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   2010| September-October  | Volume 2 | Issue 5  
    Online since November 8, 2010

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Variation in gymnemic acid content and non-destructive harvesting of Gymnema sylvestre (Gudmar)
Ashok Kumar Pandey, Swati Yadav
September-October 2010, 2(5):309-312
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.72330  PMID:21589758
Background: Madhunashini (Gymnema sylvestre R. Br.) commonly known as 'Gudmar' in Hindi is an important medicinal climber and extensively used in almost all Indian System of Medicine as a remedy for diabetes, rheumatism, cough, ulcer, jaundice, dyspepsia, constipation, eyes pain and also in snakebite. In India, it is found growing in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharastra, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The major phytoconstituents are gymnemic acids, gudmarin and saponins. Methods: In the present study, Gymnema germplasm collected from various regions of Madhya Pradesh was evaluated on the basis of their morphological characteristics and gymnemic acid content. Gymnemic acid content in the leaves was estimated by HPLC. We have also standardized the non-destructive harvesting practices of Gudmar. Selective harvesting was done without harming the main plant. Only mature leaves (60%) were hand plucked in the month of October. Second harvest was done in the month of June. Results: Data revealed that gymnemic acid content varied between 0.96% ± 0.03 (Seoni) to 1.58% ±0.03 (Amarkantak). It was also observed that the leaves left at the time of 1 st harvest during October matured in June at the time of 2 nd harvest. Conclusion: Non destructive harvesting practice did not have any negative impact on overall development of the plant. It is evident that there is wide variation in the morphological characteristics and gymnemic acid content in G. sylvestre collected from various locations, which can be exploited for further crop improvement programmes.
  4,733 31 7
Evaluation of physicochemical and phytochemical properties of Safoof-E-Sana, a Unani polyherbal formulation
Ajazuddin , Shailendra Saraf
September-October 2010, 2(5):318-322
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.72332  PMID:21589760
Background: Although the formulations of the Unani system of medicine are popular, not much scientific work has been reported so far. The present article is an attempt to establish the scientific basis of one of the popular Unani formulations Safoof-ESana, a polyherbal formulation widely used as a laxative. Methods: Investigations were carried out to study the physicochemical and phytochemical properties of Safoof-E-Sana and its active ingredients. Results and Conclusion: The values of percentage loss on drying, angle of repose, Hausner ratio, and Carr's index of the formulation were calculated as 8.25 ± 0.582, 27.68, 1.23, and 19 respectively, which indicate that the moisture content of the formulation is within the range and depict good flow characteristics. The total ash, acid- nsoluble ash, and water-soluble ash were found to be 19.146 ± 0.237, 2.351 ± 0.223, and 49.216 ± 0.634, respectively; the value of total ash indicates that the inorganic contents of the formulation are below the limits. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the formulation and ingredients were prepared and evaluated for phytochemical analysis and extractive values, and the results show that alkaloids of the formulation are more soluble in water than in alcohol and the higher aqueous extractive value (45.784 ± 0.876) of Unani formulation depicts that water is a better solvent of extraction for the formulation than ethanol.
  4,066 43 8
A study of the anti-inflammatory effect of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. on experimental animal models
Sarmistha Dutta, Swarnamoni Das
September-October 2010, 2(5):313-317
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.72331  PMID:21589759
Introduction : The aim is to study the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava (PGE) on experimental animal models. Materials and Methods : Fresh leaves were collected, air-dried, powdered, and percolated in 95% ethanol. Acute toxicity test was done according to OECD guidelines. Four groups of animals of either sex, weighing 150-200g of the species Rattus norvegicus were taken for the study (n = 6). Group A was taken as control (3% gum acacia in 10 mL/kg body weight), Group B as test group (PGE 250 mg/kg body weight), Group C as test group (PGE 500 mg/kg body weight), and Group D as standard (Aspirin 100 mg/kg body weight). The animals were studied for acute inflammation by Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, subacute inflammation by Granuloma pouch method, and chronic inflammation by Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis method. Statistical analysis was done by one-way analysis of variance followed by multiple comparison tests. Results : In acute inflammation, there was significant inhibition of paw edema in Groups B, C, and D in comparison with Group A (P < 0.05). In subacute inflammation, there was significant inhibition of exudate formation in Groups B, C, and D in comparison to Group A (P < 0.05). In chronic inflammation, there was significant inhibition of paw edema and inhibition of weight reduction in Groups B, C, and D compared with Group A. Downregulation of arthritis index was also significant in Groups B, C, and D in comparison with Group A (P < 0.05). Conclusion : The ethanolic extract of PGE has significant anti-inflammatory activity.
