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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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 2017
Volume 9 | Issue 5 (Supplement)
Page Nos. 1-109

Online since Tuesday, December 12, 2017

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of triterpenes from Pluchea quitoc DC. aerial parts p. 1
Francisco Alcione Nobre da Silva, Sônia Maria de Farias Freire, Marilene Oliveira da Rocha Borges, Francisco Erivaldo Vidal Barros, Maria da Glória Teixeira de Sousa, Maria Nilce de Sousa Ribeiro, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro Guilhon, Adolfo Henrique Müller, Antonio Carlos Romão Borges
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_51_17  
Background: Pluchea quitoc DC. (Asteraceae), a medicinal plant known as “quitoco,” “caculucage,” “tabacarana” and “madre-cravo,” is indicated for inflammatory conditions such as bronchitis, arthritis, and inflammation in the uterus and digestive system. Objective: This study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the triterpenes compounds obtained from P. quitoc aerial parts. Materials and Methods: The triterpenes compounds β-amyrin, taraxasterol and pseudo-taraxasterol in a mixture (T); β-amyrin, taraxasterol and pseudo-taraxasterol acetates in a mixture (Ta); β-amyrin, taraxasterol, pseudo-taraxasterol acetates in a mixture with β-amyrin, taraxasterol and pseudo-taraxasterol myristates (Tafe) were analyzed in the models of nociception and inflammation. The evaluation of antinociceptive activity was carried out by the acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick tests while leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity was used for anti-inflammatory profile. Results: The oral administration of T or Tafe (40 mg/kg and 70 mg/kg) and Ta (70 mg/kg) to mice reduced acetic acid-induced writhing. The tail-flick response of mice was not affected by T or Tafe (40 mg/kg). T or Tafe (40 mg/kg) and Ta (70 mg/kg) also inhibited peritoneal leukocyte infiltration following the injection of carrageenan. Conclusion: The results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and peripheral antinociceptive activity of the triterpenes β-amyrin, taraxasterol, and pseudo-taraxasterol that were decreased when these were acetylated; while the acetylated triterpenes in mixture with myristyloxy triterpenes improved this activity. These compounds seem, at least in part, to be related to the plant's reported activity.
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The activity of immunoglobulin Y anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis on proliferation and cytokine expression of rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells p. 5
Sri Agus Sudjarwo, Koerniasari Eraiko, Giftania Wardani Sudjarwo, Koerniasari
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_66_17  
Objective: It has long been known that chickens, like mammals, are capable of producing antigen-specific immunoglobulin Y (IgY), which functions similar to IgG. The present study was performed to investigate the activity of IgY anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis on proliferation, interleukin (IL)-2, and interferon (IFN)-γ expression of rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Materials and Methods: The activity of IgY anti-M. tuberculosis in different doses (25, 50, and 100 μg/ml) on rat PBMCs proliferation was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The production of IL-2 and IFN-γ in the PBMC supernatant was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Investigation was performed on mRNA expression of IL-2 and IFN-γ by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: IgY anti-M. tuberculosis significantly increased the proliferation of rat PBMC. Furthermore, IgY anti-M. tuberculosis dose dependently increased IL-2 and IFN-γ production in PBMC, suggesting that pharmacological activities of IgY anti-M. tuberculosis in PBMC may be mediated by regulating the production of cytokines. In the RT-PCR, expression of cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN-γ in PBMC cultures was increased by IgY anti-M. tuberculosis. Conclusions: We concluded that increasing IL-2 and IFN-γ productions in PBMC was related to IgY anti-M. tuberculosis, stimulating the mRNA transcription (gene expression) of these cytokines which can induce proliferation of PBMC.
