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July-September 2019
Volume 11 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 193-332

Online since Thursday, August 22, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Cytotoxic action and proliferation in vitro and Analgesic Activity in vivo of Resin from Hymenaea stigonocarpa Highly accessed article p. 193
Keyla Laisa Araújo E Saldanha, Vanessa de Andrade Royo, Francine Souza Alves Da Fonseca, Elytania Veiga Menezes, Dario Alves De Oliveira, Afrânio Farias De Melo, Kamylla Santos Teixeira, Murilo Malveira Brandão, Marcel Nani Leite, Guilherme Ferreira Caetano, Marco Andrey Cipriani Frade
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_30_19  
Background: Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. (Fabaceae ) is one of the plant species commonly found in Brazilian cerrado. It is popularly known as jatobá-do-cerrado. Phytochemical studies of different parts of the plant demonstrated the presence of sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and oligosaccharides. The species produces an opaque, translucent, pale yellow, or almost white resin rich in labdanóides compounds, widely used in folk medicine, but without proving its pharmacological actions. Objective: To analyze the H. stigonocarpa resin to confirm its pharmacological actions through specific tests for cicatrization, nociception, and cytotoxicity and to evaluate the chemical composition through the gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Materials and Methods: The cell proliferation/migration capacity was evaluated using the scratch assay method and the cell viability determined by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]–tetrazolium 2,5-diphenyl-bromide cytotoxicity assay. In the pharmacological tests were performed Abdominal Contortions induced by acetic acid and Nociceptive Response evaluated by the Formalin Test. GC-MS was used to trace the profile of the bioactive compounds of the resin. Results: It was possible to verify the presence of terpene compounds with the labdanos skeleton. Structures that revealed important pharmacological actions regarding healing, evidenced by the scratch assay test and nociceptive activity demonstrated by the animal tests. No cytotoxic activity was detected at the dosages tested. Conclusion: The results obtained confirm the pharmacological action of the species and can be used to elaborate on new therapies, which will increase the therapeutic arsenal available to the population.
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Modulation of chicken cecal microbiota by a phytogenic feed additive, Stodi®: A metagenomic analysis p. 201
Saravana Kumar Marimuthu, Brindhalakshmi Balasubramanian, Ramasamy Selvam, Prashanth D'Souza
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_8_19  
Background: The cecal microbiota plays a critical role in gut health and utilization of nutrients left undigested in the small intestine. Objective: The impact of Stodi® on the composition of cecal microbiota was evaluated in broilers using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Materials and Methods: A total of 960 1-day-old Ross 308 chicks were allocated to four groups, namely, normal diet (ND), negative control (NTC; challenged with 1.7% magnesium chloride [MgCl2]), and Stodi® treatment groups which comprise NTC plus Stodi® (500 and 750 g/ton of feed). MgCl2was used to increase the cecal moisture content, and in turn, to disturb the cecal microbiota. Results: Birds challenged with MgCl2exhibited poor performance traits as compared to ND group, whereas the supplementation of Stodi® (500 and 750 g/ton) improved the performance of broilers. MgCl2did not produce a notable change in the microbiota, but supplementation of Stodi® (500 and 750 g/ton) produced a statistically significant shift in the microflora in comparison with ND. The Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio was significantly elevated in comparison to ND. The abundance of energy harvesting bacteria belonging to specific families of Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae were increased by Stodi® supplementation, especially at 500 g/ton of feed. Conclusion: The supplementation of Stodi® was effective in modulating the cecal microbial population in a manner conducive for gut health and performance of broilers, as revealed by the increase in abundance of favorable microflora.
