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2009| May-June | Volume 1 | Issue 3
January 2, 2010
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Toxicity study of the aqueous extract of
leaves using selected biochemical parameters in rats
JO Adebayo, EA Balogun, SA Oyeleke
May-June 2009, 1(3):143-147
diversifolia has manifold ethnomedicinal uses in traditional settings without much consideration about the possible adverse effects of the consumption of its crude extracts. In this study, effects of repeated oral administration of aqueous extract of
diversifolia leaves (100 and 200 mg/Kg body weight) for seven days on concentrations of serum electrolytes and biomolecules and the activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum, heart, liver and kidney of rats were investigated. The extract significantly increased concentrations of serum calcium ion, potasiurn ion and HDL-cholesterol but reduced serum albumin concentration at both doses administered compared to controls. At 200 mg/Kg body weight, the extract significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activities in the liver and heart. The results of this study suggest that the extract may exert adverse effects on the functions of the liver, heart and kidney.
Essential oil composition of fruits and leaves of
grown in upper Assam region of India
Sanjib Bhattacharya, Kamaruz Zaman
May-June 2009, 1(3):148-151
Essential oils isolated by hydro-distillation from the fruits and leaves of
(Roxb.) DC (Rutaceae), growing in upper Assam region of North-East India were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The fruit volatile oil contained 17 components amongst which 75% were monoterpenes, 12.5% were sesquiterpenes and 12.5% were straight chain hydrocarbons; whereas the leaf volatile oil contained 16 components out of which 60% were monoterpenes, 13.3% were sesquiterpenes, and 26.7% were straight chain hydrocarbons. Linalool (23.3%), limonene (12.9%), o-terpineol (8.3%), o-pinene (7.9%) were the predominant monoterpenes of the fruit oil and the main monoterpenes in the leaf oil were limonene (33.1%), geraniol (10.6%) and carvone (9.6%). Key words:
, essential oil, monoterpenes, linalool, limo nene.
Case Reports of Bedsores Using
Gel Powder with High Molecular Weight
Keizo Matsuo, Akira Yagi, Amal Kabbash
May-June 2009, 1(3):136-142
It has been reported that the Japanese have higher rate of life expectancy and that Japan is rapidly becoming a super aging society. Almost 5 per cent of the aged, who develop diseases such as cerebrovascular related disorders, mental problems, fractures, cancer and infections also end up suffering from bedsores. It has been found that patients often opt for treatment, when the bedsores become very severe and adding more complications in their treatment. It may be presumed that prevention and early detection are vital for the treatment of bed sores. In our present study, we have tested herbal formulations having Aloe vera gel powder for its efficacy and activity on bed sores. Aloe vera gel powder with high molecular weight (AHM) was prepared from the gel part, by washing with running water using the patented freeze-drying under micro wave and far infra red irradiations in which barbaloin content was less than 10 ppm in powder form. The treatment was given by applying the macromolecule aloe ointment for bedsores from I degree to Il degree ulcer patients. The results have shown that AHM in the ointment form indicated a high possibility to cure bedsores. Being very difficult to cure, due to the patient's peculiar conditions such as old age, inability of the patient to turn by himself/herself and also due to complications caused by other symptoms. We were able to confirm the effectiveness of the macromolecule aloe ointment in four cases of bedsores with two cases of positive control, using the Design Score and by checking the side effects. In this study, our report is based on the preclinical trials for bedsores by the external use of the macromolecule aloe ointment.
Chemical Investigation of Aerial Parts of
Gmelina asiatica Linn
NJ Merlin, V Parthasarathy, R Manavalan, S Kumaravel
May-June 2009, 1(3):152-156
This study was carried out to analyze the active constituents present in aerial parts of
Gmelina asiatica Linn.
(Verbenaceae). Twenty-two compounds in chloroform extract and 12 compounds in ethanolic extract were identified by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. 1, 2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester (31.22 %) was the prevailing compound in chloroform extract and Monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether (38.51%) was the major constituent of ethanolic extract. This is the first report of identification of active constituents from aerial parts of
Study on antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of polyphenol-rich extracts from
M Ramchoun, H Harnafi, C Alem, M Benlyas, L Elrhaffari, S Amrani
May-June 2009, 1(3):106-112
In the present study, the polyphenol-rich extracts of two medicinal plants widely used in Errachidia country (south east of Morocco)
were assessed for their antioxidant, hypocholesterolaemic and hypotriglyceridaemic activities.The antioxidant activity of polyphenol-rich extracts was assessed by using the FRAP assay (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power), the RSA method (Radical Scavenging Activity) and the inhibition of the AAPH (2, 2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride)-induced oxidative erythrocyte hemolysis. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of Triton WR-1339 at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight. The animals were divided into normolipidemic control group (NCG), hyperlipidaemic control group (HCG) and hyperlipidaemic plus herb extracts (0.2 g/100 g body weight). However, 24 h after treatment by polyphenol-rich extract of
we not detect any significant effect on both plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides profiles. Our results indicate that, the aqueous extract from
present a higher antioxydant activities. Indeed,
presents an anti-hemolysis activity equivalent to that exhibited by
The addition of AAPH decrease the half time of hemolysis by 45%. The polyphenol- rich extracts from
varieties increase the half time hemolysis by 533% and 479%, respectively. Although, these two varieties of thyme and lavender did cause any hypolipidemic activity. The results found are encouraging for further assessment to elucidate the mechanism of action and to identify the bioactive compounds implicated in the antioxidant effect and the membrane stability.
