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   2010| July-August  | Volume 2 | Issue 4  
    Online since September 7, 2010

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Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats
RS Kujur, Vishakha Singh, Mahendra Ram, Harlokesh Narayan Yadava, KK Singh, Suruchi Kumari, BK Roy
July-August 2010, 2(4):258-263
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69128  PMID:21808578
Background : Stevia rebaudiana regulates blood sugar, prevents hypertension and tooth decay. Other studies have shown that it has antibacterial as well as antiviral property. Methods : Preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous, ether and methanolic extracts of S. rebaudiana was done. Acute and sub-acute toxicity were conducted on twenty four Albino rats, divided into one control (Group I) and three treatment groups viz. aqueous extract (Group II), ether extract (Group III) and methanolic extract (Group IV). For the study of antidiabetic effect of S. rebaudiana rats were divided into seven groups (n=6). Diabetes was induced by a single dose of 5% alloxan monohydrate (125 mg/kg, i.p.) after 24 hour fasting.Blood samples were analysed on day 0, 1, 5, 7, 14 and 28. Results : Phytochemical tests showed presence of different kinds of phyto-constituents in aqueous, ether and methanol extract of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Daily single dose (2.0 g/kg) administration of aqueous extract (A.E.) , ether extract (E.E.) and methanol extract (M.E.) for 28 days of S. rebaudiana could not show any significant change in ALT and AST levels in rats. Blood sugar level was found to be decreased on day 28 in groups of rats treated with A.E., E.E. and M.E. of S. rebaudiana. Conclusion : The extracts of Stevioside rebaudiana could decrease the blood glucose level in diabetic rats in time dependent manner.
  35 9,003 215
Antimicrobial screening of ethnobotanically important stem bark of medicinal plants
Meenakshi Singh, Sayyada Khatoon, Shweta Singh, Vivek Kumar, Ajay Kumar Singh Rawat, Shanta Mehrotra
July-August 2010, 2(4):254-257
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69127  PMID:21808577
Background: The stem barks are the rich sources of tannins and other phenolic compounds. Tannins inhibited the growth of various fungi, yeast, bacteria and virus. Hence, ten stem barks of ethnomedicinally important plants were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities against human pathogenic strains. Methods: Air-dried and powdered stem bark of each plant was extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol, lyophilized and the dried crude extracts were used for the screening against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were performed according to microdilution methods by NCCLS. Results: The plants Prosopis chilensis, Pithecellobium dulce, Mangifera indica showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans with MIC of 0.08mg/ml. Pithecellobium dulce bark also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Conclusion: The bark of Pithecellobium dulce has more or less similar activity against the known antibiotic and may be considered as potent antimicrobial agent for various infectious diseases.
  9 5,804 118
A modified MS2 bacteriophage plaque reduction assay for the rapid screening of antiviral plant extracts
Ian Cock, FR Kalt
July-August 2010, 2(4):221-228
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69108  PMID:21808571
Introduction: Traditional methods of screening plant extracts and purified components for antiviral activity require up to a week to perform, prompting the need to develop more rapid quantitative methods to measure the ability of plant based preparations to block viral replication. We describe an adaption of an MS2 plaque reduction assay for use in S. aureus. Results: MS2 bacteriophage was capable of infecting and replicating in B. cereus, S. aureus and F+ E. coli but not F- E. coli. Indeed, both B. cereus and S. aureus were more sensitive to MS2 induced lysis than F+ E. coli. When MS2 bacteriophage was mixed with Camellia sinensis extract (1 mg/ml), Scaevola spinescens extract (1 mg/ml) or Aloe barbadensis juice and the mixtures inoculated into S. aureus, the formation of plaques was reduced to 8.9 ± 3.8%, 5.4 ± 2.4% and 72.7 ± 20.9% of the untreated MS2 control values respectively. Conclusions: The ability of the MS2 plaque reduction assay to detect antiviral activity in these known antiviral plant preparations indicates its suitability as an antiviral screening tool. An advantage of this assay compared with traditionally used cytopathic effect reduction assays and replicon based assays is the more rapid acquisition of results. Antiviral activity was detected within 24 h of the start of testing. The MS2 assay is also inexpensive and non-pathogenic to humans making it ideal for initial screening studies or as a simulant for pathogenic viruses.