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Inhibitory effects of ficus deltoidea extracts on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and glutathione s-transferase drug-metabolizing enzymes p. 210
Mohd Halimhilmi Zulkiffli, Norliyana Mohd Salleh, Roziahanim Mahmud, Sabariah Ismail
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_2_19  
Background: Mas cotek or Ficus deltoidea is conventionally used to treat various diseases and often consumed with other medication and this may give rise to herb–drug interaction. The potential of F. deltoidea for interactions with drug-metabolizing enzymes of UDP-gucuronosytranserase (UGT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) have not been investigated. Objective: We had evaluated the potential of methanol, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of F. deltoidea to cause UGT- and GST-mediated herb–drug interaction in vitro. Materials and Methods: The total phenolic content and total phenolic content were determined using modified colorimetric method. In the UGT study, para -nitrophenol (p -NP) was employed as a substrate to determine the UGT enzymes activity in rat liver microsomes (RLM) and human liver microsomes (HLM). For the GST study, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene was employed as a substrate to determine GST activity in rat liver cytosolic fraction. Results: The total phenolic content in F. deltoidea extracts can be ranked as follows: Methanol extract > aqueous extract > ethanol extract, whereas the content of flavonoid compounds in F. deltoidea extracts can be ranked as: Methanol extract > ethanol extract > aqueous extract. Assessment using the UGT enzymes of RLM (IC50 [Half-maximal inhibitory concentration] = 881.40 ± 1.14 μg/mL) and HLM (IC50 =63.44 ± 1.20 μg/mL) showed that the methanol extract of F. deltoidea significantly inhibited p -NP glucuronidation compared with ethanol and aqueous extracts. For GST inhibition study, methanol extract strongly inhibited GST activity (IC50 =70.73 ± 1.07 μg/mL), whereas no IC50values were determined for ethanol and aqueous extracts. Conclusion: The methanol extract of F. deltoidea containing the highest flavonoid content highlights the possibility of herb–drug interaction through the modulation of p -NP UGT and GST activity.
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Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the volatile compounds from the ethanol extracts of Bulbine asphodeloides and Helichrysum petiolare p. 219
Wilfred Otang-Mbeng, Idowu Jonas Sagbo
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_26_19  
Background: Bulbine asphodeloides and Helichrysum petiolare are important medicinal plants that commonly used in folklore medicine in South Africa for the management of skin ailments such as acne, burns, wounds, eczema, shingles, hives, psoriasis, sores, rosacea, and rashes. Despite their extensive use in traditional medicine, the chemical profiles of these medicinal plants have not been elucidated. Objective: The present study was carried out to identify and compare the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) profiles of the volatile components from the ethanol extracts of both plants. Materials and Methods: The fresh leaves of both plants were collected from Alice, Eastern Cape, South Africa, and later oven dried and subjected for extraction and these extracts were further subjected to GC–MS analysis using standard procedures. Results: The GC–MS analysis revealed the presence of bioactive terpenes in the volatile components of the ethanol extracts of B. asphodeloides and H. petiolare. Conclusion: The findings reveal the presence of various bioactive compounds which therefore validates the therapeutic importance of these plants in the treatment of skin-related diseases.
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Evaluation of phytochemical content of white tea clone 100 and changes the expression of tumor suppressor genes on colorectal cancer cell line HCT116 p. 224
Fereydoon Bondarian, Asa Ebrahimi, Frouzandeh Mahjoubi, Eslam Majidi Hervan, Reza Azadi Gonbad
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_39_19  
Aim/Background: Colorectal carcinoma cancer is one of the main types of cancer with high death rate of patients, according to their non-healthy lifestyle. In this research, we evaluated inhibitory of white tea clone 100 extract on colorectal cancer cell line HCT-116, and its effectiveness in expression level of three tumor suppressor genes. Materials and Methods: Total polyphenolic content in all samples were measured using the Folin–Ciocalteu method, and free radical adsorption investigated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to evaluate the white tea extract inhibitory effect on HCT-116 cells. Results: Among different extraction methods, the white tea aqueous extracts produced the highest amount of polyphenols and DPPH radical scavenging activity (36.67 ± 0.54 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight and 71.74% ± 0.42%, respectively). Cell survival analysis in the MTT assay indicated that aqueous white tea extract could reduce the viability of HCT-116 cells in 8, 16, and 24 h considerably, related to the concentration-dependent manner. The real-time polymerase chain reaction results indicated the significantly increased expression level (P < 0.05) of tumor suppressor genes DCC , TGFBR2 , and P53 in the concentration of 1000 mg/ml at 24 h. Conclusion: White tea aqueous extract because of having hydroxyl group in its structure at optimal concentration in all three times of experimental, could lead to a positive changes effect on gene expression in the tumor suppressor family. Key words: 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, HCT-116 cell line, radical scavenging activity, tumor suppressor genes, white tea
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Acute toxicity of flower extracts from Dolichandrone serrulata in mice p. 230
Teeraporn Katisart, Ampa Konsue
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_42_19  
Context: Dolichandrone serrulata flowers are widely used as vegetables in northern and eastern Thailand. However, there is no report on the toxicities of this plant. Objective: The present study was aimed to determine the acute toxicity of aqueous flower extracts from D. serrulata in ICR mice. Materials and Methods: The extract at dose of 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg was orally administered once to mice in order to investigate an acute toxicity. Results: The extract did not produce any sign or symptom of toxicity. Dead mouse was not found within the first 24 h and for further 14 days. The body weight increased in comparison to the controls. However, the relative organ weight between the treated and control mice was not different. The hematological values were not altered by the treatment of the extracts. The liver function parameters including aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase among treated mice were not different. The extract did not alter the kidney function parameters (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine). The lipid profiles in treated mice were not changed in comparison to the controls. In addition, histopathological features of the liver and kidney are not altered by the administration of the extracts. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the maximum dose of D. serrulata flower extracts (2000 mg/kg) does not cause the acute toxicity in male and female mice.