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Autonomic receptors and nitric-oxide involvements in mediating vasorelaxation effect induced by Syzygium polyanthum leaves extract p. 9
Azlini Ismail, Wan Amir Nizam Wan Ahmad
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_69_17  
Context: Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp leaves are traditionally used by Malays for treating hypertension. Our previous study showed that aqueous extract of S. polyanthum (AESP) and methanolic extract of S. polyanthum (MESP) extracts of S. polyanthum leaves significantly reduced blood pressure of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Aims: This study aimed to investigate their vasorelaxation potential and the possible involvement of autonomic receptors and nitric oxide in mediating their effect. Settings and Design: Both extracts will be tested on isolated thoracic aorta rings of WKY and SHR. The involvement of autonomic receptors and nitric oxide will be elucidated using respective blockers. Materials and Methods: Isolated thoracic aorta rings from WKY and SHR were mounted onto myograph chambers to measure changes in the aorta tension. Increasing concentrations of AESP and MESP, from 1 μg/ml to 10 mg/ml were added onto the myograph chambers. Blockers such as atropine (1 μM), phentolamine (1 μM), propranolol (1 μM), and Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (100 μM) were preincubated before addition of extracts to check for involvement of muscarinic, α- and β-adrenergic receptors (AR) as well as nitric oxide, respectively. Statistical Analysis Used: Two-way ANOVA, followed by post hoc Bonferroni test was used, where P < 0.05 (two-tailed) was considered statistically significant. Results: AESP and MESP caused significant vasorelaxations through nitric oxide pathway. The former was mediated through α-AR while the latter was mediated by β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors. Conclusion: Vasorelaxation effect by AESP and MESP involved nitric oxide pathway which is possibly mediated by the autonomic receptors.
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Curcumin and natural derivatives inhibit Ebola viral proteins: An In silico approach p. 15
Shruti Baikerikar
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_30_17  
Background: Ebola viral disease is a severe and mostly fatal disease in humans caused by Ebola virus. This virus belongs to family Filoviridae and is a single-stranded negative-sense virus. There is no single treatment for this disease which puts forth the need to identify new therapy to control and treat this fatal condition. Curcumin, one of the bioactives of turmeric, has proven antiviral property. Objective: The current study evaluates the inhibitory activity of curcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and tetrahydrocurcumin against Zaire Ebola viral proteins (VPs). Materials and Methods: Molecular simulation of the Ebola VPs followed by docking studies with ligands comprising curcumin and related compounds was performed. Results: The highest binding activity for VP40 is −6.3 kcal/mol, VP35 is −8.3 kcal/mol, VP30 is −8.0 kcal/mol, VP24 is −7.7 kcal/mol, glycoprotein is −7.1 kcal/mol, and nucleoprotein is 6.8 kcal/mol. Conclusion: Bisdemethoxycurcumin shows better binding affinity than curcumin for most VPs. Metabolite tetrahydrocurcumin also shows binding affinity comparable to curcumin. These results indicate that curcumin, curcuminoids, and metabolite tetrahydrocurcumin can be potential lead compounds for developing a new therapy for Ebola viral disease.
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Antihyperglycemic potential of saponin-enriched fraction from Pithecellobium dulce Benth. seed extract p. 23
Mahesh Kumar, Jeyabalan Govindrajan, Narendra Kumar Nyola
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_18_17  
Background: Indian traditional system of medicine uses Pithecellobium dulce for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Objectives: This study aims to develop an extract rich in saponins derived from seeds of the plant and to evaluate its antihyperglycemic potential in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: Defatted seeds were extracted with methanol and processed to afford saponin-enriched fraction (Pithecellobium dulce saponin-enriched fraction [PDSEF]). This fraction was evaluated for its potential to inhibit enzymes such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase, in vitro. The fraction was subjected to oral toxicity study followed by in vivo sucrose tolerance test. An analytical high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for fingerprinting of the fraction. Results: The method adopted for enrichment of saponins was robust enough to enrich saponin content to 96.37% ±1.21% w/w. PDSEF displayed superior inhibition of enzymes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase with IC50of 5.12 ± 0.15 μg/ml and 17.28 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively) compared to acarbose. It was found to be safe in mice up to 2000 mg/kg and significantly prevented blood glucose level in sucrose tolerance test by inhibiting enzymes responsible for hydrolysis of sucrose. Conclusion: PDSEF displayed excellent antihyperglycemic activity in vitro and in vivo and should be evaluated further to develop it as a promising drug for the management of diabetes mellitus.
