Pharmacognosy Research

: 2015  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 314--321

Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity and sterol composition of the marine algae, Sargassum glaucescens

Nasrin Payghami1, Shahla Jamili2, Abdolhossein Rustaiyan3, Soodabeh Saeidnia4, Marjan Nikan4, Ahmad Reza Gohari4,  
1 Department of Marine Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Marine Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
4 Medicinal Plants Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Correspondence Address:
Ahmad Reza Gohari
Medicinal Plants Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417614411


Background: Sargassum species (phaeophyceae) are economically important brown algae in southern parts of Iran. Sargassum is mainly harvested as a row material in alginate production industries and is a source of plant foods or plant bio-stimulants even a component of animal foods. Objective: In this study, Sargassum glaucescens, collected from the seashore of Chabahar, was employed for phytochemical and biological evaluations. Materials and Methods: For that purpose, the dried algae was extracted by methanol and subjected to different chromatographic separation methods. Results: Six sterols, fucosterol (1), 24(S)-hydroxy-24-vinylcholesterol (2), 24(R)-hydroxy-24-vinylcholesterol (3), stigmasterol (4), β-sitosterol (5) and cholesterol (6) were identified by spectroscopic methods including 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR and mass spectroscopy. In vitro alpha-amylase inhibitory test was performed on the methanolic extract and the results revealed a potent inhibition (IC 50 = 8.9 ± 2.4 mg/mL) of the enzyme compared to acarbose as a positive control. Conclusion: Various biological activities and distribution of sterols in Sargassum genus have been critically reviewed here. The results concluded that these algae are a good candidate for further anti-diabetic investigations in animals and human.

How to cite this article:
Payghami N, Jamili S, Rustaiyan A, Saeidnia S, Nikan M, Gohari AR. Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity and sterol composition of the marine algae, Sargassum glaucescens.Phcog Res 2015;7:314-321

How to cite this URL:
Payghami N, Jamili S, Rustaiyan A, Saeidnia S, Nikan M, Gohari AR. Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity and sterol composition of the marine algae, Sargassum glaucescens. Phcog Res [serial online] 2015 [cited 2020 Jul 6 ];7:314-321
Available from:

Full Text


Sargassum (Phaeophyceae family) is a genus of brown algae, well-known as macroalgae or seaweeds, distributed throughout the temperate and tropical oceans in the world. Moreover, this genus is known for its planktonic species. Interestingly, Sargassum species are found to grow in temperate water opposite of other species belonging to Phaeophyceae that are predominantly cold water organisms. [1] These algae are generally observed in brown or dark green colors and commonly grow sub-tidally attached to the corals, rocks or shells in moderately exposed or sheltered rocky areas. Sargassum is mainly harvested as a row material in alginate production industries and is a source of plant foods or plant bio-stimulants even a component of animal foods. These are also employed as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals due to the presence of fucoidan and other bioactive compounds in their extracts. [2],[3]

A bibliography revealed that Sargassum may be the source of several bioactive compounds including, steroids, [4],[5] flavonoids, [4],[5],[6] polysaccharides, [7],[8] terpenoids, [9],[10] fatty acids, [11] plastoquinones [12] and tannins. [13] Among them, sterols are the major bioactive secondary metabolites in these algae. Recently, several sterols have been isolated and identified from brown algae, of which fucosterol and saringosterol were separated from S. pallidum. [5] Various Δ5 -3 β-sterols possessing carbon numbers ranged from C19-C23 to C26-C30 have been reported from the extract of S. muticum. [14] Furthermore, S. oligocystum has been reported for isolation and identification of 22-dehydrocholesterol, cholesterol, fucosterol, 29-hydroperoxystigmasta-5,24 (28)-dien-3 β-ol, 24-hydroperoxy-24-vinylcholesterol, 24(S) and 24(R)-hydroxy-24-vinylcholesterol, as well as ostreasterol. [15] A number of sterols reported from various species of Sargassum are exhibited in [Table 1].{Table 1}

Here in this study, we focused on S. glaucescens as one of the most abundant brown algae distributed in Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. As far as we could ascertain there is no report on its sterol composition. Therefore, we aimed to report the isolation and structural elucidation of the sterols from S. glaucescens methanolic extract for the first time.