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Mitigation of radiation-induced oxidative stress by methanolic extract of Tragia involucrata in swiss albino mice p. 236
Nivya Machettira Thimmaiah, Chandrashekhar Gajanan Joshi, Rajashekhar K Patil, Ajay S Khandagale, HM Somashekarappa, D Ananda, HM Manjunath
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_177_18  
Background: Tragia involucrata L. has been used in Indian traditional medicine since centuries to treat various ailments. The plant remains unexplored for its radioprotective properties and hence the present study. Objective: The main objective of the study is to ascertain the radioprotective effects of T. involucrata methanolic extract (TME) in Swiss albino mice against whole-body gamma radiation. Materials and Methods: The acute toxicity of TME was evaluated. The optimal protective dose of TME against radiation-induced mortality in mice was determined by survival analysis using the Kaplan–Meier curves. To understand the mechanism of radioprotection, TME was tested for hematological changes and antioxidant levels in mice by injecting100 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally for 5 days and irradiated with a sublethal dose of 6 Gy gamma radiation. Results: The lethal dose 50%/of TME was about 645.65 mg/kgbw. The pretreatment of mice with 100 mg/kgbw of TME increased its survivability to 30% compared with the radiation control group and hence is considered as a radioprotective dose. The lethal dose 50%/30% of the irradiation alone group was found to be 9 Gy and 10.35 Gy for the TME + irradiation group. Hence, the dose reduction factor was about 1.15. The radiation decreased the hematological parameters in the blood, but on pretreatment with TME (100 mg/kgbw), increase in levels was noted. The antioxidant enzyme levels in the mice liver homogenate were found to be replenished in the test group compared with the radiation control. Conclusion: The present study indicates the protective role of TME against gamma radiation-induced mortality and oxidative stress. Hence, it is proposed as a candidate for radioprotection.
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Phytochemical content and antioxidant activities of pomelo peel extract p. 244
Zead Helmi Abudayeh, Ihab Ibrahim Al Khalifa, Shaimaa M Mohammed, Asser Ashraf Ahmad
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_180_18  
Background: There is an increasing interest in the antioxidant measurement of some plant constituents. Plant component, especially fruit, has antioxidant components which are safe, economic, and powerful to reduce oxidative stress and replace synthetic ones. Objective: To quantitatively measure the flavonoids, Vitamin C, and carotenoid content of hydroalcoholic extract and to estimate the antioxidant activity of pomelo peel extract (PPE) and minimum inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) of the extract using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) ethanolic solution. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic PPE was prepared; total flavonoids using aluminum chloride method, Vitamin C using thiourea and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine method, and carotenoid content of the extract were estimated using 95% ethanol solution. All measurements were estimated using ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer. Antioxidant activity and IC50of PPE were measured using DPPH method. Results: Flavonoids, Vitamin C, and carotenoid content were measured as 21.20 mg/100 g, 15.13 mg/100 g, and 62.98 μg/g, respectively, of dry PPE. The DPPH radical scavenging activity exhibits a significant dose-dependent inhibition of DPPH radical color, with IC50being at a concentration of 68.55 μg/ml of the extract, comparable to 55.87 μg/ml IC50of Vitamin C standard antioxidant. Conclusion: From the study results, we could conclude that pomelo peel possesses high antioxidant properties and it is potentially rich sources of natural antioxidants.
