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   2010| March-April  | Volume 2 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 4, 2010

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds from six wild edible mushrooms of western ghats of Karnataka, India
Ch. Ramesh , Manohar G Pattar
March-April 2010, 2(2):107-112
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.62953  PMID:21808550
Methanolic extracts of 6 wild edible mushrooms isolated from the Western Ghats of Karnataka were used in this study. Among the isolates (Lycoperdon perlatum, Cantharellus cibarius, Clavaria vermiculris, Ramaria formosa, Marasmius oreades, Pleurotus pulmonarius), only 4 showed satisfactory results. Quantitative analysis of bioactive components revealed that total phenols are the major bioactive component found in extracts of isolates expressed as mg of GAE per gram of fruit body, which ranged from 3.20 ± 0.05 mg/mL to 6.25 ± 0.08 mg/mL. Average concentration of flavonoid ranged from 0.40 ± 0.052 mg/mL to 2.54 ± 0.08 mg/mL; followed by very small concentration of ascorbic acid (range, 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/mL to 0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) in all the isolates. All the isolates showed high phenol and flavonoid content, but ascorbic acid content was found in traces. Antioxidant efficiency by inhibitory concentration on 1,1-Diphenly-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was found significant when compared to standard antioxidant like Buthylated hydroxyanisol (BHA). The concentration (IC 50 ) ranged from 0.94 ± 0.27 mg/mL to 7.57 ± 0.21 mg/mL. Determination of antimicrobial activity profile of all the isolates tested against a panel of standard pathogenic bacteria and fungi indicated that the concentrations of bioactive components directly influence the antimicrobial capability of the isolates. Agar diffusion assay showed considerable activity against all bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of the extracts of 4 isolates showed that they are also active even in least concentrations. These results are discussed in relation to therapeutic value of the studied mushrooms.
  10,632 337 32
Analgesic activity, toxicity study and phytochemical screening of standardized Cinnomomum iners leaves methanolic extract
F Mustaffa, J Indurkar, S Ismail, MN Mordi, S Ramanathan, SM Mansor
March-April 2010, 2(2):76-81
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.62952  PMID:21808545
Cinnomomum iners standardized leaves methanolic extract (CSLE) was subjected to analgesic, toxicity and phytochemical studies. The analgesic activity of CSLE was evaluated using formalin, hot plate and tail flick tests at doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg. CSLE showed significant activity (P < 0.05) in the formalin model (late phase) on the rats at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg. However, CSLE did not show activity in the hot plate and tail flick tests. The results obtained suggest that CSLE acts peripherally to relieve pain. For the toxicity study, CSLE was orally administered to the Swiss albino mice according to the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guideline 423. There was no lethality or toxic symptoms observed for all the tested doses throughout the 14-day period. Phytochemical screening of CSLE showed the presence of cardiac glycoside, flavonoid, polyphenol, saponin, sugar, tannin and terpenoid.
  6,179 233 13
Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats
Roshan Patel, Naveen K Mahobia, Ravindra Gendle, Basant Kaushik, Sudarshan K Singh
March-April 2010, 2(2):86-88
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.62956  PMID:21808546
The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities.
  5,548 220 20
Chemical constituents of Tephrosia purpurea
Ali K Khalafalah, Afifi H Yousef, Abeer M Esmail, Mohamed H Abdelrazik, Mohamed E.F Hegazy, Abou-El-Hamd H Mohamed
March-April 2010, 2(2):72-75
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.62951  PMID:21808544
In continuation of our chemical investigation on some medicinal plants of the genus Tephrosia, reinvestigation of the methylenechloride/methanol (1:1) extract of the aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea yielded an aromatic ester 1, a sesquiterpene 2 and prenylated flavonoid 3. The structures of the compounds were established by comprehensive NMR studies, including DEPT, COSY, NOE, HMQC, HMBC, EIMS and CIMS.
  4,162 353 8
Standardization of Ajmodadi churna, a polyherbal formulation
Neeraj K Sriwastava, CS Shreedhara, HN Aswatha Ram
March-April 2010, 2(2):98-101
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.62957  PMID:21808548
Standardization of herbal formulations is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs, based on the concentration of their active principles. This article reports on standardization of Ajmodadi churna, a polyherbal ayurvedic medicine used as a carminative and an antispasmodic, and is a strong wormifuge, and helps in all painful conditions like sciatica and stiffness in back and also restores normal digestive functions. Ajmodadi churna was prepared as per Ayurvedic Formulary of India. In-house preparation and the marketed drug have been standardized on the basis of organoleptic characters, physical characteristics, and physico-chemical properties. The set parameters were found to be sufficient to evaluate the churna and can be used as reference standards for the quality control/quality assurance laboratory of a Pharmaceutical house.