Instruments and materials

All the chemicals used in the biochemical assay were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemie Gmbh (Germany) and Merck (Germany) companies. The chemicals were of analytical grade. The enzyme (EC was purchased from Sigma (Germany) that extracted from soy bean source. α-amylase activity was determined by measuring the absorbance of the mixtures at 540 nm in Elisa stat fax 2100 (Awarness Technology Inc., FL, USA). 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR spectra were recorded on a Brucker Avance 500 DRX spectrometer® (Germany) with tetramethylsilane as an internal standard and chemical shifts are given in d (ppm). Multiple-pulse experiments (HSQC, HMBC, and H-H COSY) were performed using the standard Bruker® programs. Silica gel 60 F 254 and Silica gel 60 RP-18 F 254 S pre-coated plates (Merck® , Germany) were used for thin layer chromatography. The spots were detected by spraying with anisaldehyde-H 2 SO 4 reagent (Mahestan Shimi, Iran), followed by heating.

Plant materials

The whole parts of Sargassum glaucescens were collected from the seashore of Chabahar, Sistan and Baluchestan Province in the Southeast of Iran in 2011, washed with distilled water, dried at room temperature and Identified by Mr. B. M. Gharanjik. A voucher specimen (No. P 50-16) was deposited at the Research Center of Persian Gulf Biotechnology (Qeshm Island, Iran).

Extraction and isolation process

Dried algae, Sargassum glaucescens, were cut into small pieces (2 kg) and extracted with methanol at room temperature by percolation method for 48 h and 3 times. The solvent was evaporated by rotary evaporator. The methanolic extract (60 g) was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography (CC) with hexane: chloroform (2:8), chloroform: ethyl acetate (8:2, 5:5) and ethyl acetate, respectively, to yield seven fractions (A-G). Fraction C (6.5 g) were chosen and subjected to silica gel CC with chloroform: ethyl acetate (19:1, 8:2 and 0:1) to obtain six main fractions (C1-C6). Fraction C2 (1100 mg) was submitted to silica gel CC with chloroform: ethyl acetate (19:1) to yield compound 1 (22 mg). Fraction C4 (610 mg) was submitted to silica gel CC with chloroform: ethyl acetate (9:1) to result five fractions. Third fraction (52 mg) was subjected to sephadex LH 20 to yield three other main fractions. First fraction (26 mg) was fractionated on silica gel (chloroform: ethyl acetate, 8:2) to gain compound 2 and 3 (8 and 5 mg, respectively). Fraction D (330 mg) was submitted to silica gel CC with chloroform: methanol (98:2) to result four parts (D 1 -D 4 ). D 2 (83 mg) was fractionated on sephadex LH 20 with methanol to purify compound 4 and 5. From Fraction E (710 mg) after chromatographing on silica gel eluted with chloroform: ethyl acetate (8:2, 6:4), five parts resulted. Compound 6 (12 mg) was purified from a third part (69 mg) after loading on sephadex LH 20 CC eluted with methanol.

Alpha-Amylase inhibitory assay

The α-amylase inhibition assay was performed by some modification in the method proposed by Giancarlo et al. [30] The starch solution (1% w/v) was obtained by boiling and stirring 1 g of potato starch in 100 mL of sodium phosphate buffer for 30 min. The enzyme (EC solution (50 U/1 mL) was prepared by mixing 0.01 g of α-amylase in 10 mL of sodium phosphate buffer (PH 6.9) containing 0.0006 mM sodium chloride. The extracts were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to give concentrations from 5 to 15 mg/mL (5, 10 and 15 mg/mL). The color reagent was a solution containing 0.1 g of 3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid plus 2.99 g sodium potassium tartrate in 0.16 g sodium hydroxide and phosphate buffer (10 mL).