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Evaluation of antioxidant and analgesic activities of three medicinal plants p. 248
Amir Hossain, Akbar Hossain, Sultana Juhara Mannan
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_164_18  
Background: Medicinal plant species with antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties contemplate in high number of flavonoids, carotenoids, and phenolic acids. This present study has been designed to evaluate antioxidant and analgesic activities of three Bangladeshi medicinal plants. Materials and Methods: In this study, after the phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity of the crude methanol extracts of three medicinal species naming Bougainvillea glabra (Nyctaginaceae ), Licuala grandis (Arecaceae ), and Anthurium crystallinum (Araceae ) were evaluated using the spectrophotometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-free radical scavenging assay. In addition, total phenolic and total tannin contents have also been determined using standard gallic acid. Finally, analgesic activities of these plants have also been evaluated by acetic acid writhing inhibition and tail flick test in mice. Results: The inhibitory concentration 50% values of methanol crude extract of B. glabra , L. grandis , and A. crystallinum were 1.72, 2.18, and 13.21 μg/mL, whereas the standard (ascorbic acid) showed the value 3.90 μg/mL. The extracts of B. glabra , L. grandis , and A. crystallinum also showed the total phenolic contents as 40.97 ± 0.004, 247.272 ± 0.016, and 302.22 ± 0.011 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g, and the total tannin contents as 2172 ± 0.002, 435.7 ± 0.01, and 2414.98 ± 0.028 mg GAE/100 g of dried plant extract, respectively. The three-plant extracts have reduced the pain by both these methods in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: In sum, it can be said that the three-plant species showed potent antioxidant and analgesic activities.
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Evaluation of the protective effect of ethanolic extract of seed kernel of Caesalpinia bonducella Flem (EECB) on forced swimming-induced chronic fatigue syndrome in mice p. 254
Phulen Sarma, Mukundam Borah, Swarnamoni Das
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_172_18  
Objective: To study the protective effect of Ethanolic extract of seed kernal of caessalpinia bonducella Flem on forced swimming-induced chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in mice. Materials and Methods: Male albino mice of 25–40 g were grouped into five groups taking 5 mice in each group. Group A served as naïve control, Group B as stress control, and Group C and D received EECB at a dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Group E was given the standard drug (imipramine 20 mg/kg). All animals received their respective agent orally daily for 7 days. Except for Group A animals, animals in all other groups were subjected to force swimming 6 min daily for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Animals were assessed for duration of immobility on day 1, 3, 5, and 7. Level of anxiety (elevated plus maze and mirrored chamber test) and locomotor activity (open field test) were assessed 24 h after the last force swimming which was followed by estimation of oxidative biomarkers in brain homogenate. Results: Treatment with EECB (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) and imipramine resulted in statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in anxiety and duration of immobility, and there was significant increase in locomotor activity when compared to stress control group. Significant reduction in malondialdehyde level and increase in catalase level were seen in EECB and imipramine-treated group compared to stress control group. Conclusion: The study confirms that EECB has protective effect against experimentally induced CFS.
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Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities of Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco p. 260
Badarinath D Kulkarni, Joy Harris Hoskeri, AB Vedamurthy
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_48_19  
Objectives: The objective of the study is to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective potential of Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco. Materials and Methods: Sequential Soxhlet extraction of titled plant material was carried out. Phytochemical analysis was performed using standard procedures. The total phenolic and flavonoid content was estimated along with in vitro antioxidant property of the extracts which was assessed by ferric ion-reducing power assay, phosphomolybdenum assay, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Further, the extracts were assessed for anti-inflammatory property by in vitro protein denaturation assay, whereas neuroprotective activity was performed by pretreatment 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Results: Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones, glycosides, lignins, and sterols. Quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed that the aqueous extract possessed high phenolic content and methanol extract possessed high flavonoid content when compared to other extracts. All the extracts showed antioxidant activity revealed through different assays. Among all the extracts, methanol extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity with 85.32 ± 1.63 percentage inhibition of protein degradation. Methanol extract at the concentration of 5 μg showed comparatively significant neuroprotection against trimethyltin (TMT)-induced toxicity with 70.02% SK-S-NH cell survival against 56.30% cell survival TMT-intoxicated group. Conclusion: The leaf extracts of A. corniculatum possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties.
