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   2011| April-June  | Volume 3 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 8, 2011

 
 
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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Are we in the polyphenols era?
Sanjib Bhattacharya
April-June 2011, 3(2):147-147
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.81966  PMID:21772762
  15 1,868 26
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Cupressus arizonica E.L. Greene against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)
Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat, Alireza Sanei Dehkordi, Mahnaz Khanavi, Mohammad Reza Abai, Fatemeh Mohtarami, Hassan Vatandoost
April-June 2011, 3(2):135-139
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.81962  PMID:21772758
Background: Using botanical insecticides as an alternative biocontrol technique for vector control is considered by some scientists. Materials and Methods: Chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil of Cupressus arizonica was investigated against fourth instar larvae of laboratory-reared An. stephensi according to the method of the World Health Organization. Results: Of 46 constituents in the oil, limonene (14.44%), umbellulone (13.25%) and α-pinene (11%) were determined as the main constituents. Cupressus arizonica volatile oil showed significant larvicidal activity against An. stephensi with LC 50 and LC 90 values 79.30 ppm and 238.89 ppm respectively. Clear dose-response relationships were established with the highest dose of 160 ppm essential oil with almost 100% mortality. Discussion: The results from this study revealed that C. arizonica essential oil could be considered as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. However, the field evaluation of the formulation is necessary.
  14 3,807 34
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Chemical constituents and biological studies of Origanum vulgare Linn.
Gottumukkala Venkateswara Rao, T Mukhopadhyay, T Annamalai, N Radhakrishnan, MR Sahoo
April-June 2011, 3(2):143-145
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.81964  PMID:21772760
Bioassay-guided isolation of methanolic extract of the leaves of Origanum vulgare Linn., yielded two protocatechuic acid ester derivatives, origanol A (1) and origanol B (2) along with ursolic acid (3), oleanolic acid (4), β-sitosterol (5), and triacontanol (6). Structures of the compound were established based on physical and spectral data (UV, IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR and mass). Origanol A (1) showed significant mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity.
  13 3,512 27
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antiproliferative and phytochemical analyses of leaf extracts of ten Apocynaceae species
Siu Kuin Wong, Yau Yan Lim, Noor Rain Abdullah, Fariza Juliana Nordin
April-June 2011, 3(2):100-106
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.81957  PMID:21772753
Background: The anticancer properties of Apocynaceae species are well known in barks and roots but less so in leaves. Materials and Methods: In this study, leaf extracts of 10 Apocynaceae species were assessed for antiproliferative (APF) activities using the sulforhodamine B assay. Their extracts were also analyzed for total alkaloid content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), and radical scavenging activity (RSA) using the Dragendorff precipitation, Folin-Ciocalteu, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Results: Leaf extracts of Alstonia angustiloba, Calotropis gigantea, Catharanthus roseus, Nerium oleander, Plumeria obtusa, and Vallaris glabra displayed positive APF activities. Extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Cerbera odollam, Dyera costulata, and Kopsia fruticosa did not show any APF activity. Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of C. gigantea, and DCM and DCM:MeOH extracts of V. glabra showed strong APF activities against all six human cancer cell lines. Against breast cancer cells of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, DCM extracts of C. gigantea and N. oleander were stronger than or comparable to standard drugs of xanthorrhizol, curcumin, and tamoxifen. All four extracts of N. oleander were effective against MCF-7 cells. Extracts of Kopsia fruticosa had the highest TAC while those of Dyera costulata had the highest TPC and RSA. Extracts of C. gigantea and V. glabra inhibited the growth of all six cancer cell lines while all extracts of N. oleander were effective against MCF-7 cells. Conclusion: Extracts of C. gigantea, V. glabra, and N. oleander therefore showed great promise as potential candidates for anticancer drugs. The wide-spectrum APF activities of these three species are reported for the first time and their bioactive compounds warrant further investigation.
  11 5,235 49
Screening for estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of plants growing in Egypt and Thailand
Ali M El-Halawany, Riham Salah El Dine, Mi Hwa Chung, Tsutomu Nishihara, Masao Hattori
April-June 2011, 3(2):107-113
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.81958  PMID:21772754
Background: There is a growing demand for the discovery of new phytoestrogens to be used as a safe and effective hormonal replacement therapy. Materials and Methods: The methanol extracts of 40 plants from the Egyptian and Thailand folk medicines were screened for their estrogen agonist and antagonist activities. The estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects of the tested extracts were carried out using the yeast two-hybrid assay system expressing ERα and ERβ. In addition, all the extracts were subjected to a naringinase treatment and retested for their estrogenic activity. Results: The methanol extracts of Derris reticulata and Dracaena lourieri showed the most potent estrogenic activity on both estrogen-receptor subtypes, while, the methanol extracts of Butea monosperma, Erythrina fusca, and Dalbergia candenatensis revealed significant estrogenic activity on ERβ only. Nigella sativa, Sophora japonica, Artabotrys harmandii, and Clitorea hanceana showed estrogenic effect only after naringinase treatment. The most potent antiestrogenic effect was revealed by Aframomum melegueta, Dalbergia candenatensis, Dracena loureiri, and Mansonia gagei.