Totally, 50 microliter of each algae extract, and 150 μL of starch solution, as well as 10 μL of enzyme, were mixed in a 96 well plate and incubated at 37°C for 30 min. Then, 20 μL of sodium hydroxide and 20 μL of color reagent were added, and the closed plate placed into a 100°C water bath. After 20 min, the reaction mixture was removed from the water bath and cooled, thereafter α-amylase activity was determined by measuring the absorbance of the mixture at 540 nm using Elisa. Blank samples were used to correct the absorption of the mixture in which the enzyme was replaced with buffer solution. Furthermore, a control reaction was used, in which the algae extract was replaced with 50 μ of DMSO, and the maximum enzyme activity was determined. Acarbose solution at the concentrations (5, 10, 15 mg/mL) was used as a positive standard. The inhibition percentage of α-amylase was assessed by the following formula:


Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 21.0 (IBM Corporation, 2012). The IC 50 values were estimated by nonlinear curve and presented as their respective 95% confidence limits. Probit analysis of variance was used to assess the presence of significant differences (P < 0.05) between the extracts.


Methanolic extract of marine algae, S. glaucescens, was used for the separation of sterols. Isolation and purification of the main compounds were carried out on silica gel and sephadex LH 20 CC to obtain six pure compounds. Structural elucidation of these compounds was based on the data obtained from 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR studies. Separated compounds from S. glaucescens were identified as fucosterol (1), [31] a mixture of 24(S)-hydroxy-24-vinylcholesterol (2) and 24(R)-hydroxy-24-vinylcholesterol (3), [15] stigmasterol (4), [32],[33] β-sitosterol (5) [34],[35] and cholesterol (6) [36] compared to the spectral data reported in the literatures [Figure 1]. 13 C NMR data of sterols isolated from S. glaucescens are summarized in [Table 2].{Figure 1}{Table 2}

Besides cholesterol and fucosterol as the main and characteristic sterols in brown algae, hydroperoxy sterols like 24-hydroperoxy 24-vinyl cholesterol are predominantly found in those algae. [36],[37],[38] A literature review demonstrates that different species of Sargassum exhibited various biological activities, which are summarized in [Table 3].{Table 3}

Among the isolated compounds from the algae, sitosterol is reported to possess several biological activities including anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, analgesic, chemoprotective, immunomodulatory, and anthelmintic activities. The most important effects on Benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic cancer treatment, as well as anti-diabetic and antioxidant activities, are well-documented. [69] Furthermore, another compound stigmasterol has been frequently reported for its anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, ameliorating, antiperoxidative, thyroid inhibitory, and hypoglycemic properties. [69] In addition, fucosterol is a major compound of this algae and well-known for its anti-diabetic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects as well as histamine and acetylcholine esterase inhibitory activities. [69]

As far as we could ascertain, 24-hydroxy-24-vinylcholesterol (saringasterol), the most aboundant sterol in Sargassum species, are reported for a variety of biological activities. For instance, 24 R-saringasterol exhibited the proliferation activity (under 1000 nM after 24 h incubation) and concentration-dependent proliferation activity (under 300 nM after 72 h incubation) significantly. Furthermore, this compound could have inhibitory activity against bone-resorbent metabolic bone disorders including osteoporosis and periodontitis. [70] Saringasterol is also evaluated for its probable cytotoxic activity and showed weak inhibitory effects on LNCaP cells (IC 50 = 41.60 ± 4.26 μM) and was inactive on DU145 and PC3 cells (IC 50 > 50 μM). [71] In addition, saringasterol possesses in vitro antitrypanosomal activity with IC 50 value of 3.2 ± 1.2 μM. [72] Finally, inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth has been reported by saringosterol while no significant toxicity was observed from this compound against Vero cells. [73]