  3,821 45 7
Formulation and evaluation of floating tablets of liquorice extract
HN Aswatha Ram, Prachiti Lachake, Ujjwal Kaushik, CS Shreedhara
September-October 2010, 2(5):304-308
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.72329  PMID:21589757
Background: Floating tablets prolong the gastric residence time of drugs, improve bioavailability, and facilitate local drug delivery to the stomach. With this objective, floating tablets containing aqueous extract of liquorice as drug was prepared for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori and gastric ulcers. Methods: The aqueous extract of liquorice was standardized by HPTLC. Tablets containing HPMC K100M (hydrophilic polymer), liquorice extract, sodium bicarbonate (gas generating agent), talc, and magnesium stearate were prepared using direct compression method. The formulations were evaluated for physical parameters like diameter, thickness, hardness, friability, uniformity of weight, drug content, buoyancy time, dissolution, and drug release mechanism. The formulations were optimized on the basis of buoyancy time and in vitro drug release. Results: The diameter of all formulations was in the range 11.166-11.933 mm; thickness was in the range 4.02-4.086 mm. The hardness ranged from 3.1 to 3.5 kg/cm 2 . All formulations passed the USP requirements for friability and uniformity of weight. The buoyancy time of all tablet formulations was less than 5 min and tablet remained in floating condition throughout the study. All the tablet formulations followed zero-order kinetics and Korsemeyer-Peppas model in drug release. Conclusion: The optimized formulation was found to be F6 which released 98.3% of drug in 8 h in vitro, while the buoyancy time was 3.5 min. Formulations containing psyllium husk, sodium bicarbonate and HPMC K100M in combination can be a promising for gastroretentive drug delivery systems.
  3,793 29 4
Standardization of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe rhizomes
L.S.R Arambewela, L.D.A.M Arawwawala
September-October 2010, 2(5):285-288
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.72324  PMID:21589752
Background: Rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Family: Zingiberaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the traditional medicinal systems of Sri Lanka. Methods: The present investigation was carried out to standardize the rhizomes of A. calcarata by (a) screening for phytochemicals (b) determination of physico-chemical parameters and (c) development of a Densitogram. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroid glycosides and alkaloids in A. calcarata rhizomes. The percentages of moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, ethanol extractable matter and water extractable matter were of 5.5 - 6.8, 8.3 - 8.8, 0.036 - 0.040, 7.2 - 7.8, 22.6 - 24.8 and 18.6 - 20.5 respectively. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study can be used to standardize rhizomes of A. calcarata grown in Sri Lanka.
  3,485 18 2
Biochemical and histologic changes in rats after prolonged administration of the crude aqueous extract of the leaves of Vitex grandifolia
Mbang A Owolabi, Moyosola M Abass, Promise M Emeka, Smith I Jaja, Martin Nnoli, Benjamin O.S Dosa
September-October 2010, 2(5):273-278
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.72322  PMID:21589750
Background: In recent times, many herbal remedies are used to treat variety of ailments. The leaves of Vitex grandifolia is claimed to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and as a diuretic in the treatment of high blood pressure. However, there are no scientific reports on the therapeutic benefits or toxicity of this plant. This study therefore investigated the effect of prolonged administration of the aqueous extract of the leaves of this plant in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: The plant leaves (No. FHI 107055) were dried at 40 o C, powdered and extracted at room temperature in water (pH 5.72) by percolation. Extract was dried in vacuo to give a yield of 27.32 %w/v. The extract, 0.5-2 g/kg b. wt. was administered by gastric probe to rats for 14 days. The liver and kidney functions, blood chemistry, histopathologic alterations of vital organs and extract effect on rats b. wt. were investigated. Results: V. grandifolia caused significant increase in the serum electrolytes, creatinine, and liver function enzyme dose dependently compared with the control (P ≤ 0.001). The extract had no effect on the heart; however, the architecture of the liver, kidney, and lungs were significantly altered in the treated groups compared with the control. The treated rats had significantly reduced body weight compared with the control (P ≤ 0.001). Major clinical signs observed in the treated groups were polydipsia, polyuria, puffiness of hair, and calmness, which were consistent with increase in dose of the extract. Conclusion: It could be clearly concluded that prolonged administration of the aqueous leaf extract of V. grandifolia at the dose used in this study tends to be toxic to the rats. Its use in folkloric medicine should be with utmost care.
