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   2012| January-March  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 21, 2011

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
GC-MS analysis of phytocomponents in the ethanol extract of Polygonum chinense L.
Bagavathi Perumal Ezhilan, Ramasamy Neelamegam
January-March 2012, 4(1):11-14
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.91028  
Background: The presence of diverse secondary metabolites has been reported from species of the genus Polygonum. However, there has been not much information available on phytochemical components and biological activity in the whole plant ethanol extract of Polygonum chinense L. Objective: This study was designed to determine the phytocomponents in the whole plant ethanol extract of P. chinense. Materials and Methods: GC-MS analysis of the whole plant ethanol extract of P. chinense was performed using a Perkin-Elmer GC Clarus 500 system comprising an AOC-20i auto-sampler and a gas chromatograph interfaced to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Results: This investigation was carried out to determine the possible chemical components from P. chinense by GC-MS. This analysis revealed that the ethanol extract of P. chinense (whole plant) contained mainly a triterpene compound-squalene (47.01%), and a plasticizer compound-1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono[2-ethylhexyl]ester (40.30%). All identified compounds were, generally, reported as having antimicrobial activity. In addition, the squalene compound also having anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, chemo-preventive, pesticidal and sun-screen properties, while the plasticizer compound -1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono[2-ethylhexyl] ester reported to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. No activity was reported in the alcoholic compound-4-hexene-1-ol, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethanyl)-acetate-(R)-. Conclusions: From the results, it is evident that P. chinense contains various bioactive compounds and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance.
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Hepatoprotective effect of poly herbal formulation against various hepatotoxic agents in rats
Anil U Tatiya, Sanjay J Surana, Manisha P Sutar, Nehal H Gamit
January-March 2012, 4(1):50-56
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.91040  
Background: Individually Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Acanthaceae), Phyllanthus niruri Linn.(Euphorbiaceae) and Phyllanthus emblica Linn. single plant extracts have been reported to have hepatoprotective activity. However, literature survey shows that no sufficient scientific data has been publish on pharmacological evaluation of these plants in combined form. Method: Hepatoprotective activity of the polyherbal hepatoprotaective formulation (PHF)-containing spray-dried aqueous extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees. (Acanthaceae), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) and Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), was screened against paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), and ethanol-induced hepatic damage in rats. PHF was evaluated by measuring levels of serum marker enzymes like SGOT, SGPT, ALP, direct bilirubin (DB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The histological studies were also studied support the biochemical parameters. Silymarin was used as standard drug. Results: Administration of PHF (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) significantly inhibited paracetamol, CCl 4 and ethanol-induced elevation levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP, DB and LDH. A comparative histopathological study of liver exhibited almost normal architecture as compared to toxicant group. Conclusion: Results suggests that the hepatoprotective effects of PHF might be useful for liver protection due to combined action of all plant extracts along with their phytoconstituents.
  18 5,143 39
Antidepressant-like effects of young green barley leaf (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the mouse forced swimming test
Katsunori Yamaura, Noriyuki Nakayama, Maki Shimada, Yuanyuan Bi, Hideki Fukata, Koichi Ueno
January-March 2012, 4(1):22-26
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.91030  
Background: Young green barley leaf is one of the richest sources of antioxidants and has been widely consumed for health management in Japan. In this study, we examined whether oral administration of young green barley leaf has an antidepressant effect on the forced swimming test in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice were individually forced to swim in an open cylindrical container, one hour after oral administration of young green barley leaf (400 or 1000 mg / kg) or imipramine (100 mg / kg). Expression of mRNA for nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glucocorticoid receptor in the brain was analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: There was a significant antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test; both 400 and 1000 mg / kg young green barley leaves, as well as the positive control imipramine (100 mg / kg), reduced the immobility duration compared to the vehicle group. The expression of mRNA for NGF detected in the hippocampus immediately after the last swimming test was higher than that in the non-swimming group (Nil). Oral administration of imipramine suppressed this increase to the level of the Nil group. Young green barley leaf (400 and 1000 mg / kg) also showed a moderate decrease in the expression of mRNA for NGF, in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Oral administration of young green barley leaf is able to produce an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test. Consequently it is possible that the antidepressant-like effects of the young green barley leaf are, at least in part, mediated by an inhibition of the increase in the hippocampus levels of NGF.
