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   2009| November-December  | Volume 1 | Issue 6  
    Online since January 2, 2010

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A Comparative Study: Antimicrobial Activity of Methanol Extracts of Lantana camara Various Parts
Mahdi Pour Badakhshan, Srinivasan Sasidharan, Naidu Jegathambigai Rameshwar, Suresh Ramanathan
November-December 2009, 1(6):348-351
Finding new resources of antibiotics based on natural products used by traditional practitioners was the main aim to study extracts of root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae), a medicinal plant available in Malaysia. A panel of organisms including 10 bacteria and 5 fungi were treated by L. camara extracts of different parts based on disk diffusion method and broth microdilution technique. The leaf extract presented the highest antibiotic effect among all parts of plant especially against Gram positive Bacillus cereus (zone of inhibition 13.0 ± 0.0 mm, MIC/MBC 9.4 ± 4.4 mg/ml) and Gram negative Salmonella typhi (zone of inhibition 13.5 ± 2.1 mm, MIC/MBC 12.5 ± 0.0 mg/ml). In conclusion, this study may support the conventional use of leaf extract of L. camara in some infectious gastroenteritis disorders, a potential subject to further isolation and identification as a supply of antibacterial substances.
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In vitro Antioxidant Effect of Rosa canina in Different Antioxidant Test Systems
Hasan Kilicgun, Altiner Dehen
November-December 2009, 1(6):417-420
Rosa canina L. has been used since ancient times as a natural product and believed to be safe and almost without side effects. It can be administered easily for some diseases. The actual dose of Rosa canina being consumed is often variable, unpredictable or simply unknown. Therefore, in this study, five different (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 8%) concentrations of Rosa canina infusions were used to determine the optimum antioxidant dose of Rosa canina by using different in vitro test systems. Our results suggest that Rosa canina has the potential to be used as an antioxidant substance at 3% concentration. Therefore, it can be suitable to achieve this concentration at tissue level when used as a supplement to therapeutic regimens and for healthy living.
  5,775 216 -
Biological activity of two red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis from Persian Gulf.
S Saeidnia, AR Gohari, AR Shahverdi, P Permeh, M Nasiri, K Mollazadeh, F Farahani
November-December 2009, 1(6):428-430
Among marine organisms, algae are a large and diverse group of organisms from which a wide range of secondary metabolites have been isolated. A number of these compounds possess biological activity. In this study, we aim to evaluate the cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activity of two red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis, collected from Persian Gulf. Ethyl acetate extracts of both algae showed a potent cytotoxic effect against Artemia salina nauplii (LC50 = 3 and 4 μg.ml−1, respectively). Aqueous methanol (50%) extracts were also effective. None of the methanol and aqueous methanol extracts of the algae showed antifungal and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger by the Broth-dilution method. Only the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited antibacterial activity (MIC = 2 μg.ml−1) on S. aureus. In conclusion, G. salicornia and H. flagelliformis could be a promising source of cytotoxic components.
  5,151 210 -
Screening of Psidium guajava Leaf Extracts for Antistress Activity in Different Experimental Animal Models
B.V.S Lakshmi, M Sudhakar
November-December 2009, 1(6):359-366
Ethanolic extract of leaves of Psidium guajava was investigated on anoxia stress tolerance test in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) and acute heat induced stress to gauge the antistress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the antistress activity of Psidium guajava in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4° for 2 h) for 10 days. Stimulation of hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis in stressful condition alters plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, BUN and corticosterone levels. There is also alteration in the blood cell counts. Pretreatment with the extract significantly (P<0.001) ameliorated the stress-induced variations in these biochemical levels and blood cell counts in both acute and chronic stress models. The extract treated animals showed increase in swimming endurance time and increase in anoxia tolerance time in physical and anoxia stress models respectively. Treatment groups also reverted back increase in liver, adrenal gland weights and atrophy of spleen caused by cold chronic stress and swimming endurance stress models. The results indicate that ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava has significant adaptogenic activity against a variety of biochemical and physiological perturbations in different stress models.