In the present study, the results of biochemical assay showed that this algal species exhibited a potent inhibitory activity on α-amylase enzyme (IC 50 = 8.9 ± 2.4 mg/mL) compared the positive standard, acarbose (IC 50 = 6.6 ± 2.1 mg/mL) [Table 4]. A concentration dependent inhibition was observed for various concentrations of this algal extract. The highest inhibitory activity for S. glaucescens was found to be 77.8 ± 1.9 (at 15 mg/mL) while the percentage inhibitory activity for acarbose at the same concentration was observed as 69.2 ± 3.9.{Table 4}

A literature review shows that fucosterol isolated from Pelvetia siliquosa was reported for its anti-diabetic activity. In this study, fucosterol was administered orally (30 mg/kg) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats which showed a significant reduction in serum glucose levels and inhibited the sorbitol accumulations in the lenses. It also caused an inhibition of blood glucose level and glycogen degradation at 300 mg/kg in epinephrine-induced diabetic rats. The authors concluded that fucosterol is a main anti-diabetic principle in P. siliquosa. [74] Furthermore, the anti-diabetic potential of fucosterol has been reported by evaluating the ability of this compound to inhibit rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), human recombinant aldose reductase (HRAR), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), and α-glucosidase. The investigators revealed that it exhibited a moderate inhibitory activity against RLAR, HRAR, and PTP1B, while a weak or no activity against advanced glycation end formation and α-glucosidase. [75] On the other hand, β-sitosterol is also well-documented for anti-diabetic activity. For instance, in a recent study, three doses of this compound (10, 15 and 20 mg/kg, orally) resulted in decreasing the glycated hemoglobin, serum glucose, and nitric oxide, with concomitant increases in serum insulin levels. In addition, it could increase pancreatic antioxidant levels, with a concomitant decrease in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. [76] Moreover, in silico studies exhibited the potent inhibition for β-sitosterol on human pancreatic alpha-amylase. The inhibition constant (Ki) for this compound was estimated as 269.35 nmol with two hydrogen bond interactions, although there is no report on the evaluation of fucosterol and β-sitosterol against pancreatic α-amylase activity so far. [77] Taking together, anti-diabetic sterols of this algae may be responsible at least in part for anti-diabetic activity of Sargassum species. [46] However, this activity is supposed to be performed via different mechanisms, of which α-amylase inhibitory activity is one of the most critical ones.


Taking together, S. glaucescens the brown algae from Southern Iran was subjected for isolation and identification of the main sterols resulting in separation of fucosterol, 24(S)-hydroxy-24-vinylcholesterol, 24(R)-hydroxy-24-vinylcholesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and cholesterol. The α-amylase inhibitory activity of this algae was evaluated compared to acarbose and exhibited a potent inhibition against this enzyme in an in vitro assay.


This research has been supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services Grant (No. 17619). The authors wish to thank Dr. Bayram Gharanjic for his kind help in algae identification.


