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   2010| May-June  | Volume 2 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 19, 2010

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Determination of polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity of Tephrosia purpurea linn leaves (Leguminosae)
Avani Patel, Amit Patel, Amit Patel, NM Patel
May-June 2010, 2(3):152-158
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.65509  PMID:21808558
Background: Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (sarpankh), belonging to the family Leguminaceae, are used for the treatment of jaundice and are also claimed to be effective in many other diseases. This research work was undertaken to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves. Method: The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. So, the quantitative determinations were undertaken. All the methods are based on UV-spectrophotometric determination. Result: The total phenolic content of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 9.44 ± 0.22% w/w and 18.44 ± 0.13% w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 0.91 ± 0.08% w/w and 1.56 ± 0.12%w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 1.85 ± 0.08% w/w and 2.54 ± 0.12% w/w, respectively, for rutin. Further investigations were carried out for in vitro antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity by calculating its percentage inhibition by means of IC 50 values, all the extracts' concentrations were adjusted to fall under the linearity range and here many reference standards like tannic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, ascorbic acid were taken for the method suitability. Conclusion: The results revealed that leaves of this plant have antioxidant potential. The results also show the ethanolic extract to be more potent than the aqueous decoction which is claimed traditionally. In conclusion, T. purpurea Linn. (Leguminosae) leaves possess the antioxidant substance which may be responsible for the treatment of jaundice and other oxidative stress-related diseases.
  7,598 185 24
Antihyperglycemic activity of Catharanthus roseus leaf powder in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
Karuna Rasineni, Ramesh Bellamkonda, Sreenivasa Reddy Singareddy, Saralakumari Desireddy
May-June 2010, 2(3):195-201
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.65523  PMID:21808566
Catharanthus roseus Linn (Apocynaceae), is a traditional medicinal plant used to control diabetes, in various regions of the world. In this study we evaluated the possible antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of C. roseus (Catharanthus roseus) leaf powder in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg body wt) to male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Control, control-treated, diabetic, and diabetic-treated group. Diabetic-treated and control-treated rats were treated with C. roseus leaf powder suspension in 2 ml distilled water, orally (100 mg/kg body weight/day/60 days). In diabetic rats (D-group) the plasma glucose was increased and the plasma insulin was decreased gradually. In the diabetic-treated group lowering of plasma glucose and an increase in plasma insulin were observed after 15 days and by the end of the experimental period the plasma glucose had almost reached the normal level, but insulin had not. The significant enhancement in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL-cholesterol, and the atherogenic index of diabetic rats were normalized in diabetic-treated rats. Decreased hepatic and muscle glycogen content and alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (glycogen phosphorylase, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), as observed in the diabetic control rats, were prevented with C. roseus administration. Our results demonstrated that C. roseus with its antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties could be a potential herbal medicine in treating diabetes.
  6,388 169 35
Effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. for the management of alloxan-induced diabetic rats
Laxmi Verma, PK Singour, PK Chaurasiya, H Rajak, RS Pawar, UK Patil
May-June 2010, 2(3):132-137
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.65506  PMID:21808555
Aim: As per traditional claims, root, bark, leaf and flower of the plant Cassia occidentalis Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) have been reported to possess antidiabetic activity. Based on this traditional indication, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of C. occidentalis was orally tested at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for evaluating the hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels, assessed in the ethanol extract treated diabetic rats were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathologic observations during 21 days of treatment were also evaluated. Results: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats led to a dose-dependent fall in blood sugar levels. Significant differences were observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride), serum protein and changes in body weight in ethanolic extract treated diabetic animals, when compared with the diabetic control and normal animals. Concurrent histopathologic studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by ethanolic extract, which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antidiabetic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and lipid profiles and also, histopathologic studies showed regeneration of β-cells of pancreas and so it might be of value in the treatment of diabetes.
  4,982 131 16
Triterpenes from Euphorbia rigida
Noureddine Gherraf, Amar Zellagui, Naglaa S Mohamed, Taha A Hussien, Tarik A Mohamed, Mohamed-Elamir F Hegazy, Salah Rhouati, Mahmoud F. M. Moustafa, Magdi A El-Sayed, Abou El-Hamd H Mohamed
May-June 2010, 2(3):159-162
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.65510  PMID:21808559
Phytochemical studies of the aerial parts of Euphorbia rigida afforded three triterpenes: betulin (1), cycloart-23Z-ene-3, 25-diol (2) and cycloartan-3, 24, 25-triol (3), firstly isolated from this plant. The structures and relative stereochemistry were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments (1H NMR, 13C NMR, COSY, NOESY, HMQC and HMBC).
