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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
In vitro sun protection factor determination of herbal oils used in cosmetics
Chanchal Deep Kaur, Swarnlata Saraf
January-February 2010, 2(1):22-25
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.60586  PMID:21808534
The aim of this study was to evaluate ultraviolet (UV) absorption ability of volatile and nonvolatile herbal oils used in sunscreens or cosmetics and express the same in terms of sun protection factor (SPF) values. Sun protection factor is a laboratory measure of the effectiveness of sunscreen; the higher the SPF, the more protection a sunscreen offers against the ultraviolet radiations causing sunburn. The in vitro SPF is determined according to the spectrophotometric method of Mansur et al. Hydroalcoholic dilutions of oils were prepared, and in vitro photoprotective activity was studied by UV spectrophotometric method in the range of 290-320 nm. It can be observed that the SPF values found for nonvolatile oils were in between 2 and 8; and for volatile oils, in between 1 and 7. Among the fixed oils taken, SPF value of olive oil was found to be the highest. Similarly among essential oils, SPF value of peppermint oil was found to be the highest. The study will be helpful in the selection of oils and fragrances to develop sunscreens with better safety and high SPF. Oily vehicles are more effective for producing a uniform and long-lasting film of sunscreen on the skin, and their emollient properties protect the skin against the drying effects of exposure to wind and sun. Volatile oils are used as perfumes in cosmetics.
  14,950 384 15
Brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity studies on Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.) Jacq. seed methanolic extract
Geethaa Sahgal, Surash Ramanathan, Sreenivasan Sasidharan, Mohd. Nizam Mordi, Sabariah Ismail, Sharif Mahsufi Mansor
July-August 2010, 2(4):215-220
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69107  PMID:21808570
Background: The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. Methods: SMCM seed extract has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity, in mice. Results: The brine shrimp lethality bioassay shows a moderate cytotoxicity at high concentration. The LC50 for the extract is 0.68 mg/ml at 24 hours of exposure. The LD50 of the SMCM seed extract for acute oral toxicity in mice is greater than 5000 mg/kg. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic seed extract may contain bioactive compounds of potential therapeutic significance which are relatively safe from toxic effects, and can compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine.
  13,279 94 8
Protective effect of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra linn. against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats
Nirmal K Bairwa, Neeraj K Sethiya, SH Mishra
January-February 2010, 2(1):26-30
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.60584  PMID:21808535
The present study reports protective activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) was administered orally to the rats with hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (3 gm/kg). Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as positive control. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting of ethyl acetate fraction revealed presence of its major chemical constituents. A significant (P < 0.05) reduction in serum enzymes GOT (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), GPT alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin content and histopathological screening in the rats treated gave indication that ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of Ceiba pentandra possesses hepatoprotective potential against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
  12,340 259 21
Isolation and characterization of phytoconstituents from Chlorophytum borivilianum
Sharada L Deore, Somshekhar S Khadabadi
November-December 2010, 2(6):343-349
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.75452  PMID:21713136
Background: The present communication deals with the identification and characterization of bioactive principles from the roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum. Method: Methanolic extract and its fractions were used to isolate different phytoconstituents. The structures of isolated compounds were characterized and elucidated with chemical and spectroscopic techniques such as Infra Red, Nuclear Mass Resonace and Mass spectroscopy experiments. Fatty acids were characterized by GC-MS analysis. Result: Three Fatty acids were isolated and confirmed. One sterol stigmasterol was isolated. One new saponin named as Chlorophytoside-I (3b, 5a, 22R, 25R)-26-(β-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-22-hydroxy-furostan-12-one-3 yl O-β-D-galactopyranosyl (1-4) glucopyranoside was isolated. Conclusion: The roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum contain three important fatty acids, common sterol stigmasterol and one furostanol saponins.