1Hogan MC. Brown algae. In: Monosson E, Cleveland CJ, editors. Encyclopedia of Earth. Washington, DC: National Council for Science and the Environment; 2011.
2Boaden PJ. The adventives seaweed Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt in Sterangford Lough, Northen Ireland. Ir Nat J 1995;25:111-3.
3Cannel RJ. Algae as a source of biologically active products. Pestic Sci 2006;39:143-53.
4Xu FQ, Feng YY, Guo L, Guo GL, Yan BL. On chemical constitutes from Sargassum pallidum. Anhui Nongye Kexue 2013;41:6658-9.
5Liu X, Wang CY, Shao CL, Wei YX, Wang BG, Sun LL, et al. Chemical constituents from Sargassum pallidum (Turn). C. Agardh Biochem Syst Ecol 2009;37:127-9.
6Guo L, Shao C, Liu X, Fang Y, Wei Y, Sun L, et al. Chemical composition of Sargassum pallidum and its antitumor activity in vitro. Zhong Cao Yao 2009;40:1879-82.
7Itoh H, Noda H, Amano H, Zhuaug C, Mizuno T, Ito H. Marine algal polysaccharide, GIV-A from Sargassum thunbergii markedly inhibited the growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma at the dose of 20 mg/kg per day X10 with no sign of toxicity in mice. Anticancer Res 1993;13:2045-52.
8Dore CM, das C Faustino Alves MG, Will LS, Costa TG, Sabry DA, de Souza Rêgo LA, et al. A sulfated polysaccharide, fucans, isolated from brown algae Sargassum vulgare with anticoagulant, antithrombotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Carbohydr Polym 2013;91:467-75.
9Ayyad SE, Sowellim SZ, el-Hosini MS, Abo-Atia A. The structural determination of a new steroidal metabolite from the brown alga Sargassum asperifolium. Z Naturforsch C 2003;58:333-6.
10Reddy P, Urban S. Meroditerpenoids from the southern Australian marine brown alga Sargassum fallax. Phytochemistry 2009;70:250-5.
11Qin M, Li X, Yin S, Wang C, Wang B. Chemical constituents from Sargassum thunbergii. Haiyang Kexue 2007;31:47-50.
12Kim MC, Kwon HC, Kim SN, Kim HS, Um BH. Plastoquinones from Sargassum yezoense; chemical structures and effects on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2011;59:834-8.
13Wei Y, Wang C, Li J, Qi H, Guo Q. Effects of high-molecular-weight phlorotannins from Sargassum thunbergii Kuntze on anticoagulation activity and platelet cytosolic calcium level. Zhongguo Yaoke Da Xue Xue Bao 2008;39:257-61.
14Wang P, Xu G, Bian L, Zhang S, Song F. Study on sterols from brown algae (Sargassum muticum). Chin Sci Bull 2006;51:2520-8.
15Permeh P, Saeidnia S, Mashinchian-Moradi A, Gohari AR. Sterols from Sargassum oligocystum, a brown algae from the Persian Gulf, and their bioactivity. Nat Prod Res 2012;26:774-7.
16Smith LL, Dhar AK, Gilchrist JL, Lin YY. Sterol metabolism. XXVII. Sterols of the brown alga Sargassum fluitans. Phytochemistry 1973;12:2727-32.
17Wang W, Li H, Wang Y, Xia X, Okada Y, Okuyama T. Chemical constituents from brown alga Sargassum fusiforme. Zhong Cao Yao 2008;39:657-61.
18Xu S, Cen Y, Cai L, Li Y, Xu S. Studies on the chemical components from Sargassum fusiform. Zhong Yao Cai 2001;24:491-2.
19Liu H, Cui Z, Li Y, Yin J, Dong Y, Ding W. Chemical constituents of Sargassum hemiphyllum. Zhongguo Yaoxue Za Zhi 1998;33:464-6.
20Wei M, Li S, Chen J, Lin Y. Chemical constituents of the brown alga Sargassum henslowianum collected from the South China Sea. Chem Nat Compd 2012;48:677-8.
21Yuan Q, Fu L. Study on the chemical constituents of brown alga Sargassum horneri. Guangdong Huagong 2006;33:42-3.
22Sallam LA, Hamdy AA, Naim N, El-Refai AH, Karawya MS. Chemical composition of some Egyptian marine algae. 1-Sterol constituents. Egyp J Pharm Sci 1984;23:179-86.
