water, crushed, and the juice was extracted with 10 ml of cold distilled water. Freshly prepared cold water extracts of papaya leaves (1 ml containing 30 μl of papaya leaf extracts, 20 μl from 40% erythrocytes suspension, and 950 μl of phosphate buffered saline) were used in the heat-induced and hypotonic-induced hemolytic assays. In dose response experiments, six different concentrations (9.375, 18.75, 37.5, 75, 150, and 300 μg/ml) of freeze dried extracts of the partly matured leaves were used. Membrane stabilization properties were investigated with heat-induced and hypotonicity-induced hemolysis assays. Results: Extracts of papaya leaves of all three maturity levels showed a significant reduction in heat-induced hemolysis compared to controls (P < 0.05). Papaya leaf extracts of all three maturity levels showed more than 25% inhibition at a concentration of 37.5 μg/ml. The highest inhibition of heat-induced hemolysis was observed at 37.5 μg/ml. Inhibition activity of different maturity levels was not significantly (P > 0.05) different from one another. Heat-induced hemolysis inhibition activity did not demonstrate a linear dose response relationship. At 37.5 μg/ml concentration of the extract, a marked inhibition of hypotonicity-induced hemolysis was observed. Conclusion: C. papaya L. leaf extracts showed a significant inhibition of hemolysis in vitro and could have a potential therapeutic effect on disease processes causing destabilization of biological membranes.
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Comparative analysis on the effect of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) in reducing cadmium and lead accumulation in liver of Wistar rats
Chukwuemeka R Nwokocha, Magdalene I Nwokocha, Daniel U Owu, Joshua Obi, Bukola Olatunde, Chioma Ebe, Ozioma Nwangwu, Moses O Iwuala
October-December 2012, 4(4):214-218
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.102266  PMID:23225965
Context : Palm oil from Elaeis guineensis is an edible nutrient substance with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We examined its protective effect against lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. Materials and Methods : 12% w/w of palm oil (PO) in rat chow concentrate was fed to rats exposed to Cd (200ppm) and Pb (100ppm) in drinking water at different feeding regimens. PO was administered either at the same time with the metals (group 2), post-treatment after exposure (group 3) or pre-treatment before exposure (group 4) for six weeks. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. Results : Weight losses induced by these metals were significantly (P<0.05) reversed by PO administration. Analysis among the groups showed that post-treatment group had a significant (P<0.05) higher percentage protection to Cd, but same time treatment for Pb (P<0.05) when compared with other groups. The protective ability to PO was only significantly (P<0.05) increased for Pb at week 2, but showed a time-dependent significant (P<0.05) increase for Cd across all treatment regimens. Conclusion : PO is beneficial in reducing metal accumulation in the liver and has a higher hepatoprotective effect to Cd compared to Pb at the selected doses by possibly affecting the processes of uptake, assimilation and elimination of these metals.
  4 2,192 31
In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of three herbal remedies for malaria in Ghana: Adenia cissampeloides (Planch.) Harms., Termina liaivorensis A. Chev, and Elaeis guineensis Jacq
Kofi Annan, K Sarpong, C Asare, R Dickson, KI Amponsah, B Gyan, M Ofori, SY Gbedema
October-December 2012, 4(4):225-229
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.102270  PMID:23225967
Background: Herbal remedies of Adenia cissampeloides, Terminalia ivorensis, and Elaeis guineensis among others have been used in Ghana for the treatment of various ailments including malaria. However, most of these remedies have not been scientifically investigated. Objective: This study, therefore, seeks to investigate the anti-plasmodial activity of these plants. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extracts of A. cissampeloides stem, T. ivorensis stem bark, and E. guineensis leaves were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Thin blood films were used to assess the level of parasitemia and growth inhibition of the extracts. Results: The IC 50 of A. cissampeloides, T. ivorensis, and E. guineensis were 8.521, 6.949, and 1.195 μg/ml, respectively, compared to artesunate with IC 50 of 0.031 μg/ml. Conclusion: The result of this study appears to confirm the folkloric anti-malarial use these plants.
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Modulation of genotoxicity of oxidative mutagens by glycyrrhizic acid from Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Prabhjit Kaur, Neha Sharma, Bikram Singh, Subodh Kumar, Satwinderjeet Kaur
October-December 2012, 4(4):189-195
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.102260  PMID:23225961
Background: The chemopreventive effects of certain phytoconstituents can be exploited for their use as functional foods, dietary supplements and even as drugs. The natural compounds, acting as anti-genotoxic and free radical scavenging compounds, may serve as potent chemopreventive agents. These can inhibit DNA modulatory activities of mutagens and help preventing pathological processes. Objectives: Present study on Glycyrrhiza glabra L., a promising medicinal plant, widely used in traditional medicine, focused on the bioassay-guided fractionation of its extracts for the isolation of certain phytochemicals with anti-genotoxic potential against oxidative mutagens. Materials and Methods: The methanol extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra rhizomes was subjected to column chromatography, and isolated fraction was evaluated for its anti-genotoxic and antioxidant potential using SOS chromotest, Comet assay, and DPPH radical scavenging assay. Results: GLG fraction, which was characterized as Glycyrrhizic acid, inhibited the genotoxicity of oxidative mutagens viz., H 2 O 2 and 4NQOquite efficiently. In SOS chromotest, using E.coli PQ37 tester strain, it inhibited induction factor induced by H 2 O 2 and 4NQO by 75.54% and 71.69% at the concentration of 121.46 μM,respectively. In Comet assay, it reduced the tail moment induced by H 2 O 2 and 4NQO by 70.21% and 69.04%, respectively, at the same concentration in human blood lymphocytes. The isolated fraction also exhibited DPPH free radical scavenging activity and was able to scavenge 85.95% radicals at a concentration of 120 μM. Conclusion: Glycyrrhizic acid is a potential modulator of genotoxins as well as efficient scavenger of free radicals.