  4,728 112 7
Comparative measurement of hydration effects of herbal moisturizers
Swarnlata Saraf, Sneha Sahu, Chanchal Deep Kaur, Shailendra Saraf
May-June 2010, 2(3):146-151
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.65508  PMID:21808557
Improvements of skin hydration properties by the use of polyherbal moisturizers are the recent advances in cosmetic preparations to avoid the harmful effects of chemical moisturizers. The main aim of the study was to establish selection preference of different available marketed herbal moisturizers on the basis of the efficiency of constituents for their hydration effects. The criteria for the selection of formulations were presence of herbal constituents, wheat germ oil and Aloe vera extract. Initially, physiochemical and psychometric studies were performed to visualize the compliance of moisturizers with the skin. The clinical study was carried out in six groups of six healthy human volunteers (aged 20-25 years) each applying moisturizers twice daily over a period of 3 weeks in their forearm. The skin properties measured were conductance, glow and appearance. The results indicated that all the moisturizers show moisturizing effect in a time-dependent pattern and the maximum increase in skin conductance was 168.125 and 165.24% for A2 and A1, respectively. Ranking of moisturizers based on conductance as well as physicochemical analysis is A2 > A1 > A4 > A3 > A5 > A6. It was found that the formulation A2 having wheat germ oil, Aloe vera extract and turmeric extract in combination showed best results due to their synergistic effect and wheat germ oil or Aloe extract, when present separately produced skin hydration to lesser extent.
  4,431 140 8
Senna occidentalis leaf extract possesses antitrypanosomal activity and ameliorates the trypanosome-induced anemia and organ damage
MA Ibrahim, AB Aliyu, AB Sallau, M Bashir, I Yunusa, TS Umar
May-June 2010, 2(3):175-180
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.65513  PMID:21808562
The in vitro and in vivo antitrypanosomal effects of the ethanol extract of Senna occidentalis leaf were investigated. The crude extract exhibited an in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei as it completely eliminated parasites' motility within 10 minutes postincubation with 6.66 mg/ml of effective extract concentration. The extract was further used to treat experimentally T. brucei brucei infected rats at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, beginning on day 5 post infections (p.i.). At the termination of the experiment on Day 11 p.i., the extract significantly (P < 0.05) kept the parasitemia lower than was recorded in the infected untreated rats. All the infected animals developed anemia, the severity of which was significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated by the extract treatment. The infection caused significant (P < 0.05) increases in serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases as well as serum urea and creatinine levels. However, treatment of infected animals with the extract significantly (P < 0.05) prevented the trypanosome-induced increase in these biochemical indices. Furthermore, the T. brucei infection caused hepatomegaly and splenomegaly that were significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated by the extract administration. It was concluded that orally administered ethanol extract of S. occidentalis leaf possessed anti-T. brucei brucei activity and could ameliorate the disease-induced anemia and organ damage.
  4,349 63 19
Analysis of antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of Juniperus excelsa M. B subsp. Polycarpos (K. Koch) Takhtajan essential oil
MR Moein, Y Ghasemi, S Moein, M Nejati
May-June 2010, 2(3):128-131
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.65505  PMID:21808554
Juniperus excelsa M.B subsp. Polycarpos (K.Koch), collected from south of Iran, was subjected to hydrodistillation using clevenger apparatus to obtain essential oil. The essential was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and studied for antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidant activities. The results indicated α-pinene (67.71%) as the major compound and α-cedral (11.5%), δ3-carene (5.19%) and limonene (4.41%) in moderate amounts. Antimicrobial tests were carried out using disk diffusion method, followed by the measurement of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). All the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were susceptible to essential oil. The oil showed radical scavenging and antioxidant effects.