  4,049 273 3
Antiarthritic and antioxidant effects of the leaf extract of Ficus exasperata P. Beauv. (Moraceae)
Wonder M. K. Abotsi, Eric Woode, George K Ainooson, Ama K Amo-Barimah, Eric Boakye-Gyasi
March-April 2010, 2(2):89-97
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.62958  PMID:21808547
Leaf extracts of Ficus exasperata P. Beauv. (Moraceae) are commonly used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the treatment of several pathological states including inflammatory disorders. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antiarthritic effect of an ethanolic extract of F. exasperata (FEE) in the Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats. Since free radicals and reactive oxygen species are implicated in inflammatory joint diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, the antioxidant potential of the extract was investigated in in vitro experimental models. FEE as well as the positive controls, dexamethasone and methotrexate, showed significant dose-dependent antiarthritic properties when applied to established adjuvant arthritis. Oral administration of FEE (30-300 mg/kg p.o.) significantly reduced the arthritic edema in the ipsilateral paw of rats with a maximal inhibition of 34.46 ± 11.42%. FEE (30-300 mg/kg p.o.) also significantly prevented the spread of the edema from the ipsilateral to the contralateral paws indicating inhibition of systemic spread. The disease-modifying antirheumatic drug methotrexate (0.1-1 mg/kg i.p.) and the steroidal anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone (0.3-3 mg/kg i.p.) also reduced very significantly the total polyarthritic edema as well as the spread of the arthritis from the ipsilateral to the contralateral paws of the treated animals. The extract also exhibited reducing activity (EC 50 = 8.105 ± 18.49), scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, EC 50 = 0.499 ± 0.302) and prevented lipid peroxidation (IC 50 = 1.283 ± 0.923) in rat brain homogenates. Phenols were detected in the extract. These results suggest that ethanolic extract of the leaves of F. exasperata exerts antiarthritic activity after oral administration and also has antioxidant properties which may contribute to its activity.
  3,968 201 14
Wound healing properties and kill kinetics of Clerodendron splendens G. Don, a Ghanaian wound healing plant
Stephen Y Gbedema, Kisseih Emelia, Adu Francis, Annan Kofi, Woode Eric
March-April 2010, 2(2):63-68
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.62948  PMID:21808542
As part of our general objective of investigating indigenous plants used in wound healing in Ghana, we hereby report our findings from some in vitro and in vivo studies related to wound healing activities of Clerodendron splendens G. Don (Verbanaceae). Methanolic extract of the aerial parts of the plant was tested for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Micrococcus flavus, as well as resistant strains of Staph. aureus SA1199B, RN4220 and XU212), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteous mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Candida albicans using the micro-well dilution method. Survivor-time studies of the microorganisms, radical scavenging activity using 2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and various in vivo wound healing activity studies were also conducted on the extract. The extract exhibited biostatic action against all the test microorganisms with a Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) ranging between 64 and 512 μg/ml and a free radical scavenging property with an IC 50 value of 103.2 μg/ml. The results of the in vivo wound healing tests showed that upon application of C. splendens ointment, there was a reduction in the epithelization period from 26.7 days (control) to 13.6 days along with a marked decrease in the scar area from 54.2 mm 2 (control) to 25.2 mm 2 . Significant increase in the tensile strength and hydroxyproline content were also observed as compared to the control and was comparable to nitrofurazone. The above results appear to justify the traditional use of C. splendens in wound healing and treatment of skin infections in Ghana.
  2,997 314 9
Bronchodilator activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.
Dinesh Kumar, SS Bhujbal, RS Deoda, SC Mudgade
March-April 2010, 2(2):102-106
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.62955  PMID:21808549
Biologically active compounds from natural sources are of interest as possible new drugs for infectious diseases. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. has been used in Indian system of medicine in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, cold, colic pain, etc. Stem bark of A. excelsa Roxb. has been used as a decoction in traditional claims. So, our traditional claims enforced us to evaluate its bronchodilator activity. We have evaluated its bronchodilator activity in milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia, clonidine-induced mast cell degranulation, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung histopathology models. The aqueous extract of stem bark in doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg showed significant activity.
  3,007 163 10
Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptosis in estrogen receptor-positive and negative human breast carcinoma cell lines by Gmelina asiatica roots
Madhu Katyayani Balijepalli, Satyanarayana Tandra, Pichika Mallikarjuna Rao
March-April 2010, 2(2):113-119
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.62949  PMID:21808551
Low risk of breast cancer has been proposed to be associated with high intake of lignans. We have reported the presence of lignans in Gmelina asiatica roots. There are no scientific reports on the antiproliferative activity of G. asiatica roots. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate extract from G. asiatica roots (EGAR) on estrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) and negative (MDA-MB-231) human breast cancer cell lines. The effects of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of EGAR on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay kit. The mode of cell death caused by EGAR was determined using dual apoptosis assay kit by observing the cells under fluorescent microscope. The quantification of apoptosis and necrosis in cells caused by EGAR was determined using cell death detection kit through ELISA. Down-regulation of the proliferative activity occurred in a clear dose-dependent response with IC 50 values of 32.9 ± 3.8 μg/mL in MCF-7 and 19.9 ± 2.3 μg/mL in MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Treatment of breast cancer cells with EGAR resulted in significant apoptosis. The EGAR contain lignans and flavonoids. The antiproliferative activity of the extract is attributed to the presence of these secondary metabolites. The results suggest the efficacy of G. asiatica roots as antiproliferative agents on human breast cancer cells, supporting the hypothesis that plants containing lignans have beneficial effects on human breast cancer.
  2,962 119 7
Colon targeted curcumin delivery using guar gum
AK Singhal, N Nalwaya, E Edwin Jarald, Showkat Ahmed
March-April 2010, 2(2):82-85
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.62954  
  2,533 343 1
Crystal and molecular structure of lancerodiol-p-hydroxybenzoate
Mohamed H Abd El-Razek, Mohamed-Elamir F Hegazy, Abou El-Hamd H Mohamed
March-April 2010, 2(2):69-71
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.62950  PMID:21808543
Lancerodiol-p-hydroxybenzoate was isolated from the leaves of Ferula sinaica L. (Apiaceae) as light needle crystals. This work reports for the first time the molecular structure and relative configuration of compound 1, established by X-ray analysis.
  1,929 151 -
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