  16 3,616 37
Black tea (Camellia sinensis) decoction shows immunomodulatory properties on an experimental animal model and in human peripheral mononuclear cells
Chandan Chattopadhyay, Nandini Chakrabarti, Mitali Chatterjee, Sonali Mukherjee, Kajari Sarkar, A Roy Chaudhuri
January-March 2012, 4(1):15-21
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.91029  
Background: Black tea (Camellia sinensis) has been used as a daily beverage for time immemorial. Immunomodulatory effects of tea are recognized as it stimulates the proliferation of cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Anti-inflammatory effects of tea have also been depicted in the available literature. Therefore, we designed this study to examine the potential immunemodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of black tea in a rat model and in human peripheral mononuclear cells. Aims: The purpose of the study was to determine (1) evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects of black tea on rats, (2) evaluation of immunemodulator effects of black tea on rats, and (3) evaluation of immunemodulator effects of black tea on human peripheral mononuclear cells. Materials and Methods: Black tea decoction (10% and 20%) was prepared. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of tea decoction was evaluated using carrageenan and dextran whereas chronic anti-inflammatory (Immunomodulatory) effects were evaluated in a complete Freunds' adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Immunostimulatory role was evaluated in cultured human (in vitro) peripheral mononuclear cells (T-lymphocytes) by using methyl thioazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and Trypan blue assay. Study Design: An experimental study was designed. Results: Black tea decoction (10% and 20%) strength has shown significant anti-inflammatory effects (64.8% and 77% reduction, respectively), on carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory models (rat paw edema) which can be comparable with the standard drug indomethacin (89.1%). In a chronic anti-inflammatory model, black tea decoction (10% and 20%) has shown significant suppressive effects on rat paw edema (38.56% and 69.53%) observed on 21 st day. Lymphoproliferative action of tea was evaluated on human peripheral mononuclear cells using an MTT assay where the number of living cells were expressed in terms of optical density at 570 nm. An experiment has shown that black tea increases the maximum number of T-lymphocytes at 72 h with a maximum strength of 20%. Maximum number of viable cells (T-lymphocytes) was observed with black tea at 20% strength at 72 h. The results were expressed as mean ± SD, and the significance was evaluated by Student's t-test versus control, with P < 0.05 implying significance. Conclusions: Taken together, our data indicate that black tea has potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory action and this corroborates with the current trend of tea being promoted as a 'health drink'.
  10 2,993 38
Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects of the hydro-methanolic extract of the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male albino rats
Kishalay Jana, Kausik Chatterjee, Kazi Monjur Ali, Debasis De, Tushar Kanti Bera, Debidas Ghosh
January-March 2012, 4(1):57-62
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.91044  
Background: No satisfactory effective treatment is available yet to cure diabetes mellitus. Though, synthetic drugs are used but there are several drawbacks. The attributed antihyperglycemic effects of many traditional plants are due to their ability for the management of diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A hydromethanolic extract was administered orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg of body weight per day for 21 days. Its effects on the fasting blood glucose (FBG) level, activities of key carbohydrate metabolic enzymes like hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and antioxidant enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase along with the effect on the lipid peroxidation level in hepatic tissues were measured. Glycogen levels were also assessed in hepatic and skeletal muscles and some toxicity parameters, such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and alkaline phosphates activities were measured. Results: Treatment of the hydromethanolic extract of the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) recovery in the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes along with correction in FBG and glycogen levels as compared with the untreated diabetic group. The extract also resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) recovery in the activities of toxicity assessment enzyme parameters. Activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase along with the lipid peroxidation levels were also recovered significantly (P < 0.05) after the treatment of the extract. The corrective effects produced by the extract were compared with the standard antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide. Conclusion: Our findings provide that the extract shows possible antihyperglycemic and antioxidative activities.