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High-performance thin-layer chromatography estimation of boeravinone-B in Boerhavia diffusa L. and its polyherbal dosage form (capsule) p. 267
Arjun Singh, Himanshu Sharma, Ravinder Singh, Narayanam Srikanth
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_161_18  
ABSTRACT Background: Qualitative and quantitative marker estimation is the quality basis of Ayurvedic pharmaceuticals. Boerhavia diffusa is a widely used herb in the Indian system of medicine. Objective: Estimation of boeravinone-B in hydroalcoholic extract of raw drug (ingredient) as well as its poly-herbal formulation to authenticate ingredients ratio in finished product by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method. Methods: Based on planar chromatographic method (HPTLC) with optimized mobile phase toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid: methanol (5:3:1:1 v/v). Further densitometry and marker quantification of developed plate were carried out at ultraviolet 254 nm. Results: Presented in the form of comparative characteristic HPTLC fingerprints and densitograms with well-resolved prominent bands for boeravinone-B at retardation factor (R f) – 0.87 in both the samples. The linear regression by calibration plots revealed good linear relationship with 0.99953 with standard deviation 0.74% with respect to the area in the concentration range of 200–1000 ng/spot. Statistical analysis proves that the developed quantification method is reproducible and selective. Findings showed the presence of 0.055% and 0.012% w/w boeravinone-B in hydroalcoholic extract of B. diffusa and its polyherbal formulation, respectively, at R f0.87 under λ 254 nm. Conclusion: The study established fast, simple, precise, and cost-effective methods for qualitative and quantitative studies of Ayurvedic raw drugs, and polyherbal formulations consist of B. diffusa. It estimated boeravinone-B in raw drug (ingredient) as well as in its polyherbal formulation. The study qualitatively and quantitatively authenticated the presence and ratio of B. diffusa in polyherbal dosage form (capsule). Moreover, it suggested that the plant contains rich amount of boeravinone-B; this may be directed in selection of genuine plant species in formulation development as well as in standardization.
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Alpha glucosidase inhibiting activity and in vivo antidiabetic activity of Fraxinus floribunda bark in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats p. 273
Arunika Subba, Ram Kumar Sahu, Shiv Bhardwaj, Palash Mandal
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_32_19  
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a serious health problem being the third largest cause of death worldwide. Natural sources of antidiabetic agents are of high demand due to side effects of modern drugs. Bark of Fraxinus floribunda (FF) is conventionally used in Sikkim to treat diabetes, but there is not a single documented report on the same. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic activity of FF bark. Materials and Methods: FF bark was extracted through four methods, namely normal boiling, pressure boiling (PB), soxhlet, and cold percolation to be subjected to α-glucosidase inhibiting assay. The extract showing the highest in vitro antidiabetic activity was selected for in vivo antidiabetic activity. Results: Extract from PB showed the highest antidiabetic activity (10.25 ± 4.56 mg/ml FWT); thus, it was selected for antidiabetic property in animal model. The extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced plasma glucose concentration in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as standard. Decrease in bodyweight during diabetes was significantly controlled by the extract which was comparable with the standard at the same concentration. Changes in lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein) of the diabetic rats were also maintained almost to the level of normal rats by the extracts. Histopathology of liver sections of diabetic rats showed damage in the hepatic architecture (swelling of sinusoids, vacuolization of cytoplasm, and inflammation of the central vein) which was controlled by the extracts. Conclusion: This study agrees with the traditional use of FF bark as an antidiabetic agent.
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In silico anti-preeclampsia potential of phytochemical found in Ficus elastica p. 279
Chrismis Novalinda Ginting, I Nyoman Ehrich Lister, Ermi Girsang, Yolanda Eliza Putri, Maya Sari Mutia, Riastawaty Purba, Wahyu Widowati, Satrio Haryo Benowo Wibowo, Rizal Rizal
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_176_18  
Context: Preeclampsia (PE) is a disorder found in pregnant women characterized by high blood pressure and high protein content in urine. Delivery of the baby and placenta is the most recommended treatment in PE, but treating its symptoms (hypertension) has also been recommended. Aims: This study is intended to assess the major compounds found in Ficus elastica leaf as anti-PE using an in silico approach. Settings and Design: All in silico analysis was performed under default settings. Subjects and Methods: Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory probability values of the five compounds in F. elastica leaf are predicted using quantitative structure–activity relationship. The possible binding mode of the compounds is predicted using molecular docking. Results: Based on the structural properties, compounds found in F. elastica leaf have a high probability activity as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The compounds found in F. elastica , especially morin, have the highest binding affinity toward beta-adrenergic receptor 2 (ADRB2) with similar intermolecular interaction with its known inhibitor. Conclusions: The compounds found in F. elastica may be beneficial for treating PE through its possible antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and inhibition of ADRB2.