  10 4,369 33
Design and development of a stable polyherbal formulation based on the results of compatibility studies
Shrinivas G Bhope, Dheeraj H Nagore, Vinod V Kuber, Pankaj K Gupta, Manohar J Patil
April-June 2011, 3(2):122-129
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.81960  PMID:21772756
Introduction: Ayurvedic and herbal medicinal products contain a combination of botanicals; each of these contains a number of chemical compounds that may give the anticipated activity in combination. Therefore, it is very important to analyze and evaluate the compatibility of various active constituents and markers from different medicinal plants for their possible chemical interactions with various excipients at different storage conditions during the development of a stable polyherbal formulation. Objective: To study chemical stability of kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) and kutki (Picrorhiza kurroa) extract for their active markers andrographolide, kutkoside and picroside-I and to develop stable polyherbal formulation based on the incompatibility studies. Materials and Methods: The compatibility study was carried out on individual ethanolic extracts of these two plants along with the commonly used excipients in the ratio of 1:1 at 40 ± 2°C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity and at a refrigeration temperature of 5 ± 1°C for initial, 7-, 15- and 30-day intervals. The analysis was carried out using the validated reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography methods. A stable tablet dosage form was developed based on the results of these studies. Result: The study suggested that the active markers of kutki (kutkoside and picroside-I) were found to be degraded in the presence of the kalmegh extract. However, the active marker of the kalmegh extract (andrographolide) was found to be stable. Both the extracts showed excellent compatibility with all the excipients used in making this formulation. No significant decrease in the kutkoside and picroside-I content from the formulation was observed. Conclusion: By separate granulation process the exposure of both the extracts can be minimized thus avoiding the degradation of active markers.
  9 4,075 48
An examination of the medicinal potential of Scaevola spinescens: Toxicity, antibacterial, and antiviral activities
Ian E Cock, Liisa Kukkonen
April-June 2011, 3(2):85-94
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.81955  PMID:21772751
Background: Scaevola spinescens is an endemic Australian native plant with a history of use as a medicinal agent by indigenous Australians. Yet the medicinal bioactivities of this plant are poorly studied. Materials and Methods: S. spinescens solvent extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity and toxicity in vitro. Results: All extracts displayed antibacterial activity in the disc diffusion assay. The methanol extract proved to have the broadest specificity, inhibiting the growth of 7 of the 14 bacteria tested (50%). The water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane extracts inhibited the growth of 6 (42.9%), 5 (35.7%), 5 (35.7%), and 4 (28.6%) of the 14 bacteria tested, respectively. S. spinescens methanolic extracts were equally effective against Gram-positive (50%) and Gram-negative bacteria (50%). All other extracts were more effective at inhibiting the growth of Gram-negative bacteria. All extracts also displayed antiviral activity in the MS2 plaque reduction assay with the methanol, water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane extracts inhibiting 95.2 ± 1.8%, 72.3 ± 6.3%, 82.6 ± 4.5%, 100 ± 0% and 47.7 ± 12.9% of plaque formation, respectively. All S. spinescens extracts were nontoxic in the Artemia fransiscana bioassay with no significant increase in mortality induced by any extract at 24 and 48 h. The only increase in mortality was seen for the water extract at 72 h, although even this extract displayed low toxicity, inducing only 41.7 ± 23.3% mortality. Conclusions: The lack of toxicity of the S. spinescens extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against bacteria and viruses validate the Australian Aboriginal usage of S. spinescens and indicates its medicinal potential.
  9 3,776 39
Liver protective activity of a hydroethanolic extract of Arrabidaea chica (Humb. and Bonpl.) B. Verl. (pariri)
Benedito Junior Lima de Medeiros, Kelém dos Santos Costa, Jeane Francisca Alves Ribeiro, José Otavio Carrera Silva Jr, Wagner Luiz Ramos Barbosa, José Carlos Tavares Carvalho
April-June 2011, 3(2):79-84
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.81954  PMID:21772750
Background: Folk medicine uses preparations of Arrabidaea chica (pariri) leaves to treat various liver pathologies. We evaluated the effects of the hydroethanolic extract of these leaves (CHEE) on an in vivo model of liver intoxication. Materials and Methods: Different groups of rats were treated orally for 7 days with CHEE at doses of 300, 500 or 600 mg/kg or silymarin at 35 mg/kg. The control group received only 0.5 ml of distilled water. After 7 days of treatment, both the groups received CCl 4 , and activities of glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and bilirubin level were assessed. The ability of CHEE to suppress hepatic injury triggered by CCl 4 was evaluated based on suppression (%) of activities of GOT, GPT and bilirubin levels. Results: The chromatograms of the CHEE obtained at 330 and 400 nm show features of two main classes of secondary metabolites: quinones and flavonoids. The administration of 300, 500 or 600 mg/kg of CHEE resulted in the reduction of GPT levels by 85.34%, 88.59% and 93.72%, respectively. The suppression of GOT levels was 56.86%, 65.27% and 68.95%, respectively, and that of plasma bilirubin was 83.81%, 83.12% and 84.14%, respectively. These results demonstrate the protective character of CHEE and its ability to maintain the functional integrity of hepatic cells. Conclusions: The results obtained are possibly due to the presence of quinones and flavonoids in A. chica CHEE, both detected using high performance liquid chromatography.