  9 4,279 88
Brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity studies on Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.) Jacq. seed methanolic extract
Geethaa Sahgal, Surash Ramanathan, Sreenivasan Sasidharan, Mohd. Nizam Mordi, Sabariah Ismail, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor
July-August 2010, 2(4):215-220
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69107  PMID:21808570
Background: The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. Methods: SMCM seed extract has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity, in mice. Results: The brine shrimp lethality bioassay shows a moderate cytotoxicity at high concentration. The LC50 for the extract is 0.68 mg/ml at 24 hours of exposure. The LD50 of the SMCM seed extract for acute oral toxicity in mice is greater than 5000 mg/kg. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic seed extract may contain bioactive compounds of potential therapeutic significance which are relatively safe from toxic effects, and can compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine.
  8 15,197 125
Cytotoxic essential oil from Annona sengalensis Pers. leaves
AL Ahmed, S. E. M. Bassem, YH Mohamed, MW Gamila
July-August 2010, 2(4):211-214
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69105  PMID:21808569
The cytotoxicity against brine shrimp of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae) was studied. The confirmation of this toxicity has been done by using selected tumor cell lines (A549, HT29, MCF 7, RPMI, and U251). The results showed that the total oil and its fractions have showed mild to moderate cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality bioassay with LC50 = 27.3 μg/ml, and against some human tumor cell lines. The total oil and its fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Seventy three compounds were identified.
  7 3,015 157
Isolation of β-sitosterol diglucosyl caprate from Alpinia galanga
SB Jaju, NH Indurwade, DM Sakarkar, NK Fuloria, MD Ali, SP Basu
July-August 2010, 2(4):264-266
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69129  PMID:21808579
Background: The purpose of present investigation to isolate β-sitosterol diglucosyl caprate from the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga. Methods: The methanolic extract of the rhizomes of plant Alpinia galanga was subjected to column chromatography and was eluted with ethyl acetate-methanol (99:1) to yield compound (AG5) β-sitosterol diglucosyl caprate. Various spectral techniques such as Ultraviolet (UV), Infrared (IR), Hydrogen Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1HNMR), Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13CNMR), and MASS spectrometry (MS), were employed to determine and elucidate. Results: Chemical and spectral investigation of extract furnished a new steroidal glycoside. Conclusion: The isolated compound β-sitosterol diglucosyl caprate could serve as a lead compound in synthesis of steroids.
  6 2,902 94
Mineral contents of some plants used in Iran
Rahimi Rahmatollah, Rabani Mahbobeh
July-August 2010, 2(4):267-270
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69130  PMID:21808580
In this work, mineral contents of 4 plants used in Iran were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry. The concentrations were calculated on a dry weight basis. All materials contained high amounts of Na, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, P, Zn, and I. On a moisture-free basis, the highest levels of Ca, P, and Mg were found in spinach to be 3200 mg/100 g, 2150 mg/100 g, and 460 mg/100 g, respectively. Bi, Cd, Li, Pb, and Se contents of condiments were found to be very low. The results were compared with those from the Spanish, Turkish, and Indian. This work attempts to contribute to knowledge of the nutritional properties of these plants. These results may be useful for the evaluation of dietary information and concluded that the green vegetables are the good sources of minerals.
  6 2,144 86
Rapid preparation process of antiparkinsonian drug Mucuna pruriens silver nanoparticle by bioreduction and their characterization
Subramanian Arulkumar, Muthukumaran Sabesan
July-August 2010, 2(4):233-236
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69112  PMID:21808573
Backgorund: Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is evolving an important branch of nanotechnology. Methods: The bioreduction behavior of plant seed extract of Mucuna pruriens in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated employing UV/visible spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform - infra red (FT- IR). Result: M. pruriens was found to exhibit strong potential for rapid reduction of silver ions. The formation of nanoparticles by this method is extremely rapid, requires no toxic chemicals, and the nanoparticles are stable for several months. Conclusion: The main conclusion is that the bioreduction method to produce nanoparticles is a good alternative to the electrochemical methods and it is expected to be biocompatible.
  4 7,292 128
A search for mosquito larvicidal compounds by blocking the sterol carrying protein, AeSCP-2, through computational screening and docking strategies
R Barani Kumar, B Shanmugapriya, K Thiyagesan, S Raj Kumar, Suresh M Xavier
July-August 2010, 2(4):247-253
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69126  PMID:21808576
Background: Sterol is a very vital compound for most of the insects and mosquitoes to complete their life cycle. Unfortunately mosquitoes cannot synthesize the sterol, it depends on mammals for the same. Mosquitoes take the sterol from the plant decays during their larval stage in the form of phytosterol, which is then converted to cholesterol for further growth and reproduction. This conversion occurs with the help of the sterol carrier protein 2(SCP2). Methods: Mosquito populations are controlled by plant-based inhibitors, which inhibit sterol carrier protein (SCPI-Sterol carrier protein inhibitor) activity. In this article, we explain the methods of inhibiting Aedes aegypti SCP2 by insilico methods including natural inhibitor selection and filtrations by virtual screening and interaction studies. Results: In this study protein-ligand interactions were carried out with various phytochemicals, as a result of virtual screening Alpha-mangostin and Panthenol were found to be good analogs, and were allowed to dock with the mosquito cholesterol carrier protein AeSCP-2. Conclusion: Computational selections of SCPIs are highly reliable and novel methods for discovering new and more effective compounds to control mosquitoes.