  10 3,234 40
Dichlorvos and lindane induced oxidative stress in rat brain: Protective effects of ginger
Poonam Sharma, Rambir Singh
January-March 2012, 4(1):27-32
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.91031  
Background: Dichlorvos and lindane pesticide causes toxicity in animals including humans. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is widely used as a culinary medicine in the Ayurvedic system of medicine, possessing a number of pharmacological properties. Objective: This study was designed to assess ameliorating effects of ginger juice in dichlorvos and lindane induced neurotoxicity in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Dichlorvos (8.8 mg/kg bw) and lindane (8.8 mg/kg bw) were orally administered alone as well as in combination to adult male and female wistar rats for 14 days followed by the post-treatment of ginger juice (100 mg/kg bw) for 14 days. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), quinine reductase (QR), and protein level were measured to evaluate the toxicity of these pesticides in brain. Results: Dichlorvos and lindane administration alone and in combination increased LPO and decreased the GSH level, SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, QR activity, and protein. Oxidative stress due to abnormal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is believed to be involved in the toxicities induced by these pesticides. Post-treatment of ginger juice decreased LPO and increased the level of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GR, QR activity and protein in the brain of rats. Conclusions: The results indicated that dichlorovos and lindane induced tissue damage was ameliorated by ginger juice.
  9 3,331 36
Effect of Butea monosperma Lam. leaves and bark extracts on blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic rats
Faiyaz Ahmed, NS Siddaraju, M Harish, Asna Urooj
January-March 2012, 4(1):33-36
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.91032  
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that has significant impact on the health, quality of life and life expectancy, as well as on the health care system. Butea monosperma Lam. Kuntze (Fabaceae), commonly known as palash, is widely used in the treatment of various diseases and disorders including diabetes. Materials and Methods: The present study was planned to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous extracts of B. monosperma leaves and bark in streptozotocin-induced severely diabetic rats. The animals were divided into four groups, with each consisting of six rats, viz. control, diabetic control, leaf extract-treated and bark extract-treated groups. Treatment was continued for 6 weeks. The biochemical estimations included blood glucose and serum insulin levels. Histopathology of pancreas was also performed. Results: The results indicated that both leaf and bark extracts of B. monosperma produced insignificant antihyperglycemic activity. The leaf and bark extracts reduced blood glucose to an extent of 28% and 11%, respectively. It was also evidenced that both leaf and bark extracts did not increase insulin synthesis or secretion and did not improve pancreatic architecture as reflected by the histopathologic studies. Conclusions: The findings of the study emphasize that B. monosperma does not possess significant antidiabetic activity in severe experimental diabetes at the dosage tested.
  5 2,585 33
Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade
A Satish, Sudha Sairam, Faiyaz Ahmed, Asna Urooj
January-March 2012, 4(1):44-49
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.91034  
Background : The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) leaf (MOL) and root (MOR). Materials and Methods : Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Results : Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen) and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aa and Bb subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. Conclusions : These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing.
  5 4,742 41
A computational perspective of molecular interactions through virtual screening, pharmacokinetic and dynamic prediction on ribosome toxin A chain and inhibitors of Ricinus communis
R Barani Kumar, M Xavier Suresh
January-March 2012, 4(1):2-10
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.91027  
Background: Ricin is considered to be one of the most deadly toxins and gained its favor as a bioweapon that has a serious social and biological impact, due to its widespread nature and abundant availability. The hazardous effects of this toxin in human being are seen in almost all parts of the organ system. The severe consequences of the toxin necessitate the need for developing potential inhibitors that can effectively block its interaction with the host system. Materials and Methods: In order to identify potential inhibitors that can effectively block ricin, we employed various computational approaches. In this work, we computationally screened and analyzed 66 analogs and further tested their ADME/T profiles. From the kinetic and toxicity studies we selected six analogs that possessed appropriate pharmacokinetic and dynamic property. We have also performed a computational docking of these analogs with the target. Results: On the basis of the dock scores and hydrogen bond interactions we have identified analog 64 to be the best interacting molecule. Molecule 64 seems to have stable interaction with the residues Tyr80, Arg180, and Val81. The pharmacophore feature that describes the key functional features of a molecule was also studied and presented. Conclusion: The pharmacophore features of the drugs provided suggests the key functional groups that can aid in the design and synthesis of more potential inhibitors.