  12,519 36 3
REVIEW ARTICLES
Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant
N'Guessan Bra Yvette Fofie, Rokia Sanogo, Kiyinlma Coulibaly, Diénéba Kone Bamba
January-March 2015, 7(1):7-13
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147131  PMID:25598628
Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus.
  11,991 3 1
Review on Polygonum minus. Huds, a commonly used food additive in Southeast Asia
Parayil Varghese Christapher, Subramani Parasuraman, Josephine Maria Arokiaswamy Christina, Mohd. Zaini Asmawi, Murugaiyah Vikneswaran
January-March 2015, 7(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.147125  PMID:25598627
Polygonum minus (Polygonaceae), generally known as 'kesum' in Malaysia is among the most commonly used food additive, flavoring agent and traditionally used to treat stomach and body aches. Raw or cooked leaves of P. minus are used in digestive disorders in the form of a decoction and the oil is used for dandruff. The pharmacological studies on P. minus have demonstrated antioxidant, in vitro LDL oxidation inhibition, antiulcer activity, analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, in vitro antiplatelet aggregation activity, antimicrobial activity, digestive enhancing property and cytotoxic activity. The spectroscopic studies of essential oil of P. minus showed the presence of about 69 compounds, which are responsible for the aroma. The phytochemical studies showed presence of flavonoids and essential oils. This review is an effort to update the botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological data of the plant P. minus.
  9,508 2 6
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antimicrobial properties, antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds from six wild edible mushrooms of western ghats of Karnataka, India
Ch. Ramesh , Manohar G Pattar
March-April 2010, 2(2):107-112
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.62953  PMID:21808550
Methanolic extracts of 6 wild edible mushrooms isolated from the Western Ghats of Karnataka were used in this study. Among the isolates (Lycoperdon perlatum, Cantharellus cibarius, Clavaria vermiculris, Ramaria formosa, Marasmius oreades, Pleurotus pulmonarius), only 4 showed satisfactory results. Quantitative analysis of bioactive components revealed that total phenols are the major bioactive component found in extracts of isolates expressed as mg of GAE per gram of fruit body, which ranged from 3.20 ± 0.05 mg/mL to 6.25 ± 0.08 mg/mL. Average concentration of flavonoid ranged from 0.40 ± 0.052 mg/mL to 2.54 ± 0.08 mg/mL; followed by very small concentration of ascorbic acid (range, 0.06 ± 0.01 mg/mL to 0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) in all the isolates. All the isolates showed high phenol and flavonoid content, but ascorbic acid content was found in traces. Antioxidant efficiency by inhibitory concentration on 1,1-Diphenly-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was found significant when compared to standard antioxidant like Buthylated hydroxyanisol (BHA). The concentration (IC 50 ) ranged from 0.94 ± 0.27 mg/mL to 7.57 ± 0.21 mg/mL. Determination of antimicrobial activity profile of all the isolates tested against a panel of standard pathogenic bacteria and fungi indicated that the concentrations of bioactive components directly influence the antimicrobial capability of the isolates. Agar diffusion assay showed considerable activity against all bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of the extracts of 4 isolates showed that they are also active even in least concentrations. These results are discussed in relation to therapeutic value of the studied mushrooms.
  8,492 337 32
Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats
RS Kujur, Vishakha Singh, Mahendra Ram, Harlokesh Narayan Yadava, KK Singh, Suruchi Kumari, BK Roy
July-August 2010, 2(4):258-263
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69128  PMID:21808578
Background : Stevia rebaudiana regulates blood sugar, prevents hypertension and tooth decay. Other studies have shown that it has antibacterial as well as antiviral property. Methods : Preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous, ether and methanolic extracts of S. rebaudiana was done. Acute and sub-acute toxicity were conducted on twenty four Albino rats, divided into one control (Group I) and three treatment groups viz. aqueous extract (Group II), ether extract (Group III) and methanolic extract (Group IV). For the study of antidiabetic effect of S. rebaudiana rats were divided into seven groups (n=6). Diabetes was induced by a single dose of 5% alloxan monohydrate (125 mg/kg, i.p.) after 24 hour fasting.Blood samples were analysed on day 0, 1, 5, 7, 14 and 28. Results : Phytochemical tests showed presence of different kinds of phyto-constituents in aqueous, ether and methanol extract of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Daily single dose (2.0 g/kg) administration of aqueous extract (A.E.) , ether extract (E.E.) and methanol extract (M.E.) for 28 days of S. rebaudiana could not show any significant change in ALT and AST levels in rats. Blood sugar level was found to be decreased on day 28 in groups of rats treated with A.E., E.E. and M.E. of S. rebaudiana. Conclusion : The extracts of Stevioside rebaudiana could decrease the blood glucose level in diabetic rats in time dependent manner.