  3,941 223 14
Estrogenic activity of friedelin rich fraction (IND-HE) separated from Cissus quadrangularis and its effect on female sexual function
Urmila M Aswar, S Bhaskaran, V Mohan, Subhash L Bodhankar
May-June 2010, 2(3):138-145
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.65507  PMID:21808556
Women experience menopause differently across the world, in terms of their symptomology. Many experience symptoms of menopause like hot flashes, joint pain and loss of libido. Estrogen replacement is the prescribed therapy for most of the sexual dysfunction observed in menopausal women. Many women are reluctant to use exogenous hormone therapy for treatment of menopausal symptoms and are turning to botanical and dietary supplements for relief. In the present study IND-HE (friedelin rich fraction) was studied for estrogenic activity as well as its effect on sexual behavior in overiectomized female Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 4 groups of six rats each. The Group 1 received distilled water, Group II - IND-HE (75 mg/kg p. o.), Group III - IND-HE (100 mg/kg p. o.) and Group IV received estrogen (estradiol) (1 mg/kg in olive oil suspension, s.c. bi-weekly). The treatment period was 8 weeks. On 1 day, one month and two month of treatment the sexual behavior was studied. At the end of the treatment the blood was withdrawn from retro-orbital plexus. The animals were sacrificed and uterus was removed, weighed and histology was studied. In different group of rats estrous cycle was studied which indicate estrogenic activity and for progestogenic activity of deciduoma formation was studied. The result indicated that IND-HE (75 and 100 mg/kg p.o.) improved sexual behavior parameters. IND-HE (75 and 100) significantly (P<0.01) decreased darting and hopping latency. The darting frequency and hopping frequency was significantly (P<0.01) improved in IND-HE (75 and100 mg/kg p.o.) as well as estrogen group. Lordosis interval (LI) was increased significantly in estrogen group after 1 st month (P<0.05), and after 2 nd month (P<0.01). IND-HE (100) treatment showed increase in LI after 1 st month (P<0.05) remained during 2 nd month (P<0.01). While IND-HE (75) treatment increased LI only after 2 nd month (P<0.05).IND-HE (75 and 100 mg/kg p.o.) showed estrogenic activity as indicated by vaginal cornification, increase in uterine weight and rise in serum estrogen.
  4,023 98 7
Effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil (Jyothismati oil) on acute and chronic immobilization stress induced in swiss albino mice
George Lekha, Karthik Mohan, Irudhaya Arockia Samy
May-June 2010, 2(3):169-174
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.65512  PMID:21808561
Stress alters the homeostasis and is produced by several factors. Immobilization stress induced due to reduced floor area provided for the mobility results in the imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant status. The modern computer savvy world decreases human mobility in the working environment, leading to the formation of oxygen free radicals and if left untreated might result in severe health problems like hypertension, cardiovascular disease, premature aging and brain dysfunction. Hence, modern medicines rely upon the medicinal plants for some drugs with zero side effects. In this context, Jyothismati oil (JO), extracted from Celastrus paniculatus seeds, was used to treat acute and chronic immobilization induced experimentally. C. paniculatus plant is considered to be rich in antioxidant content and so the seed oil extract's efficacy was tested against immobilization stress in albino mice. The animals were kept in a restrainer for short and long durations, grouped separately and fed with the drug. Animals were sacrificed and the samples were analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme levels of the animals regained and markedly increased in the acute and chronic immobilized groups, respectively. The results suggested that the extract of C. paniculatus seed was highly efficacious in reducing the stress induced by least mobility for hours.
  3,720 98 3
The evaluation of antinociceptive activity of alkaloid, methanolic, and aqueous extracts of Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves in rats
Azadeh Sabetghadam, Surash Ramanathan, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor
May-June 2010, 2(3):181-185
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.65514  PMID:21808563
Mitragyna speciosa Korth is a medicinal plant indigenous to Thailand and Malaysia and has been known for its narcotic and coca-like effects. Many studies have been performed on the antinociceptive effect of the plant extracts of Thai origin; however, limited studies have been reported till date on M. speciosa extracts of Malaysian origin. Various concentrations of alkaloid (5-20 mg/kg), methanolic (50-200 mg/kg), and aqueous (100-400 mg/kg) extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves were prepared and orally administered to nine groups of rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, s.c.) and aspirin (300 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as control. Antagonism of the antinociceptive activity was evaluated by pretreatment with naloxone at a dose of 2 mg/kg (i.p.). Results showed that oral administration of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg), methanolic (200 mg/kg), and aqueous (400 mg/kg) extracts significantly prolonged the latency of nociceptive response compared with control groups in both hot plate and tail flick tests (P < 0.05). Antinociceptive action of the alkaloid (20 mg/kg), methanolic (200 mg/kg), and aqueous (400 mg/kg) extracts was significantly blocked by naloxone. In conclusion, these results suggest the presence of antinociceptive effect in various extracts of Malaysian M. speciosa leaves. In addition, the antinociceptive effective doses vary depending on the type of solvents used for extraction.