  3 3,043 244
Comparative study on the hepatoprotection to heavy metals of Zingiber officinale
Chukwuemeka R Nwokocha, Daniel U Owu, Magdalene I Nwokocha, Chibueze S Ufearo, Moses O. E. Iwuala
October-December 2012, 4(4):208-213
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.102263  PMID:23225964
Context: Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) is a herb used for culinary and therapeutic purposes due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. Objectives: We examined its protective ability against mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver. Materials & Methods: Ground Zingiber officinale (7%, w/w of feed) was administered to rats either at the same time with the exposure ofheavy metals (group 2), a week after exposure to heavy metals (group 3) or given a week before heavy metal exposure (group 4) for six weeks. Animals were exposed to either of Hg (10 ppm), Cd (200 ppm) and Pb (100 ppm) in drinking water. The heavy metal accumulations in the liver were determined using AAS. Results: Weight losses induced by these metals were not reversed by Zingiber officinale administration. There was a significant (P<0.01) increase in protection to Pb (97%) and Cd (63%) accumulation when compared to Hg (32%) at week 2. The protective ability was significantly (P<0.01) decreased at week 4 when compared to week 2 for Cd and Pb but not to Hg in groups 3 (50%) and 4 (52%). At week 6, hepatoprotection to Hg (44%) and Cd (85%) was significantly (P<0.01) different but not to Pb which was only significant (P<0.05) in week 2 of treatment for all groups. Discussion and Conclusion: Zingiber officinale affected the bioavailability, elimination and uptake of these metals in a time-dependent way with highest beneficial reducing effect to Cd followed by Hg and least protection to Pb in the liver.
  2 2,757 43
Aerva lanata (Polpala): Its effects on the structure and function of the urinary tract
Mangala Gunatilake, M.D.S. Lokuhetty, Nuwan A Bartholameuz, Dilan T Edirisuriye, Muditha U Kularatne, Anand Date
October-December 2012, 4(4):181-188
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.102259  PMID:23225960
Context: Aerva lanata is not prescribed for long-term use in Ayurveda as it is believed to produce structural changes in the urinary tract of the patients leading to renal failure. Aim: To investigate the toxic effects of Aerva lanata on the structure and function of urinary tract of a rat model (Sprague-Dawley rats). Settings and Design: An experimental study. Thirty male and thirty female healthy rats were randomly assigned to three groups (test groups 1, 2 and control) and administered dried infusion of A. lanata 25g/200ml (low dose), 100g/200ml (high dose) and distilled water respectively, for 30 days. Materials and Methods: Blood and urine were collected and creatinine was measured. Creatinine clearance (Ccr) and urine flow rate (UFR) of rats were determined to assess renal function. Kidneys, ureters, and bladders of rats were harvested for light microscopic (LM) studies. Electron microscopic (EM) studies were done on kidney tissues. Statistical Analysis Used: Difference in mean values of Ccr and UFR between test groups and the control group were compared statistically using independent T test. LM and EM findings of the two treated groups (T1 and T2) were statistically compared with the control group (C) using standard normal distribution. Results: Ccr and UFR of test groups were not significantly different from that of the control group. LM studies did not show any histological changes suggesting toxicity. EM, however showed significant ultra structural changes in proximal convoluted tubular epithelial cells of rats in the two test groups. Conclusion: Administration of dried Aerva lanata for a period of one month did not produce significant effects on renal function of rats. However administration for the same period caused significant ultra structural changes in the proximal convoluted tubular epithelial cells.