  4,793 203 -
Bioactivity-Directed Separation of an Anxiolytic Fraction from Aethusa cynapium L.
Richa Shri, Manjeet Singh, Anupam Sharma
November-December 2009, 1(6):336-341
The present study evaluated the putative anxiolytic activity of petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water extracts of the aerial parts of Aethusa cynapium using the widely accepted elevated plus-maze (EPM) model in mice. The bioactive fraction was isolated by bioactivity-directed fractionation, and two chromatographic procedures - column and flash chromatography. Fraction derived from the methanol extract of the plant, showed significant anxiolytic activity at a dose of 50 mg/kg p.o. which was comparable to the standard drug, diazepam (2 mg/kg p.o.). This sub fraction comprised two components as seen in the TLC profile. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of unsaturated fatty acid in Fraction The study demonstrates that A.cynapium has significant anti anxiety activity. This activity may be due to fatty acids present in the bioactive fraction.
  4,090 133 -
Antioxidative Effect of Trichosanthes tricuspidata Root Extract on Sildenafil Induced Migraine in Albino Mice
P Nithiya, Karthik Mohan
November-December 2009, 1(6):402-405
Migraine is considered a neurovascular disease involving the dilatation of cerebral arteries. Because of their dual role in modulating neuronal and vascular events, neuropeptides have been implied to be of importance in migraine pathophysiology. It is a highly prevalent disorder which manifests clinically as moderate to severe or severe headache attacks with frequent frontotemporal unilateral location and associated symptoms. The disability of migraine results in considerable economic and social losses .Nitric oxide, a short lived vasodilator and weak oxygen radical has been implicated in the genesis of migraine headaches. Hence the role of all enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants becomes in evitable in the treatment of migraine. Trichosanthes tricuspidata's (red apple gourd) antioxidant effect was tested over Sildenafil induced migraine in female albino mice. The levels of antioxidant enzymes such as super oxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidase(LPO), catalase(CAT) and glutahione peroxidase(GPx) were more promising in the treatment group fed with the root extract of Trichosanthes tricuspidata.
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Antiulcer Activity of Methanol Extract of Erythrina indica Lam. Leaves in Experimental Animals
S Sakat Sachin, R Juvekar Archana
November-December 2009, 1(6):396-401
Gastric ulcer is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders, which affects approximately 5-10% of people during their life. In recent years, abundant work has been carried out on herbal medicine to clarify their potential efficacy in gastric ulcer prevention or management. Here, present study was carried out to investigate antiulcer activity of methanol extract of Erythrina indica (family: Febaceae) leaves in pylorus ligated and indomethacin induced ulceration in the albino rats. Preliminary methanol extract of E. indica was subjected to the acute oral toxicity study according to the OECD guideline no. 423. Based on which, three dose levels i.e. 125, 250 and 500mg/kg were selected for the further study. In pylorus ligation induced ulcer model, various parameters were studied viz. gastric volume, pH, total acidity free acidity, and ulcer index. Ulcer index and percentage inhibition of ulceration was determined for indomethacin induced ulcer model. Ranitidine at 100mg/kg was used as the standard drug. Pretreatment of methanol extract of E. indica leaves showed significant (P<0.01) decrease in the gastric volume, total acidity and free acidity. However, pH of the gastric juice was significantly (P<0.05) increased only at higher dose, 500mg/kg. It showed also significant (P<0.01) decrease in number of ulcers and ulcer score index in pylorus ligation and indomethacin induced ulceration models. The methanol extract of E. indica leaves possess significant antiulcer properties in a dose dependent manner. In conclusion the antiulcer properties of the extract may be attributed to the polyphenolic compounds that are present in it.