  7 5,169 47
Immunomodulatory and erythropoietic effects of aqueous extract of the fruits of Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanaceae)
George A Koffuor, Patrick Amoateng, Terrick A Andey
April-June 2011, 3(2):130-134
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.81961  PMID:21772757
Aim: The effect of Solanum torvum (Fam: Solanaceae) on delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, hemagglutinating antibody (HA) titer, white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin concentration was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats to establish immunomodulatory and erythropoietic activity. Materials and Methods: Sheep red blood cells (SRBC)-immunized and challenged rats were treated with Solanum torvum extract, levamisole and dexamethasone. Phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced anemia in rats was treated with the extract. Results: The aqueous Solanum torvum extract and levamisole significantly enhanced DTH response, increased HA titer and WBC count, while dexamethasone significantly decreased DTH response, did not increase HA titer, and did not enhance WBC profile. The extract and Feroglobin, the reference heamatinic, were able to reverse PHZ-induced anemia, and increase the RBCs and Hb concentration above baseline values within 24 days. Conclusion: Solanum torvum extract showed a concentration-dependent immunostimulant and erythropoietic activity.
  7 2,873 26
Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam
Ahmed M.A Abd El-Mawla, Husam Eldien H Osman
April-June 2011, 3(2):114-121
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.81959  PMID:21772755
Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. Objective: The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats) was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. Results: A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the 1 st and 3 rd groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the 2 nd group when compared with the 4 th control group. Conclusion: This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs.
  6 3,967 29
An in vitro evaluation of the anthelmintic activity of Hedychium spichatum rhizomes and Zingiber zerumbet rhizomes on the Pheritima Posthuma model: A comparative study
Shambaditya Goswami, Awanish Pandey, Poonam Tripathi, Asheesh Singh, Amrita Rai
April-June 2011, 3(2):140-142
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.81963  PMID:21772759
Ethanolic extracts of Hedychium spichatum rhizomes and Zingiber zerumbet rhizomes were taken for in vitro comparative studies on the anthelmintic activity against Pheritima posthuma. Different concentrations (25, 50, 100 mg/ml) of both the extracts were used for the activity. Varying albendazole concentrations (25, 50, 100 mg/ml) were used as a reference standard and normal saline (0.9% NaCl) was used for the control treatment. The results were expressed in terms of time in minutes to report the paralysis and time of death of the earthworms. The results obtained from the study indicate toward the anthelmintic activity, supporting folk use of both the plants when compared with the standard. The results also established that Z. zerumbet was a more potent candidature of as compared with H. spichatum.
  5 2,450 23
Methanolic extracts of Aloe secundiflora Engl. inhibits in vitro growth of tuberculosis and diarrhea-causing bacteria
Richard M Mariita, John A Orodho, Paul O Okemo, Claude Kirimuhuzya, Joseph N Otieno, Joseph J Magadula
April-June 2011, 3(2):95-99
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.81956  PMID:21772752
Background: The emergence of resistance to antimicrobials by pathogens has reached crisis levels, calling for identification of alternative means to combat diseases. Objective: To determine antimicrobial activity of crude methanolic extract of Aloe secundiflora Engl. from Lake Victoria region of Kenya. Materials and Methods: Extract was tested against four strains of mycobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. kansasii, M. fortuitum and M. smegmatis), Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and a fungus Candida albicans. activity of the extract was determined using BACTEC TM MGIT TM 960 system. General antibacterial and antifungal activity was determined using standard procedures: zones of inhibition, Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Bactericidal/Fungicidal Concentrations (MBCs/MFCs). Results: The extract was potent against M. fortuitum, M. smegmatis and M. kansasii where it completely inhibited growth (Zero growth units (GUs)) in all the extract concentrations used. It gave strong antimycobacterial activity (157 GUs) against M. tuberculosis. It showed strong antimicrobial activity (P≤0.05), giving inhibition zones ≥9.00 mm against most microorganisms, such as P. aeruginosa (MIC 9.375 mg mL -1 and MBC of 18.75 mg mL -1 ), E. coli (both MIC and MBC of 18.75 mg mL -1 ), S. aureus and S. typhi (both with MIC and MBC of 37.5 mg mL -1 ). Preliminary phytochemistry revealed presence of terpenoids, flavonoids and tannins. Conclusion: The data suggests that Aloe secundiflora could be a rich source of antimicrobial agents. The result gives scientific backing to its use by the local people of Lake Victoria region of Kenya, in the management of conditions associated with the tested microorganisms.
  4 3,377 32
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Monograph: Ochrocarpus longifolius
Roopesh Jain, Archana Tiwari
April-June 2011, 3(2):146-146
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.81965  PMID:21772761
  - 2,355 30
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