23Ham YM, Kim KN, Lee WJ, Lee NH, Hyun CG. Chemical constituents from Sargassum micracanthum and antioxidant activity. Int J Pharmacol 2010;6:147-51.
24Qi SH, Zhang S, Huang JS, Xiao ZH, Wu J, Long LJ. Glycerol derivatives and sterols from Sargassum parvivesiculosum. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2004;52:986-8.
25Xu SH, Ding LS, Wang MK, Peng SL, Liao X. Studies on the chemical constituents of the algae Sargassum polycystum. Youji Huaxue 2002;22:138-40.
26Ikekawa N, Tsuda K, Morisaki N. Saringosterol: A new sterol from brown algae. Chem Ind 1966;27:1179-80.
27Jiang Q, Liu D, Yang JB, Yan PC, Huang KX, Lin WH. Chemical constituents from marine alga Sargassum thunbergii. Zhongguo Yaoxue Za Zhi 2012;47:948-52.
28Kobayashi M, Hasegawa A, Mitsuhashi H. Marine sterols. XV. Isolation of 24-vinyloxycholesta-5,23-dien-3b-ol from the brown alga Sargassum thumbergii. Chem Pharm Bull 1985;33:4012-3.
29Halket JM, Lisboa BP, Pinheiro-Joventino F. The major sterols of Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh investigated by mass chromatography. Arq Cien Mar 1976;16:117-22.
30Giancarlo S, Rosa LM, Nadjafi F, Francesco M. Hypoglycaemic activity of two spices extracts: Rhus coriaria L. and Bunium persicum Boiss. Nat Prod Res 2006;20:882-6.
31Saeidnia S, Permeh P, Gohari AR, Mashinchian-Moradi A. Gracilariopsis persica from Persian Gulf contains bioactive sterols. Iran J Pharm Res 2012;11:845-9.
32Saeidnia S, Gohari AR, Malmir M, Moradi-Afrapoli F, Ajani Y. Tryptophan and sterols from Salvia limbata. J Med Plants 2011;10:41-4.
33Saeidnia S, Ghamarinia M, Gohari AR, Shakeri A. Terpenes from the root of Salvia hypoleuca Benth. Daru 2012;20:66.
34Shahani S, Monsef-Esfahani HR, Saeidnia S, Saniee P, Siavoshi F, Foroumadi A, et al. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of the methanolic extract of Geum iranicum and its main compounds. Z Naturforsch C 2012;67:172-80.
35Gohari AR, Saeidnia S, Hadjiakhoondi A, Honda G. Isolation and identification of four sterols from Oud. J Med Plants 2008;7:47-55.
36Nasir M, Saeidnia S, Mashinchian-Moradi A, Gohari AR. Sterols from the red algae, Gracilaria salicornia and Hypnea flagelliformis, from Persian Gulf. Pharmacogn Mag 2011;7:97-100.
37Moghadam MH, Firouzi J, Saeidnia S, Hajimehdipoor H, Jamili S, Rustaiyan A, et al. A cytotoxic hydroperoxy sterol from the brown alga, Nizamuddinia zanardinii. Daru 2013;21:24.
38Kamenarska ZG, Dimitrova-Konaklieva SD, Stefanov KL, Popov SS. A comparative study on the sterol composition of some brown algae from the Black Sea. J Serbian Chem Soc 2003;68:269-75.
39Costa LS, Fidelis GP, Telles CB, Dantas-Santos N, Camara RB, Cordeiro SL, et al. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of heterofucans from the seaweed Sargassum filipendula. Mar Drugs 2011;9:952-66.
40Li C, Wang C, Wang S, Qian G, Zhu Q, Liu Y, et al. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction technology of Sargassum fusiforme polysaccharides and evaluation of their antioxidant activity. Food Sci Technol Res 2013;19:157-62.
41Wei Y, Li Z, Hu Y, Xu Z. Inhibition of mouse liver lipid peroxidation by high molecular weight phlorotannins from Sargassum kjellmanianum. J Appl Phycol 2003;15:507-11.
42Zhang RL, Luo WD, Bi TN, Zhou SK. Evaluation of antioxidant and immunity-enhancing activities of Sargassum pallidum aqueous extract in gastric cancer rats. Molecules 2012;17:8419-29.