  3,612 227 -
Antidiabetic Effect of Nauclea latifolia Leaf Ethanolic Extract in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats
Gidado Abubakar, A Ameh Danladi, E Atawodi Sunday, Ibrahim Sani
November-December 2009, 1(6):392-395
The antidiabetic and possible toxicity of ethanolic extract of the leaf of Nauclea latifolia was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight were given orally to the STZ-induced diabetic rats daily for 45 days. All the doses showed significant hypoglycaemic effect. The effect is however not dose dependent. Indices of liver and kidney functions studied were not statistically affected by the extract administration. Ethanolic extract of the leaf of N. latifolia thus exhibited antidiabetic action in STZ-induced diabetic rats with minimal toxicity.
  3,354 177 -
Antioxidant activity of leaves and inflorescence of Eryngium Caucasicum Trautv at flowering stage
Mohamamd Ali Ebrahimzadeh, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
November-December 2009, 1(6):435-439
Methanol extracts of leaves and inflorescence of Eryngium Caucasicum Trautv at flowering stage were investigated for their antioxidant activities employing six in vitro assay systems, i.e. DPPH and nitric oxide radical scavenging, reducing power, linoleic acid and iron ion chelating power. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 0.15 ± 0.01 for leaves and 0.39 ± 0.02 mg ml−1 for inflorescence. Reducing powers of both extracts increased with the increase of their concentrations. Leaves extract showed better activity than Vitamin C (p< 0.05). Extracts showed weak nitric oxide-scavenging activity. Leaves extract exhibited better Fe2+ chelating ability (IC50=0.25 mg ml−1) that was comparable with EDTA. (IC50=18 ìg ml−1). Inflorescence extracts had shown a very weak activity. Extracts showed very good scavenging activity of H2O2. IC50 was 25.5 ± 1.3 for leaves and 177.2 ± 11.6 mg ml−1 for inflorescence, respectively. No antioxidant activity exhibited in linoleic acid test. Extracts exhibited different levels of antioxidant activity in all the models studied.
  3,332 130 -
Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of active fraction from the aqueous extract of Momordica cymbalaria fruits in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats
MD Rajasekhar, K Ramesh Babu, K Vinay, MR Sampath, SK Sameena, Ch Apparao
November-December 2009, 1(6):352-358
The methanolic supernatant fraction (MSF) of the aqueous extract of Momordica cymbalaria fruits when given to streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats showed a significant reduction (65.9%, P<0.001) in fasting blood glucose levels at a dose of 0.5g/kg.b.w. These results were compared to that of glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycemic agent. The active MSF exhibited a dose dependent scavenging activity against 2, 2-diphenly-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and nitric oxide radicals with an IC50 value of 42.5 and 157.2μg/ml, respectively. Further, the MSF had relatively lower reducing power, compared to that of ascorbic acid. The total phenolic content of the fraction was found to be 132mg/gm of dry fraction. In conclusion, MSF possess antihyperglycemic and antioxidant properties, which could be due to the presence of steroidal glycosides or phenolic compounds.
  3,072 207 -
Effect of Bark Extract and Gum Exudate of Commiphora Caudata on Aspirin Induced Ulcer in Rats
R Nanthakumar, Ambrose S Stephen, E Sriram, G Babu, K Chitra, C Uma maheswara Reddy
November-December 2009, 1(6):375-380
Commiphora caudata is used in Indian folk medicine as an antiulcerogenic agent. Despite of its promising use, there has been no scientific report present regarding its antiulcer activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of bark extract and gum exudate of commiphora caudata on aspirin induced ulcer in rats. Acute toxicity study was performed and 200 mg/kg was selected as an effective dose. Four groups of Albino Swiss rats were included in this study. Aspirin suspended in 0.5 % carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was given orally to group 1 rats as a negative control group. Group 2 and group 3 animals received methanolic extract and gum exudate of commiphora caudata respectively. Sucralfate was given orally to group 4 animals as a positive control. The methanolic extract of commiphora caudata has been found to reduce total acidity as much as by sucralfate. However, it has not changed the fluid secretion. The gum preparation not only reduced the total acidity but also considerably reduce the gastric fluid secretion. In case of ulcer score sucralfate, methanolic extract and the gum have produced the low ulcer score compared to aspirin. Increased gastric mucosal protective mechanism by bark extract and gum exudate is probably due to the presence of some active principles present in the plant. However, further investigations are required to elucidate their exact mechanism of anti-ulcer activity.