  6,552 174 35
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Determination of Radical Scavenging Activity of Hydroalcoholic and Aqueous Extracts from Bauhinia divaricata and Bougainvillea spectabilis Using the DPPH Assay
L Chaires-Martinez, E Monroy-Reyes, A Bautista-Bringas, HA Jimenez-Avalos, G Sepulveda-Jimenez
September-October 2009, 1(5):238-244
Bauhinia divaricata and Bougainvillea spectabilis are medicinal plants widely distributed in Mexico and they are used because of its potential hypoglycemic action; however, no free radical scavenging activity (RSA) studies over these plants are known. Thus, aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts from leaf and stem samples were evaluated for their RSA using 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH). Total phenolics and flavonoids extracts were determined too. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical program with the significance level set at P<0.05. Bauhinia divaricata stem aqueous extracts with total phenols content of 12.98 mg GAE/g DW had the highest amount between samples. The same behavior was shown in flavonoids determination. However, when RSA was estimated it was found that stem aqueous extracts from Bougainvillea spectabilis produced more DPPH absorbance reduction (95.66%), with an IC 50 (the concentration to inhibit the oxidation of DPPH by 50%) and AP (reciprocal of IC 50) values of 0.03 μg/mL and 33.33, respectively. These results were superior to common synthetic antioxidants used in the food industry like butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, IC 50=62 μg/mL) and can be useful for further applications of these plants or its constituents in pharmaceutical and alimentary preparations.
  6,403 124 -
Antioxidant activity of Aquilaria malaccensis (thymelaeaceae) leaves
A.W.N Huda, M.A.S Munira, SD Fitrya, M Salmah
September-October 2009, 1(5):270-273
The phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Aquilaria malaccensis leaves were investigated. The sequential maceration extraction methods utilizing solvents with different polarities namely hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol yielded the corresponding crude extract. The extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, triterpenoids, steroids and saponins. The phytochemical screening suggests that flavanoids present in this species might provide a great value of antioxidant activity. Preliminary screenings of the free radical scavenging activity on the extracts of the plants with 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were tested and showed positive result. Quarcetine was used as reference standard. The extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity radical scavenging activity with IC 50 value of 8.0 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 1.6 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 1.4 Χ 10 2 μg/ml, 30.0 μg/ml and 3.33 μg/ ml for hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate, methanol and quarcetine respectively.