  3,241 21 1
Production of camptothecin in cultures of Chonemorpha grandiflora
AV Kulkarni, AA Patwardhan, U Lele, NP Malpathak
September-October 2010, 2(5):296-299
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.72327  PMID:21589755
Background : Chonemorpha grandiflora (Syn. Chonemorpha fragrans (Apocynaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant. It is used in different preparations, such as sudarsanasavam and kumaryasavam used in Kerala Ayurvedic system. C. grandiflora is used for the treatment of fever and stomach disorders. Phytochemical investigations have revealed the presence of steroidal alkaloids, such as chonemorphine and funtumafrine in C. grandiflora. Camptothecin, a well-known anticancer alkaloid has been detected in ethanolic extracts of stem with bark and callus cultures derived from C. grandiflora. Methods: Callus cultures of C. grandiflora were raised on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 2, 4-D. Stem with bark and callus were used for phytochemical analysis mainly the alkaloids. Detection and identification of camptothecin was carried out using thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance thin-layer chromatography, (HPTLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: An important anticancer alkaloid, camptothecin was detected in ethanolic extracts of stem with bark and callus cultures of C. grandiflora. camptothecin content was 0.013 mg/g in stem with bark and 0.003 mg/g in callus. Conclusion : This is the first report on in vivo and in vitro production of camptothecin in C. grandiflora. Camptothecin is known to occur only in six plant sources so, alternative sources for camptothecin are needed. Thus of C. grandiflora could be a new promising alternative source of camptothecin.
  2,843 22 6
Development and evaluation of formulations of microbial biotransformed extract of tobacco leaves for hair growth potential
Ashlesh V Murkute, Mahesh S Sahu, Prashant Y Mali, Vinod D Rangari
September-October 2010, 2(5):300-303
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.72328  PMID:21589756
Background: Extensive researches are going on to explore the effective and safe drug for their hair growth. Tobacco leaves are traditionally known to potentiate hair growth promotion. Therefore, the aim of present study was to formulate and evaluate the microbial biotransformed extract of tobacco leaves for hair growth potential in male albino wister rats. Materials and Methods: The extract of was prepared by microbial biotransformation of tobacco leaves in cow urine for 28 days. The herbal formulations (lotion) were formulated by general method using o/w type base in various rations or concentrations such as 10%, 20% and 30% of extract. These lotions were applied on shaved skin area of rats for 30 days once in a day and hair length, serum total protein, and total testosterone were measured. Results: Our formulations show increase in hair growth and serum total protein at concentration dependent manner with effect to standard and control groups. Serum total testosterone decreases according to a concentration dependent manner. Conclusion: Further, series of investigations are, however, necessary to remain exploration, which includes their structural elucidation, characterization, clinical safety, reliability and molecular mechanism involved in this pharmacological activity.
  2,827 20 2
A comparison of traditional anti-inflammation and anti-infection medicinal plants with current evidence from biomedical research: Results from a regional study
A Vieira
September-October 2010, 2(5):293-295
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.72326  PMID:21589754
Background: In relation to pharmacognosy, an objective of many ethnobotanical studies is to identify plant species to be further investigated, for example, tested in disease models related to the ethnomedicinal application. To further warrant such testing, research evidence for medicinal applications of these plants (or of their major phytochemical constituents and metabolic derivatives) is typically analyzed in biomedical databases. Methods: As a model of this process, the current report presents novel information regarding traditional anti-inflammation and anti-infection medicinal plant use. This information was obtained from an interview-based ethnobotanical study; and was compared with current biomedical evidence using the Medline® database. Results: Of the 8 anti-infection plant species identified in the ethnobotanical study, 7 have related activities reported in the database; and of the 6 anti-inflammation plants, 4 have related activities in the database. Conclusion: Based on novel and complimentary results from the ethnobotanical and biomedical database analyses, it is suggested that some of these plants warrant additional investigation of potential anti-inflammatory or anti-infection activities in related disease models, and also additional studies in other population groups.