  3 3,596 69
Can the term Phytosensology be preferred over the term Organoleptic?
A. B. D. Selvam
July-August 2010, 2(4):271-272
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69131  PMID:21808581
  2 1,587 55
Standardization of a compound Unani herbal formulation "Qurs-e-Luk" with modern techniques
N. M. A. Rasheed, VC Gupta
July-August 2010, 2(4):237-241
Background: With global realization that use of synthetic drugs is not safe on the long run, the medical fraternity at large is looking at alternatives from natural sources to combat diseases particularly those wherein conventional modern system of medicine has little to offer. On one hand, this realization has increased demand for herbal drugs and on the other hand need for quality standardization of these drugs has increased. Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Hyderabad, being engaged in multidisciplinary research in Unani Medicine, has taken up standardization of herbomineral drugs used in this system of medicine. One such drug "Qurs-e-Luk" that is widely used by the practitioners of this system in mobilizing and reducing body fat has been utilized for standardization by modern techniques, so as to ascertain its quality. Methods: The parameters which were carried out are pharmacognostic studies, physicochemical parameters, high-performance thin layer chromatography, microbial load, aflatoxins, heavy metals, and pesticidal residues revealing specific identities for the particular drug and to evaluate pharmacopoeial standards. Results and Conclusion: Results suggest that the drug is safe for therapeutic use and its batch to batch identification for quality control is possible on the basis of present study.
  1 3,703 142
Vasorelaxant effect of diterpenoid lactones from Andrographis paniculata chloroform extract on rat aortic rings
RN Sriramaneni, Ameer Z Omar, Salman M Ibrahim, Sadikun Amirin, Asmawi Mohd Zaini
July-August 2010, 2(4):242-246
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69125  PMID:21808575
Background: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible mechanism of the vasorelaxant effect of the Andrographis paniculata chloroform extract (APCE) and diterpenoids, such as, 14-deoxyandrographolide (DA) and 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide (DDA), on rat aortic rings. Methods: DA and DDA (10 μM to 40 μM) induce relaxation in the aortic rings pre-contracted with KCl (80 mM). Results: The IC 50 values are 40.47 ± 1.44 and 37.43 ± 1.41%, respectively, and this inhibition is antagonized by increasing the Ca 2+ concentration in the Kreb's medium. The results indicate that APCE, DA, and DDA may have a calcium anatgonist property. APCE, DA, and DDA also relax norepinephrene (NE)-induced sustained contractions with IC 50 values 41.63 ± 1.19, 49.22 ± 2.76, and 37.46 ± 1.41% and this relaxant effect is unaffected by the removal of the endothelium or by the presence of indomethacin and Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME). Moreover, DA and DDA inhibit the phasic and tonic contractions induced by NE in a concentration-dependent manner and show the most potent inhibition on phasic contraction (P < 0.01). Conclusion: This study shows that APCE, DA, and DDA pre-treatment presents a more potent inhibition compared to post-treatment, after the tension has reached a steady state. These results suggest that the vasorelaxation of APCE, DA, and DDA direct the inhibition of the calcium influx. The vasorelaxant effect is more active in the calcium independent pathway and more sensitive in the intial stage of contraction.