  5,895 145 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Insulin Plant (Costus pictus) extract restores thyroid hormone levels in experimental hypothyroidism
S Ashwini, Zachariah Bobby, MG Sridhar, CC Cleetus
January-March 2017, 9(1):51-59
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.199766  PMID:28250654
Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive effect of Costus pictus leaf extract in experimental hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups with ten rats in each group: Control (C), hypothyroid (H), control+extract (C+E), and hypothyroid+extract (H+E). Rats in C group did not receive any intervention throughout the experimental period. The rats in the C+E and H+E groups received pretreatment with C. pictus leaf extract for 4 weeks. Subsequently, for the next 6 weeks, rats in the H group received 0.05% propylthiouracil in drinking water while C+E group received C. pictus leaf extract and H+E group received propyl thiouracil and C. pictus leaf extract. Results: Hypothyroid group rats exhibited dramatic increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with concomitant depletion in the levels of thyroid hormones. Treatment with the extract resulted in remarkable improvement in thyroid profile. Extract produced 10.59-fold increase in plasma free T3, 8.65-fold increase in free T4, and 3.59-fold decrease in TSH levels in H+E group in comparison with H group. Treatment with the extract ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, decreased levels of plasma C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor alpha, suppressed tissue oxidative stress and prevented hepatic and renal damage caused due to thyroid hormone depletion in the H+E group. Pentacyclic triterpenes alpha and beta amyrins were identified and quantified in the extract. Conclusions: This is the first study to reveal that C. pictus extract has therapeutic potential to restore thyroid hormone levels and prevent the biochemical complications due to thyroid hormone insufficiency in the animal model of experimental hypothyroidism.
  5,992 0 -
Effect of dragon fruit extract on oxidative stress and aortic stiffness in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats
Kolla R. L Anand Swarup, Munavvar A Sattar, Nor A Abdullah, Mohammed H Abdulla, Ibrahim M Salman, Hassaan A Rathore, Edward J Johns
January-February 2010, 2(1):31-35
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.60582  PMID:21808536
Cardiovascular complications are consistently observed in diabetic patients across all age groups. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of the fruit pulp of Hylocereus undatus (DFE) on aortic stiffness and oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Twenty-four male, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: I (control), II (diabetic), III (DFE, 250 mg/kg) and IV (DFE 500 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced in groups II, III and IV by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ (40 mg/kg). After confirmation of diabetes, group III and IV received DFE for 5 weeks. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was used as a marker of aortic stiffness and was determined at the end of 5 weeks. DFE significantly decreased ( P < 0.05) the fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, but not to normal levels. Systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and PWV were significantly increased ( P < 0.05) in diabetic rats at the end of 5 weeks in comparison with control group. DFE treatment significantly decreased ( P < 0.05) these elevations. Oxidative damage was observed in group II after 5 weeks. Plasma malondialdehyde levels significantly decreased ( P < 0.05), while superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity significantly increased ( P < 0.05) with DFE treatment in comparison with group II. These data demonstrate that DFE treatment was effective in controlling oxidative damage and decreasing the aortic stiffness measured by PWV in STZ-induced diabetes in rats.
  5,732 204 3
Rapid preparation process of antiparkinsonian drug Mucuna pruriens silver nanoparticle by bioreduction and their characterization
Subramanian Arulkumar, Muthukumaran Sabesan
July-August 2010, 2(4):233-236
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.69112  PMID:21808573
Backgorund: Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is evolving an important branch of nanotechnology. Methods: The bioreduction behavior of plant seed extract of Mucuna pruriens in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated employing UV/visible spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform - infra red (FT- IR). Result: M. pruriens was found to exhibit strong potential for rapid reduction of silver ions. The formation of nanoparticles by this method is extremely rapid, requires no toxic chemicals, and the nanoparticles are stable for several months. Conclusion: The main conclusion is that the bioreduction method to produce nanoparticles is a good alternative to the electrochemical methods and it is expected to be biocompatible.
  5,771 99 4
RESEARCH ARTICLES
A Comparative Study: Antimicrobial Activity of Methanol Extracts of Lantana camara Various Parts
Mahdi Pour Badakhshan, Srinivasan Sasidharan, Naidu Jegathambigai Rameshwar, Suresh Ramanathan
November-December 2009, 1(6):348-351
Finding new resources of antibiotics based on natural products used by traditional practitioners was the main aim to study extracts of root, stem, leaf, flower and fruit of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae), a medicinal plant available in Malaysia. A panel of organisms including 10 bacteria and 5 fungi were treated by L. camara extracts of different parts based on disk diffusion method and broth microdilution technique. The leaf extract presented the highest antibiotic effect among all parts of plant especially against Gram positive Bacillus cereus (zone of inhibition 13.0 ± 0.0 mm, MIC/MBC 9.4 ± 4.4 mg/ml) and Gram negative Salmonella typhi (zone of inhibition 13.5 ± 2.1 mm, MIC/MBC 12.5 ± 0.0 mg/ml). In conclusion, this study may support the conventional use of leaf extract of L. camara in some infectious gastroenteritis disorders, a potential subject to further isolation and identification as a supply of antibacterial substances.