43Suresh V, Senthilkumar N, Thangam R, Rajkumar M, Anbazhagan C, Rengasamy R, et al. Separation, purification and preliminary characterization of sulfated polysaccharides from Sargassum plagiophyllum and its in vitro anticancer and antioxidant activity. Process Biochem 2013;48:364-73.
44Lee JI, Seo Y. Chromanols from Sargassum siliquastrum and their antioxidant activity in HT 1080 cells. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2011;59:757-61.
45Seo Y, Park KE, Kim YA, Lee HJ, Yoo JS, Ahn JW, et al. Isolation of tetraprenyltoluquinols from the brown alga Sargassum thunbergii. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2006;54:1730-3.
46Syad AN, Shunmugiah KP, Kasi PD. Antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activity of Sargassum wightii. Pharm Biol 2013;51:1401-10.
47Chen Q, Xu N. Active principles and pharmacological effect of Sargassum fusiforme (Harv.) Setchell. Zhongguo Yaoye 2005;14:95-6.
48Ma WW, Li L, Zhou GF. In vitro immunoregulatory and antitumor activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Sargassum kjellmanianum. Shipin Kexue 2013;34:270-4.
49Guerra Dore CM, Faustino Alves MG, Santos ND, Cruz AK, Câmara RB, Castro AJ, et al. Antiangiogenic activity and direct antitumor effect from a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from seaweed. Microvasc Res 2013;88:12-8.
50Yunev OA, Markova GA. Extraction of Steroids with a hypocholesterolemic effect from Brown Algae. Ekol Morsk Org Mater Vses Nauchno Tekh Konf; 1981. p. 74-8.
51Chen S, Wang W, Liu H, Li C, Liu C. Purification and lowing hyperlipidemia activity of fucoidan from Sargassum henslowianum. Shipin Yu Fajiao Gongye 2010;36:28-31.
52Kim DH, Kim KB, Kim MJ, Sunwoo C, Jung SA, Kim HJ, et al. Effects of heat, pH, and gamma irradiation treatments on lipase inhibitory activity of Sargassum thunbergii ethanol extract. Han'guk Sikp'um Yongyang Kwahak Hoechi 2012;41:566-70.
53Hwang PA, Chien SY, Chan YL, Lu MK, Wu CH, Kong ZL, et al. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses by Sargassum hemiphyllum sulfated polysaccharide extract in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. J Agric Food Chem 2011;59:2062-8.
54Chang HW, Jang KH, Lee D, Kang HR, Kim TY, Lee BH, et al. Monoglycerides from the brown alga Sargassum sagamianum: Isolation, synthesis, and biological activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008;18:3589-92.
55Heo SJ, Yoon WJ, Kim KN, Oh C, Choi YU, Yoon KT, et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of fucoxanthin derivatives isolated from Sargassum siliquastrum in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage. Food Chem Toxicol 2012;50:3336-42.
56Preeprame S, Hayashi K, Lee JB, Sankawa U, Hayashi T. A novel antivirally active fucan sulfate derived from an edible brown alga, Sargassum horneri. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2001;49:484-5.
57Peng Y, Xie E, Zheng K, Fredimoses M, Yang X, Zhou X, et al. Nutritional and chemical composition and antiviral activity of cultivated seaweed Sargassum naozhouense Tseng et Lu. Mar Drugs 2012;11:20-32.
58Zhu W, Ooi VE, Chan PK, Ang PO Jr. Isolation and characterization of a sulfated polysaccharide from the brown alga Sargassum patens and determination of its anti-herpes activity. Biochem Cell Biol 2003;81:25-33.
59Sinha S, Astani A, Ghosh T, Schnitzler P, Ray B. Polysaccharides from Sargassum tenerrimum: Structural features, chemical modification and anti-viral activity. Phytochemistry 2010;71:235-42.
60De Zoysa M, Nikapitiya C, Jeon YJ, Jee Y, Lee J. Anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharide isolated from fermented brown seaweed Sargassum fulvellum. J Appl Phycol 2008;20:67-74.