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Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Origanum elongatum essential oil p. 283
Hanane Oualili, Rachid Nmila, Fatima Chibi, Mariama Lasky, Abderrahmane Mricha, Halima Rchid
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_157_18  
Background: In recent years, antioxidants have become essential in nutrition because of their ability to protect the body against oxidative cell damage that can produce dangerous diseases. Medicinal plants are a major source of many bioactive molecules that act directly on the body. Objective: The main objective of our work is to highlight the antioxidant potential of the essential oil (EO) of Origanum elongatum Emb and Maire (endemic plant of Morocco), determine its composition, and carry out fractionation operations to isolate the molecule (s) responsible for this activity. Materials and Methods: The measurement of the antioxidant activity of the EO is carried out by trapping the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and the composition of the EO is determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The fractionation of the EO was carried out by various chromatography techniques. Results: The results show that the EO has an interesting antioxidant activity with an EC50in the order of 1.2 in comparison with a reference antioxidant, δ-tocopherol whose EC50is 0.26. The EO of O. elongatum consists of 11 compounds, of which 3 are the majority: carvacrol (60.42%), para-cymene (13.9%), and γ-terpinene (9.4%). Conclusion: Fractionation of the oil made it possible to isolate a purified antioxidant molecule consisting mainly of carvacrol (95%).
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An open-label, multi-center, prospective, interventional, clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ayuvigo forte capsules in patients suffering from oligospermia p. 290
Sanjay M Tamoli, Narendra B Mundhe, Devdatta A Deshmukh, Shishir Purushottam Pande, Rahul Ramkrushna Kamde, Vidyadhar S Kumbhar, Sachin Anil Upasani, Swapnali B Mahadik
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_158_18  
Background: Oligospermia refers to semen with a low concentration of sperms. Oligospermia is one of the common causative factors of male infertility. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of Ayuvigo forte capsule in patients suffering from oligospermia. Materials and Methods: This was an open-label, prospective, interventional, multi-center clinical study. A total of 30 patients were completed the study. All patients were advised to consume two Ayuvigo forte capsules twice daily orally after meals with a cup of milk for 90 days. Data describing quantitative measures are expressed as a mean ± standard deviation. Results: The mean total sperm count, mean progressive sperm motility, and total number of spermatozoa increased significantly (P < 0.05) by 90.54%, 33.65%, and 98.88% at the end of the study, respectively. Most patients had shown significant (P < 0.05) improvement in subjective parameters of low sperm count assessed as per Ayurveda. Furthermore, significant (P < 0.05) improvement was observed in mean serum free testosterone level. No statistically significant (P > 0.05) changes were observed in mean serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, safety laboratory parameters, and vitals. Excellent overall efficacy and tolerability were observed in majority of patients. Conclusion: Ayuvigo forte capsule is safe and effective for the management of oligospermia.
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Safety and antioxidant potential of traditional thai poly-herbal tea “phy-blica-d” used as a rejuvenation formula p. 295
Acharaporn Issuriya, Nuntitporn Puangkeaw, Piyapong Choochana, Patcharawalai Jaisamut, Nongluk Kunworarath, Katesarin Maneenoon, Surasak Limsuwan, Thammarat Kaewmanee, Sasitorn Chusri
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_5_19  
Background: The rising popularity of phytonutrient consumption may be due to a vast number of scientific studies that have revealed their health benefits; however, concerns regarding the medical safety of herbal-based products are increasing. Phy-Blica-O is Phyllanthus emblica- based herbal tea used in Thai traditional medicine as a rejuvenating remedy. However, its consumption has been limited due to its strong bitter taste with unpleasant odor. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and antioxidant potential of Phy-Blica-D, the modified formula of Phy-Blica-O which gave high sensory acceptability scores. Materials and Methods: Subacute toxicity studies of Phy-Blica-D infusion was conducted by repeated oral administration of the extract at doses of 5, 50, and 300 mg/kg/day in Sprague-Dawley rats. Results: The formula exhibited antioxidant activity with an IC50of 0.243 ± 0.006, 0.486 ± 0.002 and 0.108 ± 0.004 mg/mL using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,20-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and metal chelating assays, respectively. There was no significant treatment-related toxicity as indicated by clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, serum biochemical and hematological parameters, organ weight, and histopathological examination of the animals treated with Phy-Blica-D infusion. These results suggest that the oral no-observed-adverse-effect-level of Phy-Blica-D extract is >300 mg/kg body weight/day, or ~3.7 L/kg body weight/day for both sexes. The calculated human equivalent dose value is 48.39 mg/kg/day, or ~600 mL/kg body weight/day. There were no target organs affected. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Phy-Blica-D infusion can be regarded as safe and could potentially be used as a functional ingredient to reduce oxidative stress in non-communicable diseases.