  5,365 169 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Determination of polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity of Tephrosia purpurea linn leaves (Leguminosae)
Avani Patel, Amit Patel, Amit Patel, NM Patel
May-June 2010, 2(3):152-158
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.65509  PMID:21808558
Background: Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (sarpankh), belonging to the family Leguminaceae, are used for the treatment of jaundice and are also claimed to be effective in many other diseases. This research work was undertaken to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves. Method: The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. So, the quantitative determinations were undertaken. All the methods are based on UV-spectrophotometric determination. Result: The total phenolic content of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 9.44 ± 0.22% w/w and 18.44 ± 0.13% w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 0.91 ± 0.08% w/w and 1.56 ± 0.12%w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 1.85 ± 0.08% w/w and 2.54 ± 0.12% w/w, respectively, for rutin. Further investigations were carried out for in vitro antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity by calculating its percentage inhibition by means of IC 50 values, all the extracts' concentrations were adjusted to fall under the linearity range and here many reference standards like tannic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, ascorbic acid were taken for the method suitability. Conclusion: The results revealed that leaves of this plant have antioxidant potential. The results also show the ethanolic extract to be more potent than the aqueous decoction which is claimed traditionally. In conclusion, T. purpurea Linn. (Leguminosae) leaves possess the antioxidant substance which may be responsible for the treatment of jaundice and other oxidative stress-related diseases.
  5,367 157 24
Antihistaminic activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb.
Dinesh Kumar, ZA Bhat, P Singh, SS Bhujbal, RS Deoda
July-September 2011, 3(3):220-224
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.85014  PMID:22022173
Background: Biologically active compounds from natural sources are of interest as possible new drugs for different diseases. Over many centuries humans have been mining the bounties of nature for discovering natural products that have been used for the treatment of all human diseases. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (Simaroubaceae) is widely used in the Indian system of medicine as an antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, anticolic pain, anticancer, antidiabetic etc. The plant was also reported for its antiasthmatic, bronchodilatory, antiallegic and many more such activities. Objective: To evaluate the antihistaminic activity of aqueous extract of stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. Materials and Methods: We have studied the effect of aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. at a doses 100 μg/mL in the isolated goat tracheal chain preparation in vitro and 100, 200, 400 mg/kg doses orally in passive paw anaphylaxis in rat, clonidine-induced catalepsy in mice models in vivo for its antihistaminic activity. Results: Aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. significantly (***P<0.001) inhibits the percentage contraction at concentration of 100 μg/mL in goat tracheal chain preparation. A. excelsa Roxb. extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg oral) and dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) also significantly reduced (**P<0.01) the paw volume at fourth hour and the percentage inhibition was found to be 13.98%, 28.49%, 42.47% and 46.77% respectively. The aqueous extract of stem barks of A. excelsa Roxb. (100, 200, 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and chlorpheniramine maleate (10 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited (*P<0.05, **P< 0.01) clonidine-induced catalepsy in mice at 150 min after the administration of clonidine. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of stem bark of A. excelsa Roxb. possess significant antihistaminic activity (H1-antagonist) and can be attributed to bronchodilating, anti-inflammatory, adaptogenic activity etc. Hence detailed study needs to be conducted to evaluate the phytoconstituent responsible for the above mentioned results and their clinical efficacy in the treatment of related diseases.