61Rao PP, Rao PS, Karmarkar SM. Antibacterial substances from brown algae. II. Efficiency of solvents in the evaluation of antibacterial substances from Sargassum johnstonii Setchell et Gardner. Bot Mar 1986;29:503-7.
62Gerasimenko NI, Martyyas EA, Logvinov SV, Busarova NG. Biological activity of lipids and photosynthetic pigments of Sargassum pallidum C. Agardh. Appl Biochem Microbiol 2014;50:73-81.
63Arunkumar K, Selvapalam N, Rengasamy R. The antibacterial compound sulphoglycerolipid 1-0 palmitoyl-3-0 (6'- sulpho-α-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol from Sargassum wightii greville (Phaeophyceae). Bot Mar 2005;48:441-5.
64Paskaleva EE, Lin X, Duus K, McSharry JJ, Veille JC, Thornber C, et al. Sargassum fusiforme fraction is a potent and specific inhibitor of HIV-1 fusion and reverse transcriptase. Virol J 2008;5:8.
65Ji A, Yao Y, Che O, Wang B, Sun L, Li X, et al. Isolation and characterization of sulfated polysaccharide from the Sargassum pallidum (Turn.) C. Ag. And its sedative/hypnotic activity. J Med Plants Res 2011;5:5240-6.
66Kim SJ, Woo S, Yun H, Yum S, Choi E, Do JR, et al. Total phenolic contents and biological activities of Korean seaweed extracts. Food Sci Biotechnol 2005;14:798-802.
67Kim SN, Choi HY, Lee W, Park GM, Shin WS, Kim YK. Sargaquinoic acid and sargahydroquinoic acid from Sargassum yezoense stimulate adipocyte differentiation through PPAR alpha/gamma activation in 3T3-L1 cells. FEBS Lett 2008;582:3465-72.
68Aboutabl EA, Saleh MM, El-Sakhawy F, Afifi MS, Moawad SS, El-Rafei HA. Constituents and biological activity of Sargassum dentifolium (Agardh) towards cotton leaf worm. Bull Fac Pharm 2002;40:63-72.
69Saeidnia S, Manayi A, Gohari AR, Abdollahi M. The story of beta-sitosterol-A review. Eur J Med Plants 2014;4:590-609.
70Huh GW, Lee DY, In SJ, Lee DJ, Park SY, Yi TH, et al. Fucosterols from Hizikia fusiformis and their proliferation activities on osteosarcoma-derived cell MG63. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem 2012;55:551-5.
71Zhang JL, Tian HY, Li J, Jin L, Luo C, Ye WC, et al. Steroids with inhibitory activity against the prostate cancer cells and chemical diversity of marine alga Tydemania expeditionis. Fitoterapia 2012;83:973-8.
72Hoet S, Pieters L, Muccioli GG, Habib-Jiwan JL, Opperdoes FR, Quetin-Leclercq J. Antitrypanosomal activity of triterpenoids and sterols from the leaves of Strychnos spinosa and related compounds. J Nat Prod 2007;70:1360-3.
73Wächter GA, Franzblau SG, Montenegro G, Hoffmann JJ, Maiese WM, Timmermann BN Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth by saringosterol from Lessonia nigrescens. J Nat Prod 2001;64:1463-4.
74Lee YS, Shin KH, Kim BK, Lee S. Anti-diabetic activities of fucosterol from Pelvetia siliquosa. Arch Pharm Res 2004;27:1120-2.
75Jung HA, Islam MN, Lee CM, Oh SH, Lee S, Jung JH, et al. Kinetics and molecular docking studies of an anti-diabetic complication inhibitor fucosterol from edible brown algae Eisenia bicyclis and Ecklonia stolonifera. Chem Biol Interact 2013;206:55-62.
76Gupta R, Sharma AK, Dobhal MP, Sharma MC, Gupta RS. Antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of ß-sitosterol in streptozotocin-induced experimental hyperglycemia. J Diabetes 2011;3:29-37.
77Rathinavelusamy P, Mazumder PM, Sasmal D, Jayaprakash V. Evaluation of in silico, in vitro a-amylase inhibition potential and antidiabetic activity of Pterospermum acerifolium bark. Pharm Biol 2014;52:199-207.