  3,118 104 -
X-rays radiation directly produced favorable and harmful effects on the constituents of different medicinal plants
SM Al-Nimer Marwan, Zainab Wahbee Abdul Lateef
November-December 2009, 1(6):331-335
The effect of ionizing radiation on the constituents of solid materials of medicinal plants was studied in few reports. The present study was performed to investigate the direct effect of 1.9Gy/min X-rays radiation on the dry leaves of Camellia sinensis (green tea), Salvia officinalis (sage), barks of Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon) and tuberous of Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ginger). Three extracts (1%) were prepared for each medicinal plant; aqueous, ethanol and methanol. The UV-Visible spectra, and biochemical constituents of each non irradiated and irradiated extract were determined. The results showed that X-rays radiation induced remarkable changes in UV-Visible spectra of irradiated compared with non irradiated medicinal plants. This effect was well observed with irradiated green tea leaves. Irradiated medicinal plants lost considerable percents of allantoin and higher percents of flavonoids as well as total polyphenols were lost from irradiated ginger and cinnamon. Irradiated medicinal plants were superior than non irradiated in releasing nitric oxide. It concludes that irradiated medicinal plants carried favorable and harmful effects on their constituents and their favorable effects can be clinically as well as experimentally applied.
  2,687 124 -
Possible Role of Natural Nephroprotective; Hemidesmus indicus in Congestive Heart Failure
VR Chidrawar, YV Ushir, S Sudarshan, KN Patel, NJ Patel, KR Vadalia
November-December 2009, 1(6):367-374
Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is a treasure of the forest and herbal wealth. It is being used as folk medicines and as an ingredient in Ayurveda and Unani preparations against diseases of blood, inflammation, diarrhea, urinary disorders and rheumatism etc. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of natural nephroprotectant Hemidesmus indicus for the treatment of congestive heart failure. Hemidesmus indicus extracts were evaluated by using salt water induced left ventricular hypertrophy in Spargue dawley rat model. The property was evaluated using serum creatinine, urea, SGOT, SGPT and urine albumin, creatinine, Na+, K+ and Ca++ as biochemical parameters and histopathological changes including myocyte diameter, neutrophil infiltration and cardiac hypertrophy. Results obtained from the present study indicates that aqueous and methanolic extracts have more significant inhibitory effect on salt water feeding induced severity of microalbuminuria, serum urea and creatinine, myocyte diameter and retention of Na+ and water and increases the serum calcium level. We conclude from the present study that, potent natural nephroprotectant Hemidesmus indicus is also a potent cardioprotective.
  2,693 95 -
Chemical constituents and bioactivities of Malabaila suaveolens
Mahmoud I Nassar, El-Sayed A Aboutabl, Yousreya A Maklad, Ezzel-Din A El-Khrisy, Abeer F Osman
November-December 2009, 1(6):342-347
Volatile oil components, fatty acids, β-amyrin, and sterols were identified in the n -hexane extract of Malabaila suaveolens Coss. fruits. Angelicin, 4,7,9-trimethyl psoralen, isopimpinellin and umbelliferone were isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the plant. 5-Hydroxy 7, 3`, 4`-trimethoxyflavone, apigenin and its 7-O0-β-D-glucopyranoside were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. From the methanol extract, a new flavonoid, apigenin 7-O-(6``-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), along with vicenin 2, acacetin 7-O-rutinoside, and 6-hydroxyapigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were isolated. Toxicity study of n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate extract and methanolic extracts of the plant proved that it is relatively nontoxic. The tested extracts showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects as compared with control groups and reference drugs. Also, the tested extracts showed significant antioxidant activity as compared with reference.