  5,306 17 4
Analgesic activity, toxicity study and phytochemical screening of standardized Cinnomomum iners leaves methanolic extract
F Mustaffa, J Indurkar, S Ismail, MN Mordi, S Ramanathan, SM Mansor
March-April 2010, 2(2):76-81
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.62952  PMID:21808545
Cinnomomum iners standardized leaves methanolic extract (CSLE) was subjected to analgesic, toxicity and phytochemical studies. The analgesic activity of CSLE was evaluated using formalin, hot plate and tail flick tests at doses of 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg. CSLE showed significant activity (P < 0.05) in the formalin model (late phase) on the rats at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg. However, CSLE did not show activity in the hot plate and tail flick tests. The results obtained suggest that CSLE acts peripherally to relieve pain. For the toxicity study, CSLE was orally administered to the Swiss albino mice according to the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) guideline 423. There was no lethality or toxic symptoms observed for all the tested doses throughout the 14-day period. Phytochemical screening of CSLE showed the presence of cardiac glycoside, flavonoid, polyphenol, saponin, sugar, tannin and terpenoid.
  5,072 233 13
Standardization of some herbal antidiabetic drugs in polyherbal formulation
Harinarayan Singh Chandel, AK Pathak, Mukul Tailang
January-March 2011, 3(1):49-56
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.79116  PMID:21731396
Background: Ayurvedic formulations are used to treat a wide variety of diseases including diabetes mellitus Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs. The present paper reports standardization of eight herbal anti-diabetic drugs−Momordica charantia (seeds), Syzigium cumini (seeds), Trigonella foenum (seeds), Azadirachta indica (leaves), Emblica offi cinalis (fruits), Curcuma longa (rhizomes), Gymnema sylvestre (leaves), Pterocarpus marsupium (heart-wood) individually and in polyherbal marketed samples of Baidyanath Madhumehari Churna Material and Methods: Shivayu Madhuhari Churna, Meghdut Madhushoonya Churna and were compared to the in-house preparation for physicochemical properties. Results and Conclusions: The limits obtained from the different physicochemical parameters of the individual eight herbal drugs and the marketed formulations could be used as reference standard for standardization of the anti-diabetic drugs in a quality control laboratory.
  5,210 27 4
Chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activities of essential oil from Cordia verbenacea DC leaves
Fabiola F. G. Rodrigues, Liana G. S. Oliveira, Fábio F. G. Rodrigues, Manuele E Saraiva, Sheyla C. X. Almeida, Mario E. S. Cabral, Adriana R Campos, Jose Galberto M Costa
July-September 2012, 4(3):161-165
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.99080  
Background: Cordia verbenacea is a Brazilian coastal shrub popularly known as "erva baleeira". The essential oil from fresh leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by CG/MS. The main components were identified as β-caryophyllene (25.4%), bicyclogermacrene (11.3%), δ-cadinene (9.%) and α-pinene (9.5%). In this study, the antimicrobial activity of Cordia verbenacea was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the essential oil was obtained using the broth microdilution assay (from 512 to 8 μg/ml). Results: The results showed that the essential oil presented fungistatic activity against Candida albicans and Candida krusei and antibacterial activity against Gram-positive strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and against multiresistant Gram-negative (Escherichia coli 27), in all tests the MIC was 64 μg/ml. When the essential oil was associated to aminoglycosides (subinhibitory concentrations, MIC/8), a synergic and antagonic activity was verified. The synergic effect was observed to the amikacin association (MIC reduction from 256 mlto 64 μg/ml) in all strains tested. Conclusion: The essential oil of Cordia verbenacea influences the activity of antibiotics and may be used as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy against respiratory tract bacterial pathogens.
  5,203 17 13
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Phytochemical Studies on Cissus quadrangularis Linn.