  3,562 120 15
Chromatographic evaluation and anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus globulus oil
DJ Taur, VB Kulkarni, RY Patil
May-June 2010, 2(3):125-127
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.65504  PMID:21808553
In world Helminthes infections are the most widespread of all the infections in humans. The morbidity due to parasitic diseases has been increasing in our population. The gastrointestinal helminthes become resistant to the currently available anthelmintic drugs. Anthelmintic substances having considerable toxicity to human beings are present in foods derived from livestock, posing a serious threat to human health. Due to this, there is a need to derive new chemical substances from natural sources, for helminthes control. In this study, volatile oil isolated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill was evaluated for its anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma, which have anatomical and physiological resemblance with the intestinal roundworm parasites of human beings. In concentrations of 0.05, 0.01 and 0.15 ml/ml, respectively, all the oil samples showed potent anthelmintic activity as compared to that of the standard drug albendazole at a concentration of 10 mg/ml.
  3,324 213 4
A new alkaloid isolated from Abies webbiana leaf
Ashoke K Ghosh, Debanjan Sen, Sanjib Bhattacharya
May-June 2010, 2(3):186-189
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.65516  PMID:21808564
A new alkaloid namely 1-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-aziridine was isolated from the leaf of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Pinaceae), grown in Sikkim Himalayan region of India. Its chemical structure was elucidated on the basis of elemental and spectral analyses. This is the first experimental report of the isolation of any alkaloid from A. webbiana.
  3,397 100 1
Antifungal, antibacterial and antimycobacterial activity of Entada abysinnica Steudel ex A. Rich (Fabaceae) methanol extract
Richard M Mariita, John A Orodho, Paul O Okemo, Paul K Mbugua
May-June 2010, 2(3):163-168
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.65511  PMID:21808560
The purpose of the study was to investigate the antifungal, antibacterial and antimycobacterial properties of methanol extract of Entada abysinnica steudel ex. A. Rich (Fabaceae) leaves used by herbalists from the Lake Victoria region, Kenya. The extract was tested against four strains of mycobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium smegmatis) using BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) 960 system and the proportional method. Standard procedures were used to determine the zones of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations (MBCs/MFCs) for Candida albicans, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The extract showed activity against some mycobacteria strains, especially M. tuberculosis. It also showed strong antimicrobial activity (zones of inhibition were between 9.00 and 14.10 mm) against C. albicans, Sa. typhi, and St. aureus. The extract gave a better zone of inhibition against C. albicans than fluconazole whose zone of inhibition was 13.00 mm. The MICs and MBCs for C. albicans and Sa. typhi were good. The crude extracts were also analyzed for the presence of phytochemicals. Phytochemical screening indicated that the extract most abundantly contained tannins, saponins, and flavonoids. The data suggest that the methanolic leaves extract of E. abysinnica could be a rich source of antimicrobial agents, especially antifungals. The results further show that there is some merit in the use of the plant in alternative medical practices. However, bioassays of isolated compounds are underway and will be reported during subsequent communications.
  3,130 99 6
The antihyperglycemic effect of aerial parts of Salvia splendens (scarlet sage) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic-rats
P Mahesh Kumar, D Sasmal, Papiya Mitra Mazumder
May-June 2010, 2(3):190-194
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.65520  PMID:21808565
Salvia splendens (Labiatae) is widely used in Indian traditional medicine for the control of diabetes mellitus. In this study, the hypoglycemic effects produced by the acute and subacute administration of various extracts of S. splendens were investigated. Both the aqueous extract (SSAE) and the methanolic extract (SSME) from the aerial parts resulted in significant reductions of glycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats after oral administration at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. On oral administration, aqueous and methanolic extracts showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) effect by reducing the effect of glycemia in STZ-induced diabetic rats. These findings suggest the significant antihyperglycemic potential of the S. splendens extracts in ameliorating the diabetic conditions in diabetic rats. No significant effects were found in the normal rats.
  3,104 102 9
Looking backward to find the path forward
Ambrose Furey, Rosari Kingston
May-June 2010, 2(3):121-124
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.65503  PMID:21808552
  2,565 164 -