  2,537 27 9
1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and superoxide anion scavenging activity of Rhizophora mangle (L.) bark
Janet Calero Sánchez, Roberto Faure García, Ma. Teresa Mitjavila Cors
September-October 2010, 2(5):279-284
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.72323  PMID:21589751
Background: Rhizophora mangle (L.) produce a variety of substances that possesses pharmacological actions. Although it shown antioxidant properties in some assays, there is no available information about its effect on some free radical species. So the objective of the present research is to evaluate the DPPH radical and superoxide anion scavenging properties of R. mangle extract and its polyphenol fraction. Methods: Rhizophora mangle (L.) bark aqueous extract and its major constituent, polyphenols fraction, were investigated for their antioxidant activities employing 2 in vitro assay systems: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion radicals scavenging. Results: IC 50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 6.7 μg tannins/mL for extract and 7.6 μg tannins/mL for polyphenolic fraction. The extract showed better activity than its fraction (P < 0.05) in the DPPH radicals reducing power. Polyphenolic fraction exhibited better superoxide anion scavenging ability (IC 50 = 21.6 μg tannins/mL) than the extract (IC 50 = 31.9 μg tannins/mL). Antioxidant activities of both samples increased with the rise of tannins concentration. The comparison of regression lines showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between extract and its polyphenolic fraction in both assays, indicating that extract was more effective in DPPH radical scavenging than its fraction at tannin concentrations below the crossing point of both lines, while that fraction was more effective than extract inhibiting the superoxide anions generation. Conclusions: R. mangle aqueous extract showed a potent antioxidant activity, achieved by the scavenging ability observed against DPPH radicals and superoxide anions. Regarding its polyphenolic composition, the antioxidant effects observed in this study are due, most probably, to the presence of polyphenolic compounds.
  2,529 10 6
Evaluation of binding property of mucilage from Litsea glutinosa wall
Sunil K Mishra, A Kumar, A Talukdar
September-October 2010, 2(5):289-292
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.72325  PMID:21589753
Background: Litsea glitinosa is an evergreen tree of medium size which grows to a height of about 20 to 30 feet. It belongs to family Lauraceae. In India it is found mainly in North Eastern region. The leaves and the mucilage from the bark of plant is utilized in the gum for poultices. Methods: Mucilage of Litsea glutinosa was isolated from powdered bark by continuous hot extraction technique using water and precipitation by absolute alcohol (38% w/w yield). The mucilage was evaluated for binding properties in tablets and granules, using paracetamol as a model drug. The granules were prepared using 4 different concentrations of mucilage (4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) and evaluated for percentage of fines, average particle size, total porosity, compressibility index, and flow properties. The prepared tablets were evaluated for content uniformity, hardness, friability, disintegration time, and in vitro dissolution profiles. Results: The results obtained with the lower concentrations of mucilage, that is, less than 6% were not so encouraging. The tablets prepared by using 10% mucilage of L. glutinosa as binder exhibited more hardness as compared with the starch. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the concentration ranging from 6% to 8% of L. glutinosa mucilage may be considered as better option as a binding agent for the preparation of tablets as compared to the starch (10%).
  2,505 15 -
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Is the term substitution relevant to Pharmacognosy and/ or vegetable crude drug industry?
A.B.D Selvam
September-October 2010, 2(5):323-324
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.72333  PMID:21589761
Since each and every drug plant has its own characteristic features, in terms of its botanical characters, chemical composition and therapeutic properties, considering the highly potential drug plants as genuine plant and less potential (allied or non-allied) drug plants as substitutes is unjustifiable. Moreover, the term Substitution is being used for a couple of centuries in a wrong sense in pharmacognostic studies or in the vegetable crude drug industry. Therefore, the term 'Substitution' has to be replaced by the relevant and appropriate term, 'Alternative' or 'Alternative source'.
  2,307 17 2
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