  1 2,692 74
C-Glucoside xanthone from the stem bark extract of Bersama engleriana
Pierre C Djemgou, Taha A Hussien, Mohamed-Elamir F Hegazy, François Ngandeu, Gilles Neguim, Pierre Tane, Abou-El-Hamd H Mohamed
July-August 2010, 2(4):229-232
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69110  PMID:21808572
Background: The genus Bersama belongs to the Melianthaceae family and comprises of four species (B. swinnyi, B. yangambiensis, B. abyssinica, and B. engleriana) all of which are very high trees; the latter two detected species are found in Cameroon. Previous phytochemical investigation on B. yangambiensis, B. swinnyi, and B. abyssinica led to the isolation of triterpenes, saponins, flavonoids, and xanthones. Method: The stem bark of B. engleriana were collected in the village, Baham near Bafoussam city, Cameroon in August 2003 and identifi ed by Dr. Onana National Herbaruim, Yaoundι, Cameroon. The air dried and powdered stem bark of B. engleriana (1 kg) was extracted at room temperature with CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1) 5 L for 48 hours. The mixture of the solvent was removed by evaporation to yield 200 g of crude extract. The latter was then dissolved in CH2Cl2 to give the CH2Cl2 soluble fraction of 5 g and a remaining gum of 195 g. Part of the remaining gum (22 g) was dissolved in water and extracted four times with butanol to give 12 g of red oil; which was then separated by paper chromatography, with butanol-acetic acid-water (4:1:5), to give 3 g of orange gum; purification was carried out on HPLC with MeOH (100%) to yield 2 g of mangiferin (1) as red oil. The CH2Cl2 soluble extract was eluted on silica gel n-hexane-CH2Cl2 gradient ratio and Sephadex LH-20 (n-hexane -CH2Cl2 -MeOH, (7:4:0.5) to afford compounds swinniol (2), Δ4-stigmaster-3b-ol (3), 4-methylstigmaster-5,23-dien-3b-ol(4). Results: Herein, we carried out a phytochemical study of the stem bark of B. engleriana, and we report herein the isolation and structural elucidation of mangiferin, in addition to three triterpenes, previously reported from other species of the genus. [3],[5] The assignment of the signals of mangiferin was determined using 1H, 13C-NMR, and 2D-NMR spectral data (HMQC, COSY, HMBC). The terpenoids were identifi ed by comparison of their 1H and 13C-NMR spectra with the literature data. Fractionation of the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1) extract of the stem bark of B. engleriana Guike gave mangiferin (1), in addition to three previously reported triterpenes, swinniol (2), Δ4-stigmaster-3b-ol (3), and 4-methylstigmaster-5,23-dien-3-b-ol (4). Conclusions: A chemical investigation of the CH2Cl2-MeOH extract of the stem bark of Bersama engleriana afforded a xanthone C-glucoside (mangiferin) and fi rst isolation of three terpenoids from this species: swinniol (2), Δ4-stigmaster-3b-ol (3), and 4-methylstigmaster-5,23-dien-3-b-ol (4). The complete 1H and 13C chemical shift assignments of mangiferin were determined using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, DEPT). The structures of the terpenoids were determined from their 1H and 13C NMR data and compared with the literature data.
  1 2,948 67
Assessing bioactivity
Ambrose Furey
July-August 2010, 2(4):203-204
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69101  PMID:21808567
  - 1,803 144
Determination of Teloschistes flavicans (sw) norm anti-inflammatory activity
Eugênia C Pereira, Nicácio H da Silva, Renata Almeida Santos, Ana Patrícia Paiva Sudário, Antonio Alfredo Rodrigues e Silva, Maria Bernadete de Sousa Maia
July-August 2010, 2(4):205-210
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69102  PMID:21808568
Background: Lichens produce a variety of substances that possesses pharmacological actions. However, rare products are submitted to rigorous scientific tests or have the risk potential or side effects evaluated. The lack of medical and sanitary control, absence of accurate botanical identification or purity certification, founded in diverse natural products, may represent great danger to population health. This work aimed to evaluate toxic effects and anti-inflammatory action in vivo of Teloschistes flavicans (Sw.) Norm. (TFN) unrefined extracts, as well as determinate its main constituents. Methods: The carrageenan induced paw edema and cotton pellet implant induced granuloma methods were utilized, besides a classic acute toxicity test. TFN acetone extract inhibited carrageenan paw edema on 60, 120, and 180 min (inhibition percentiles of 45.03%, 60.59% and 41.72%). Results: TFN ethereal (inhibition percentiles of 23.95% and 29.01%) and chloroform (inhibition percentiles of 28.8% and 22.04%) extracts inhibited edema on 120 and 180 min. None of the extract inhibited the granuloma development. None of the extract caused death or other acute toxicity signs. Vicanicine (60.26% in ethereal extract and 51.17% in acetone extract), parietine (9.60% in ethereal extract and 15.38% on second), falacinol (0.78% in ether and 14.95% in acetone) and very low concentration of falacinal (0.15% in ethereal extract and 3.32% in acetone extract) were detected in the medicine. Conclusions: The tested extracts have antiedematogenic activity, but are not effective on subchronic inflammation. The extracts do not present toxic effects in administered doses.
  - 3,025 163