Proximate and qualitative analysis of different parts of
, and quantification of total amides in various extracts
K Hussain, Z Ismail, A Sadikun, P Ibrahim
May-June 2009, 1(3):113-119
Present study aimed to analyze crude powders and extracts of different parts of
sarmentosum for proximate, qualitative and quantitative studies to prepare standardized botanical drugs from the plant. Unlike synthetic drugs, standardization of botanical drugs is always challenging for natural product researchers due to inadequacy and unavailability of standards and methods. Standardization of botanical drugs is not just an analytical process which ends with the detection of few constituents rather it embodies a set of analytical, biochemical and biological protocols. Keeping analytical protocols in view, crude powders were analyzed for the content of moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, sulphated ash and soluble extractives in water and methanol. These physicochemical properties were found within specified limits. Comparison of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) fingerprints of crude powders of different parts indicated the difference of constituents. Similarly, comparison of ultra violet (UV) profiles of extracts of all the parts exhibited discrimination. Qualitative analysis of aqueous and ethanol extracts by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) indicated the presence of amides in ethanol extracts of all parts of the plant. Quantitative analysis of extracts indicated that total amide content was significantly higher by colorimetry as compared to UV spectrophotometry. The distribution of amides in different parts was in the order fruit > root > leaf > stem
It is concluded from the study that amide content varies in different parts of the plant and ethanol is a better solvent for their extraction. Additionally, colorimetric method exhibits high content of amides.
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of
Besser from Iran
Masoud Kazemi, Mohammad Dakhili, Abdolhossein Rustaiyan, Kambiz Larijani, Mohammad Ali Ahmadi, Valiolah Mozaffarian
May-June 2009, 1(3):120-124
The oil obtained from hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of
was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents of the 30 identified components were p-cymene (21.3%), β-pinene (17.8%), α-pinene (9.4%), γ-terpinene (9.1%), (Z)-cis-ocimene (8.8%), and α-cadinol (8.1%). This species is rich in monoterpenes. Antimicrobial activity was determined against six bacterial strains and one fungal strain. The results show that this oil is active against all the tested strains.
Antitussive Activity of
Cressa cretica Linn
. using Cough Model in Rodents
P Sunita, S Jha, SP Pattanayak
May-June 2009, 1(3):157-161
Cressa cretica Linn.
Voigt. (Convolulaceae), has also been extensively used to get relief from asthma and cough by the indigenous people of India. In the present study the antitussive effect of the plant was evaluated in two different experimental models. The antitussive effect of aerosols of two different concentrations (2.5%w/v, 5%w/v)of methanolic extract of
Cressa cretica Linn.
(CME), codeine(0.03g/ml), and normal saline were tested by counting the numbers of coughs produced due to aerosols of citric acid 10 min after exposing the male guinea pigs to aerosols of different solutions (n=6). In another set of experiment CME was investigated for its therapeutic efficacy on a cough model induced by sulfur dioxide gas in mice. The results showed significant reduction of cough number obtained in the presence of both concentrations of CME and codeine. The antitussive effect on guinea pigs of higher concentration of CME was significantly (p<0.01) greater than those of lower concentration and the prototype antitussive agent codeine phosphate (p<0.01). It exhibited significant anti tussive activity as that of codeine phosphate, when compared with control in a dose dependent manner in sulfur dioxide gas induced cough model. The extract at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. showed inhibition of cough by 22.1, 34.35 and 55.44 % within 90 min of performing the experiment.
Effect of methyl jasmonate on production of ariltetralin lignans in hairy root cultures of
May-June 2009, 1(3):102-105
Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment increases the levels of plant secondary metabolites, including ariltetraline lignans, which are considered to be the main active compounds in
This study was concentrated on the induction of production of ariltetralin lignans in hairy roots cultures of
Agrobacterium rhyzogenes, ATCC
15834 by exposing them to different concentrations (50-200 microM) of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) during the culture period. The content of 4'-demethyl-6-methoxypodo-phylotoxin (4'-DM6MPTOX) and 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin (MPTOX), the main constituents in hairy roots of
increased about 1.2 folds by elicitation of MeJA, however, the fresh weight, dry weight and growth ratio was inhibited by increasing MeJA concentrations. The highest total lignans yield was obtained with 150 microM MeJA treatment. These results suggest that MeJA elicitation is beneficial for lignan accumulation in the hairy roots cultures of
Cytotoxic acetogenins from
cultivated in Egypt
Ahmed Abdel-lateff, Bassem S El-Menshawi, Mohamed Y Haggag, Mahmoud A Nawwar
May-June 2009, 1(3):130-135
Bio-assay guided fraction of the methanolic extract of
seeds (Annonaceae), cultivated in Egypt, revealed to the isolation of three bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins; squamocin-C
, and annonin I
were obtained as stereoisomeric mixture. All isolates were assayed for their cytotoxicity twards brine shrimp and five in vitro cancer cell lines (A549, HT29, MCF 7, RPMI, and U251), and showed significant activity The structures of all compounds were determined by interpretation of their NMR and MS analyses.
Biological activity of
L. growing in Iran
SM Razavi, G Zarrini, S Zahri, K Ghasemi, S Mohammadi
May-June 2009, 1(3):125-129
(Brassicaceae) is a perennial herb growing wild in Iran. Cytotoxic, antioxidant, antimicrobial and phttotoxic effects of the plant leaves extracts have been evaluated by MTT, DPPH, Disc diffusion and lettuce assays, respectively. Our results showed that dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the plant leaves exhibited high cytotoxic effects against Mc-Coy cell line with IC
, value of 659 and 432 μg/ml, respectively. The extracts indicated high antioxidant activity with RC
, value of 33.3 and 40.5 μg/ml, respectively. Methanol extract showed strong antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. All the extracts displayed significant allelopatic potential, as well as. It is assumed that biological activity of the plant may be related to presence of isothiocyanates in the plant leaves.
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