  2,586 131 -
Antifungal activity of Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten (Apocynaceae) organic extracts
EK Ruttoh, C Bii, PK Tarus, A Machocho, LK Karimi, P Okemo
November-December 2009, 1(6):387-391
The methanol and successive (hexane, dichlroromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol) extracts of leaves, fruits, root and stem barks of Tabernaemontana stapfiana Britten were investigated for antifungal activity against four fungi; Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The extracts of the different plant parts showed varied activities against the tested fungi with the stem and root barks showing significant antifungal activities. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of methanol and sequential extracts ranged between 31.25 and 8000 μg/ml while the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) ranged between 125 and 8000 μg/ml. Among the test microorganisms, Candida albicans was the most susceptible with the lowest MIC of 31.25 μg/ml followed by Cryptococcus neoformans with an MIC of 62.25 μg/ml. These results show that it is possible to find antifungal compounds in the extracts of T. stapfiana.
  2,532 112 -
Investigation of the flavonoidal constituents and insecticidal activity of Teucrium zanonii
Khaled A Abdelshafeek, Fahem Abdelrahem, Mohemmed A Elwahsh, Ismail A Abdelkhalek
November-December 2009, 1(6):410-416
Teucrium zanonii (Family labiateae) is an endemic Libyan plant growing in many regions around Benghazy city. Investigation of the flavonoidal constituents of plant led to isolation of Cirsiliol, Luteolin, Chrysoeriol and Xanthomicrol from ethyl acetate fraction while Apigenin 6,8-di-O-glucoside and Luteolin-7-O-rutinoside were isolated from the butanol fraction. All compounds were identified by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods (UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy). The study of insecticidal activity of different extracts of the plant against the adult of Phloeotribus oleae showed the highest effect (86.67% mortality) was observed with the aqueous extract, while the unsaponifiable fraction was the least in this concern which give only 43.33% mortality,. Also, mortalities of 83.33%, 80.00%, 70.00% and 66.67% were obtained by using of alcoholic, butanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts, respectively. Also the filed experiments proved that aqueous, alcoholic and butanol extracts significantly lowered the percentage of infestation to 70.82%, 65.86% and 66.56%, respectively after one week.
  2,550 90 -
Molluscicidal activity against Oncomelania hupensis of endophyte JJ18 from Pseudolarix kaempferi Gord
Jun Chen, Bang-xing Han, Shang-bin Guo, Yan Wang, Jia He, Xiao-kun Zhou, Xun Yang, Fang-an Han
November-December 2009, 1(6):421-427
To screen a kind of biological controlling measure against the Oncomelania hupensis snails, This study is to research the molluscicidal effect of JJ18 and identify its species. The alcoholic extract of JJ18 broth effectively killed O. hupensis snails, and the n-butanol fraction of the extract had the best molluscicidal activity compared with other fractions. Ochratoxin A was detected from JJ18 broth with ELISA analysis, and it may be a molluscicidal active substance in the broth. JJ18 strain belongs to Aspergillus niger was identified by morphology characteristics of the slide culture and rDNA ITS sequence analyzing.
  2,379 69 -
Benincasa cerifera Ameliorates Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Hyperlipidemic Rat
YS Bhalodia, NJ Patel, RK Patel, JD Vaghasiya, NP Jivani, NR Sheth
November-December 2009, 1(6):406-409
To investigate protective effect of Benincasa cerifera (BC) against kidney injury induced by Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) in hyperlipidemic (HC) rats. Hyperlipidemia was developed by cholesterol diet (2% cholesterol and 20 % coconut oil) feeding for 3 weeks. At the end of 3rd week, renal ischemia was induced by both renal arteries occlusion for 60 min followed 24 h of reperfusion. Methanolic extract of Benincasa cerifera (500 mg/kg/day) was administered orally 7 days before induction of ischemia. Benincasa cerifera treatment reversed all antioxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents as well serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. This data conclude the renoprotective activity of Benincasa cerifera against renal damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury in hyperlipidemic rat.