  4 4,030 32
Antibacterial activity and the histopathological study of crude extracts and isolated tecomine from Tecoma stans Bignoniaceae in Iraq
Amad M Al-Azzawi, Ekbal Al-Khateeb, Kulood Al-Sameraei, Alyaa G Al-Juboori
January-March 2012, 4(1):37-43
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.91033  
Background: Tecoma stans (Bignoniaceae) is a central and south American tree used for the control of diabetes, also known as Yellow Elder, it was collected from the gardens of Al-Jadria in Iraq. Materials and Methods: One of the main reported alkaloidal constituents, tecomine, was isolated and confirmed by spectral analysis. The bacteriological assay for different plant leaves extracts; aqueous, ethanolic, and isolated tecomine were conducted to evaluate the antibacterial effect against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Results: Whole alcoholic and aqueous extract exhibited the antibacterial activity and isolated tecomine. Histopathological evaluation was demonstrated on the liver, spleen, and pancreas of the BALB/c mice given the whole alcoholic and aqueous extract that showed no significant changes in the organ texture. Conclusion: Biochemical analysis of the serum obtained showed decrease in the glucose level in the mice treated with plant extract at the most two higher concentrations used with no change in the cholesterol and triglyceride level.
  3 2,868 36
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Identification of the protease inhibitor miraziridine A in the Red sea sponge Theonella swinhoei
Paula Tabares, Björn Degel, Norbert Schaschke, Ute Hentschel, Tanja Schirmeister
January-March 2012, 4(1):63-66
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.91047  
Background : Miraziridine A, a natural peptide isolated from a marine sponge, is a potent cathepsin B inhibitor with a second-order rate constant of 1.5 x 10 4 M -1 s -1 . In the present study, miraziridine A was isolated from the Red Sea sponge Theonella swinhoei on the basis of chromatographic and spectrometric techniques. We conclude that T. swinhoei from the Red Sea represents an alternative source of the aziridinylpeptide miraziridine A to the previously identified Theonella mirabilis from Japan. We confirmed that the metabolite is produced by marine sponges from different geographical locations. Context : Marine sponges have been proven to be a rich source of secondary metabolites exhibiting a huge diversity of biological activities, including antimicrobial, antitumor and immunomodulatory activities. Theonella species (order Lithistida, Demospongiae) have been shown to be a source of anti-protease and anti-HIV secondary metabolites. Aims : To identify the protease inhibitor mirazirine A in the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei. Material and Methods : The marine sponge Theonella swinhoei was collected by SCUBA diving in the Red Sea in Eilat (Israel). Sponge material was lyophilized and further extracted successively with cyclohexane, dichloromethane and methanol to obtain three crude extracts. LC-MS analysis was performed to confirm the presence of Miraziridine A in the dichloromethane fraction. Results : In the present study, miraziridine A was isolated from the Red Sea sponge T. swinhoei on the basis of chromatographic and spectrophotometric techniques. Conclusions : We conclude that T. swinhoei from the Red Sea represents an alternative source of the aziridinylpeptide miraziridine A to the previously identified Theonella mirabilis from Japan.
  2 2,461 50
EDITORIAL
Pharmacognosy Research : The future looks very promising
Ambrose Furey
January-March 2012, 4(1):1-1
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.91026  
  1 2,118 33
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