  1 2,918 244
Evaluation of the protective and ameliorative properties of Garcinia kola on histamine-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs
Mina T Ibulubo, Gerald I Eze, Raymond I Ozolua, Doroteo Baxter-Grillo, Dickson O Uwaya
October-December 2012, 4(4):203-207
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.102262  PMID:23225963
Background: Garcinia kola is popularly used in African traditional medicine for the relief of acute bronchoconstrictive episodes. Objective: In this study, we examined the anti-asthmatic and morphological effects of the ethanol extract of G. kola in animal model. Materials and Methods: Guinea pigs were sensitized with ovalbumin and then given doses of 200 or 400 mg/kg/day for 21 consecutive days. Theophylline (10 mg/kg/day) was used as a standard. At the end of the exposure, the animals were exposed to 0.2% histamine aerosol in a chamber. Lymphocyte count, bronchial histology and morphometry were done. Results: Compared with non-sensitized controls, 200 mg/kg/day dose of the extract significantly (P < 0.05) increased the time taken for onset of preconvulsive dyspnea while the dose of 400 mg/kg/day significantly (P < 0.01) reduced bronchial wall thickness. Lymphocytes counts were not significantly affected but the bronchi of extract-treated animals were histologically clearer of lesions visible in the sensitized. Conclusion: These protective and ameliorative properties lend credence to the use of G. kola in ethnomedicine.
  1 2,506 38
Protective effects of natsumikan (Citrus natsudaidai) extract on acetaminophen-induced lethal hepatotoxicity in mice
Katsunori Yamaura, Noriyuki Nakayama, Maki Shimada, Koichi Ueno
October-December 2012, 4(4):234-236
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.102274  PMID:23225969
Background: Like other citrus fruits, natsumikan (Citrus natsudaidai ) contains several antioxidative nutrients which occur in higher concentrations in the peel than in the pulp. A high dose of acetaminophen (APAP) generates highly reactive intermediates and causes fatal liver injury. In this study, we examined whether an extract from immature natsumikan peel prevents lethal hepatotoxicity induced by a lethal dose of APAP in mice. Materials and Methods: Male ICR mice were treated orally with natsumikan extract (300 and 1,000 mg/kg) 2, 26, and 50 h before single oral APAP (300 mg/kg) administration. Mice were fasted for 18 h before APAP treatment, but given tap water ad libitum. Survival was assessed for 24 h after APAP treatment. Results: Following administration of 300 mg/kg APAP, all mice died within 6 h. However, pretreatment with natsumikan extract (300 and 1,000 mg/kg) or silymarin (300 and 1,000 mg/kg) increased the survival rate to 16.7%, 33.3%, 16.7%, and 50%, respectively, at 24 h. Conclusion: The results suggest that natsumikan has a protective effect on APAP-induced lethal hepatotoxicity.
  1 2,073 29
Preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial screening of Sesuvium portulacastrum in the United Arab Emirates
Amad Al-Azzawi, Alyaa Alguboori, Mahmoud Y Hachim, M Najat, A Al Shaimaa, Maryam Sad
October-December 2012, 4(4):219-224
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.102269  PMID:23225966
Background: The present study describes the phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Sesuvium portulacastrum. Materials and Methods: Three extracts of S. portulacastrum obtained by extraction in aqueous, ethanolic and dichloromethane solvents, respectively, were compared for their antimicrobial activity and ethanolic extract further subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis to find out the nature of the compounds responsible for the antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial activities were assessed by measuring the diameter of the inhibition zones, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values. Results: Compared to the aqueous and dichloromethane extract, the ethanolic extract showed better antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli, indicating its potential application related to noscomial infections. GC-MS results revealed 22, 23-Dihydrostigmasterol, Benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-(Gallic acid), (2R,3R)-(-)-Epicatechin and Capsaicin in the ethanolic extract to be the molecules responsible for the antimicrobial activity of S. portulacastrum. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on analysis of antimicrobial components from S. portulacastrum in United Arab Emirates (UAE), and our results confer the utility of this plant extract in developing a novel broad spectrum antimicrobial agent.
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Flower extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis modulates glutathione level in hydrogen peroxide treated lymphocytes
Anowar Hussain, Anand Ramteke
October-December 2012, 4(4):230-233
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.102272  PMID:23225968
Background: Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn (Oleaceae) is a well-known traditional medicinal plant used throughout the India as an herbal remedy for treating various infectious and non-infectious diseases. Objective: To evaluate the antioxidative activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of flower in the lymphocytes exposed to oxidative stress induced by H 2 O 2 . Materials and Methods: Isolated lymphocytes were treated in vitro with extract or extract+H 2 O 2, and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured. Results: Treatment of lymphocyte with flower extract (50, 100, and 200 μg/ ml) significantly increased the level of GSH and decreased the activity of GST. The LDH activity measured in the cell-free medium decreased significantly. Pre-treatment of lymphocyte with flower extract protects the lymphocyte from the H 2 O 2 induced oxidative stress by significantly increasing the levels of GSH as compared to the cells treated only with H 2 O 2 . Pre-treatment also reduced the activity of LDH significantly as compared to the cells treated only with H 2 O 2 . The LDH activity in cell-free medium is associated with membrane damage, the decreased levels of LDH activity reflects the reduced level of membrane damage due to H 2 O 2 . Conclusion: The present findings suggest the protective role of the hydro-alcoholic extracts of the flower of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis against membrane damage induced by H 2 O 2 . The results also suggest that the extract might be rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant/radical scavenging potentials, which might find application in antioxidant therapy.
  - 1,956 32