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Study of antidiabetic properties of Uvaria narum leaf extract through glucose uptake and glucose transporter 4 expression studies in 3T3L1 cell line model p. 304
Murad Alsawalha, PB Janardhana, KR Padma, Shiva Shankar Reddy, Abeer M Al-Subaie, Srinivasa Rao Bolla, Vishnu Priya Veeraraghavan, Joel P Joseph, Surapaneni Krishna Mohan
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_7_19  
Background: Uvaria narum (UN) is known to have antipyretic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antimalarial properties. The antidiabetic properties of UN remains unexplored. The current study has been aimed at understanding the antidiabetic property of UN extract on an in vitro model using 3T3-L1 cell line. Methods: Methanolic extract of UN was prepared, and its cytotoxic effect on 3T3-L1 cells was assessed. Glucose uptake and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in 3T3-L1 cell line on treatment with the extract was evaluated against a standard drug, metformin. α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition activities of the extract were also assayed with acarbose as the standard drug. Results: Treatment with UN extract had no cytotoxic effect on the cells. UN extract showed a good percentage inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. UN extract showed 71.31% inhibition and the control drug Acarbose exhibited 88.54% inhibition in α-amylase activity. Furthermore, the extract showed 79.11% inhibition when Acarbose exhibited 87.35% inhibition in α-glucosidase activity. IC50values were also determined. Further, on treatment with the extract, 75.49% of 3T3-L1 cells took up glucose and 70.67% had GLUT4 expression. Conclusion: UN extract enhances glucose uptake and GLUT4 expression, inhibits α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, thereby demonstrating the antidiabetic properties in vitro.
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In vitro studies on the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by hydro-ethanolic extract of Pluchea lanceolata, Alhagi pseudalhagi, Caesalpinia bonduc p. 310
Anupam Kumar Sachan, Ch V Rao, Nikhil Kumar Sachan
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_31_19  
Background: Pluchea lanceolata (Rasna), Alhagi pseudalhagi (Jawasa), and Caesalpinia bonduc (Latakaranja) important medicinal plants widely used in India as folk medicine. These plants have been used to control diabetes in traditional medicinal systems. Objective: In the present study, 50% volume per volume ethanolic extracts of P. lanceolata , A. pseudalhagi , and C. bonduc subjected to in vitro analysis of antidiabetic effect by alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory assay. Materials and Methods: Inhibitory activity of the hydro-ethanolic extract of the all three plants individually against alpha-amylase enzyme and alpha-glucosidase enzyme were examined in different concentrations (3.90–500 μg/mL), where acarbose used as a positive control. Results: The percentage inhibition of P. lanceolata showed the highest alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration value P. lanceolata was found to be 4.83 μg/ml and 11.94 μg/ml for alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibition. Conclusion: This study suggests that the hydro-ethanolic extract of all three plants have antidiabetic property, among these three plants P. lanceolata showed potent enzyme inhibition as compared to other plant extracts and standard acarbose.