Achal Thakur, Vandana Jain, L Hingorani, KS Laddha
July-August 2009, 1(4):213-215
Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Family: Vitaceae) is an ancient medicinal plant, named as Hadjod in Hindi. A triterpene d-amyrin acetate (1), aliphatic acid hexadecanoic acid ( 3 ) and stilbene glucoside trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucoside ( 9 ) were isolated for the first time from the stems of Cissus quadrangularis, along with previously reported compounds namely, δ- amyrone ( 2 ) d-amyrin ( 4 ), β-sitosterol ( 5 ), kaempferol ( 6 ), quercetin ( 7 ) and resveratrol ( 8 ). The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds were performed by spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS) and by direct comparison with literature.
  5,032 164 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis
Eric W.C Chan, Eu Ying Soh, Pei Pei Tie, Yon Peng Law
October-December 2011, 3(4):266-272
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.89748  
Background: The role of non-polymeric phenolic (NP) and polymeric tannin (PT) constituents in the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of six brands of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis were investigated. Materials and Methods: Total phenolic content (TPC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Minimum inhibitory dose (MID) against Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. Teas were extracted with hot water successively three times for one hour each time. The extracts were fractionated using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain the NP and PT constituents. Results: Extraction yields ranged from 12 to 23%. Yields of NP fractions (70−81%) were much higher than those of PT fractions (1−11%), suggesting that the former are the major tea components. Ranking of antioxidant properties of extracts was green tea>black tea>herbal tea. For all six teas, antioxidant properties of PT fractions were significantly higher than extracts and NP fractions. Extracts and fractions of all six teas showed no activity against the three Gram-negative bacteria. Green teas inhibited all three Gram-positive bacteria with S. aureus being the least susceptible. Black and herbal teas inhibited the growth of M. luteus and B. cereus, but not S. aureus. The most potent were the PT fractions of Boh Cameron Highlands and Ho Yan Hor with MID of 0.01 and 0.03 mg/disc against M. luteus. Conclusion: Results suggested that NP constituents are major contributors to the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of teas of C. sinensis. Although PT constituents have stronger antioxidant and antibacterial properties, they constitute only a minor component of the teas.
  5,152 18 47
A comparison of the cytotoxic potential of standardized aqueous and ethanolic extracts of a polyherbal mixture comprised of Nigella sativa (seeds), Hemidesmus indicus (roots) and Smilax glabra (rhizome)
Sameera R Samarakoon, Ira Thabrew, Prasanna B Galhena, Dilip De Silva, Kamani H Tennekoon
November-December 2010, 2(6):335-342
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.75451  PMID:21713135
Background: A decoction (hot-water extract) comprised of Nigella sativa (seeds), Hemidesmus indicus (roots), and Smilax glabra (rhizome) has been reported to prevent chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenic changes in rats and to exert significant cytotoxic effects on human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. However, the decoction used in previous studies to determine cytotoxicity was not standardized. Further, during preparation of pharmaceuticals for clinical use, it is more convenient to use an ethanolic extract. Therefore this study was carried out to (a) develop standardized aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plant mixture (N. sativa, H. indicus, and S. glabra) used in the preparation of the original decoction, and (b) compare the cytotoxic effects of these two extracts by evaluating cytotoxicity to the human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line. Methods: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts have been standardized by evaluating organoleptic characters, physicochemical properties, qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents, and analysis of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) profiles. Cytotoxic potentials of the above standardized extracts were compared by evaluating their effects on the survival and overall cell activity of HepG2 cells by use of the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl) -2, 5 - biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assays. Results: Results from MTT and SRB assays demonstrated that both extracts exerted strong dose-dependent in vitro cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells. The standardized aqueous extract showed a marginally (though significantly, P<0.05) higher cyotoxic potential than the ethanolic extract. Thymoquinone, an already known cytotoxic compound isolated from N. sativa seeds was only observed in the standardized ethanolic extract. Thus, compounds other than thymoquinone appear to mediate the cytotoxicity of the standardized aqueous extract of this poly-herbal preparation. Conclusion: It may be concluded that results obtained in the present study could be used as a diagnostic tool for the correct identification of these aqueous or ethanolic extracts and would be useful for the preparation of a standardized pharmaceutical product that may be used in the future for clinical therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  5,136 18 19
RESEARCH ARTICLES
In vitro Antioxidant Effect of Rosa canina in Different Antioxidant Test Systems
Hasan Kilicgun, Altiner Dehen
November-December 2009, 1(6):417-420
Rosa canina L. has been used since ancient times as a natural product and believed to be safe and almost without side effects. It can be administered easily for some diseases. The actual dose of Rosa canina being consumed is often variable, unpredictable or simply unknown. Therefore, in this study, five different (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 8%) concentrations of Rosa canina infusions were used to determine the optimum antioxidant dose of Rosa canina by using different in vitro test systems. Our results suggest that Rosa canina has the potential to be used as an antioxidant substance at 3% concentration. Therefore, it can be suitable to achieve this concentration at tissue level when used as a supplement to therapeutic regimens and for healthy living.