  2,207 83 -
Antinociceptive activity of aqueous leaf extract of Tetracera sarmentosa L. in rats
T. R. G. W Fernando, WD Ratnasooriya, SA Deraniyagala
November-December 2009, 1(6):381-386
In Sri Lankan traditional medicine mature leaves of Tetracera sarmentosa L. (Family : Dilleniaceae) is used as a healing agent in the treatment of bone fractures. A strong possibility exists that these leaves could possess antinociceptive activity but this has not been scientifically tested and validated. The aim of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive potential of an aqueous leaf extract (ALE) of T. sarmentosa in rats (doses used : 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg, given orally) using three algesiometric methods (hot plate, tail flick and formalin tests). The results showed that ALE possesses marked and significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive action when evaluated in hot plate (in a dose dependant manner) and formalin tests (only the highest dose tested) but not in tail flick test. The antinociceptive action of ALE had a quick onset (within 1 h) and a moderately long duration of action (up to 4 h). The antinociceptive action of ALE was not blocked by atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist) or metoclopramide (a dopamine receptor antagonist). Moreover, the ALE did not have sedative (in terms of hole board test) or membrane stabilizing (in terms of in vitro heat induced haemolysis of rat erythrocyte test) activities. ALE contained a wide variety of chemical constituents of which alkaloids, polyphenols, flavonoids, steroids may have contributed to antinociceptive action of ALE. Collectively, these observations suggest that ALE - induced antonociception was mediated both centrally, at supraspinal level, and peripherally. The antinocicetion action was not due to cholinergic, dopaminergic, sedative and membrane stabilizing mechanisms but possibly due to opioidergic mechanisms (by indirect evidences). The results also suggest that ALE is effective against both neurogenic and inflammatory pains. In conclusion, this study shows, for the first time, that ALE of T. sarmentosa possesses moderately strong pain relieving activity, which is beneficial in the treatment of bone fractures.
  2,171 93 -
The Effects of N-butanol Fraction and N-butanol Phase Remnant From 50% Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract of Cyndon Dactylon on Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stones in Rat
Hajzadeh Musa-Al-Reza, Behnam Rassouli Fatemeh, Khajavirad Abolfazl, Mahmoudian Alireza
November-December 2009, 1(6):431-434
Renal stones are common and its prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Treatment of patients with kidney stones in primary stages can reduce the side effects and may also prevent the surgical operations and postoperative complications. Several effects including: anti-microbial, anti-diabetic and cardioprotective effects have been reported for Cynodon dactylon. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of N-butanol fractionand N-butanol phase remnant of Cynodon dactylon extracton calcium oxalate kidney stones in male rats. Twenty four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. All groups were studied during 35 days of experiment according to the protocol of study. Normal control group (1) received tap drinking water. Negative control group (2) received 1% ethylene glycol in drinking water. Experimental groups (3 and 4) were treated with 1% ethylene glycol as well as 5mg/kg N-butanol fraction or 5mg/kg N-butanol phase remnant from 50% aqueous-ethanolic extract of Cynodon dactylon from first day of the experiment and continued during all protocol time.At the end of experiment, kidneys were removed for histopathologic study and examined for counting calcium oxalate deposits in 10 microscopic fields. Data were expressed as Mean± SEM and were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and subsequently by Mann-Whitney; p<0.05 was considered significant. The results showed that the number of calcium oxalate deposits in 10 microscopic fields in groups 3 (p=0.008) and 4 (p=0.00) vs group 2 were significantly decreased. The results of this study revealed that N-butanol fraction and N-butanol phase remnant from 50% aqueous-ethanolic extract of Cynodon dactylon can reduce calcium oxalate stones in the rat kidney by 40 and 55% respectively. Therefore, Cynodon dactylon has beneficial effects on kidney stone removal and might be used in human treatment.
  1,593 80 -