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Antioxidative properties of Thymus vulgaris on liver rats induced by paclitaxel p. 315
Mohammad Reza Salahshoor, Shiva Roshankhah, Cyrus Jalili
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_45_19  
Background: Thymus vulgaris (Thym) is a species of flowering plant in the mint family Lamiaceae with potent antioxidant, and it has been beneficial effects during short-term administration. Paclitaxel sold under the brand name Tax (Tax) is chemotherapy drug which capable to produce free radicals. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of Thym against toxic effects of Tax to the liver of rats. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four male rats were assigned to eight groups: Control normal and Tax control groups (20 mg/kg); Thym groups (4.5, 9, 18 mg/kg), and Tax + Thym-treated groups (4.5, 9, 18 mg/kg). Treatments were administered intraperitoneally daily for 2 weeks. Griess technique was assessed for determined serum nitrite oxide (NO) level. Aspartate aminotransferase, ALANINE aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were determined for liver functional disturbances. In addition, liver malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the diameter of hepatocytes, and the central hepatic vein (CHV) were investigated. Results: Tax administration significantly improved liver MDA and NO level, the mean diameter of CHV and hepatocyte, liver enzymes, and decreased TAC level compared to the normal control group (P < 0.001). The Thym and Thym + Tax treatments at all doses significantly reduced the mean diameter of hepatocyte and CHV, liver enzymes, liver MDA, and NO levels and increased TAC level compared to the Tax control group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: It seems that Thym administration improved liver injury induced by Tax in rats.
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Design and development of microparticulate delivery system for Curcumin p. 321
Aditi Shrinivas Kulkarni, Santosh S Bhujbal
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_24_19  
Background: Curcumin has been associated with remarkable beneficial effects; despite having a broad spectrum of activities, curcumin is characterized by poor water solubility and low bioavailability. Objective: The objective of this study is to enhance the solubility of curcumin using polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) and establish a microparticulate drug delivery system in a sodium alginate polymer matrix (microspheres containing curcumin triturated with PEG400 [Cur-PEGMS]) to improve the bioavailability of curcumin. Materials and Methods: The microspheres were formulated using the ionic gelation technique. Nine batches (F1 to F9) were prepared using 32 factorial design. The amount of sodium alginate and calcium chloride was selected as a formulation variable. The prepared Cur-PEGMS were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, differential scanning calorimeter, ultraviolet spectrophotometer, and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The pharmacokinetics of curcumin was characterized in rats using high-performance liquid chromatography, and calculations were performed using WinNonlin standard edition version 1.1 software. Results: We found that solubility was affected by the use of cosolvent. All F1–F9 batches were investigated for entrapment efficiency, and batch F5 was found to be optimum batch which was further evaluated. HPTLC chromatogram of Cur-PEGMS shows peak retention for curcumin. The particle size of microspheres was found to be in the range of 384–468 μm. Remarkable improvement in maximum plasma concentration and bioavailability was observed. Maximum the time after administration of a drug when maximum plasma concentration is reached (Tmax) was found to be 0.5 h, and AUC0–24was found to be 374.75 ng/ml and 622 ng/ml for curcumin suspension and curcumin microspheres, respectively. Conclusion: The developed formulation enhances the bioavailability of the drug. This enhanced oral absorption of Cur-PEGMS may provide a practical formulation to conduct a correlative pharmacodynamic study.
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Leaf extract of Eugenia uniflora L. prevents episodic memory impairment induced by streptozotocin in rats p. 329
Ilton Santos da Silva, Joana Rosar Corbellini, Gabrielle Pfutzenreuter, Leila Teresinha Maranho, Márcia Regina Pincerati
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_37_19  
Background: Eugenia uniflora is a plant found in several countries of South America and is traditionally used in folk medicine as an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antihypertensive agent. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of E. uniflora leaves on memory impairment induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in rats. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of E. uniflora leaves was used to treat Wistar rats which received intracerebroventricular (ICV)-STZ. Animals were allocated to the control group (n = 10), i.e., ICV vehicle solution + ethanol 10%; STZ group (n = 10), i.e., ICV-STZ + ethanol 10%; STZ + E. uniflora (300 mg/kg) group (n = 10), i.e., ICV-STZ +300 mg/kg of leaf extract of E. uniflora ; and STZ + E. uniflora (1000 mg/kg) group (n = 10), i.e., ICV-STZ +1000 mg/kg of leaf extract of E. uniflora. The animals were submitted to the treatments 24 h after receiving ICV-STZ. The treatments were performed on alternate days over a 30-day period. After this period, the animals were tested in the elevated plus maze to assess learning and memory. Results: The STZ group presented a higher transfer latency (P < 0.001) which impaired memory regarding the aversive characteristics of the apparatus. The performance in the sessions regarding this parameter of the groups treated with the leaf extract of E. uniflora was similar to the control group (P > 0.05) for both the doses. Conclusion: The leaf extract of E. uniflora showed a neuroprotective effect on memory impairment induced by STZ in rats.
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