  4,937 202 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Inhibitory effect of rutin and curcumin on experimentally-induced calcium oxalate urolithiasis in rats
Jaydip Ghodasara, Anil Pawar, Chinmay Deshmukh, Bhanudas Kuchekar
November-December 2010, 2(6):388-392
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.75462  PMID:21713144
Background: Renal epithelial cell injury by reactive oxygen species is pre-requisite step in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis. Rutin and curcumin are polyphenolic compounds known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, but their effect on urolithiasis is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we have investigated the inhibitory effect of rutin and curcumin on calcium oxalate urolithiasis in Wistar albino rats. Methods: Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced experimentally by administration of 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol with 1% w/v ammonium chloride in drinking water for three days followed by only 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol for 25 days. Rutin (20 mg/kg body weight) and curcumin (60 mg/kg body weight) were given once daily for 28 days by oral route. After treatment period, calcium and oxalate levels in urine and kidney tissue homogenate were measured. Kidney was also used for histopathological examination. Results: Stone-induction with ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride resulted in elevated levels of calcium and oxalate in the urine and kidney sample, whereas supplementation of rutin and curcumin restored it near to normal. Histopathological study revealed minimum tissue damage and less number of calcium oxalate deposits in kidney of animal treated with rutin and curcumin as compared to calculi-induced animal. Conclusion: The data suggest that the rutin and curcumin inhibits calcium oxalate urolithiasis. This effect is mediated possibly through a lowering of urinary concentration of stone forming constituents, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
  5,122 16 13
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Bioactivity of Syzygium jambos methanolic extracts: Antibacterial activity and toxicity
S Mohanty, IE Cock
January-February 2010, 2(1):4-9
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.60577  PMID:21808530
Methanol extracts from S. jambos leaves were tested for antimicrobial activity and toxicity. S. jambos leaf extract inhibited the growth of 4 of the 14 bacteria tested (29%). Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial growths were inhibited by S. jambos leaf extract, although gram-positive bacteria appeared more susceptible. Two of the 10 gram-negative bacteria (20%) and 2 of the 4 gram-positive bacteria (50%) tested had their growths inhibited by the extract. The leaf extract also proved to be toxic in the Artemia franciscana bioassay, with a 48-h LC 50 of 387.9 ± 38.8 µg/mL, making it slightly more toxic than Mevinphos (505.3± 37.7 µg/mL) and approximately 5-fold less toxic than potassium dichromate (80.4 ± 4.3 µg/mL). Whilst potassium dichromate's LC 50 remained constant across the 72-hour test period (24-h LC 50 , 86.3 ± 5.1; 72-h LC 50 , 77.9 ± 4.9), the extract and Mevinphos LC 50 values decreased by 72 hours (87.0 ± 11.3 µg/mL and 103.9 ± 12.8 µg/mL, respectively), indicating their similar levels of toxicity in the assay.
  4,804 331 8
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