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Pharmacognostic assesment of the endemic and vulnerable medicinal climber-Cayratia pedata (Lam.) Gagnep. var. glabra Gamble and its antibacterial activity p. 27
S Sharmila, K Kalaichelvi, SM Dhivya, P Premamalini, P Abirami, G Jayanthi
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_25_17  
Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate a meticulous pharmacognostic cram is to supplement constructive information with regard to its identification, characterization, and standardization of endemic and endangered medicinal climber Cayratia pedata var. glabra and also screening the antibacterial activity of this climber. Materials and Methods: The morphological characters of study plant, microscopic examination of leaf powder, anatomy of young stem, physicochemical analysis of plant powder, extractive values, phytochemical analysis, powder with different chemical reagents, fluorescence analysis of plant powder, and other World Health Organization (WHO) recommended for standardization were analyzed. The antibacterial activity of this study plant is also analyzed. Results: C. pedata var . glabra belongs to the family Vitaceae, commonly known as “Kattuppirandai” is one such endemic and endangered species in Thaisholai, Nilgiris South Division, Western Ghats. With the patronage of veteran ethnic group traditional knowledge of this region, the species C. pedata var . glabra was selected for the pharmacognostical examination and antibacterial screening. There were no pharmacognostical reports of this plant, specifically to determine the anatomical and other physicochemical standards required for its quality control. The current study deals with pharmacognostical parameters for the aerial parts of study plant, which mainly consists of macromorphological and microanatomical characters, physicochemical constants (ash values and extractive values), fluorescence analysis, and phytochemical screening, one of the WHO accepted parameter for the identification of medicinal plants. The pharmacognostical exploration was undertaken for this species with the purpose of sketch the pharmacopeial standards. The antibacterial activity of this plant confirms the therapeutic power. Conclusion: The information obtained from pharmacognostical studies will be of used for supplementary pharmacological and therapeutical evaluation of the species and will assist in standardization for quality, purity, and authentication with the help, of which adulteration and substitution can be prevented. The antibacterial activity of this plant confirm the traditional knowledge of local healers on the wound healing property of this species and also suggest this plant species can be used as a promising source for the development of new pharmaceuticals that address the therapeutic needs to cure infectious diseases.
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Pharmacological screening of Trachyspermum ammi for antihyperlipidemic activity in Triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemia rat model p. 34
Uzma Saleem, Saba Riaz, Bashir Ahmad, Saleem Mohammad
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_37_17  
Background: Mortality rate is increasing due to cardiovascular problems throughout the world. These cardiac problems are directly associated with dyslipidemia. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic effect of aqueous extract and methanol extract of Trachyspermum ammi at 1 g/kg, 3 g/kg, and 5 g/kg dose levels in rats. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 45 male albino rats were used and randomly divided into nine equal groups (n = 5). The lipid levels were increased after 24 h of single intraperitoneal injection of Triton X-100 (100 mg/kg) in rats. Aqueous and methanol extracts equivalent to 1 g/kg, 3 g/kg, and 5 g/kg were administered orally to the rats for 21 days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) was used as standard drug. Blood samples were collected at 0, 2nd, 9th, 16th, and 23rd day by a direct cardiac puncture in Vacuette® heparin tubes. Serum was separated and then analyzed for lipid profile, liver function test (LFT), and renal function test (RFT) using standard diagnostic kits. Results: Results showed that extracts at 3 g/kg and 5 g/kg decreased the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein and increased high-density lipoprotein concentration in serum. T. ammi also decreased LFT and RFT parameters at the end of the study. Conclusion: T. ammi possessed antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities along with hepato- and nephro-protective effects. Aqueous and methanol extracts of T. ammi were administered orally at 1-, 3-, and 5 g/kg doses to hyperlipidemic rats (Triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemia) and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, orally) was used as standard drug. Methanol extract at 5 g/kg showed antihyperlipidemic effect that is identical to that of standard drug.
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Pharmacological evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of AHPL/AYTAB/0613 tablet in carbon tetrachloride-, ethanol-, and paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity models in Wistar albino rats p. 41
Sanjay U Nipanikar, Sohan S Chitlange, Dheeraj Nagore
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_44_17  
Background: Hepatotoxicity ultimately leads to liver failure. Conventional treatment options for hepatotoxicity are limited and not safe. Objective: Formulation AHPL/AYTAB/0613 is developed to provide safer and effective hepatoprotective drug of natural origin. A study was conducted to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of AHPL/AYTAB/0613 (three dosages) in comparison with marketed formulations in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), ethanol, and paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Three separate studies were conducted in models of CCl4, ethanol, and paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Seven groups of animals were studied comparatively to evaluate the efficacy of AHPL/AYTAB/0613 in low, medium, and high dosage in comparison with silymarin and a marketed polyherbal formulation. The drugs were orally administered to rats for 10 days in CCl4 model and for 14 days in ethanol and paracetamol models. Animals were weighed periodically. After the study period, blood was tested for serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and total protein levels. Liver tissue of sacrificed animals was examined histopathologically. Results: All the test formulations including all three dosages of AHPL/AYTAB/0613, significantly reduced levels of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, total bilirubin, in CCl4, ethanol, and paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity models. There was significant increase in total protein level in all the tested formulations. All the test formulations effectively preserved the structural integrity of the hepatocellular membrane and liver cell architecture damaged by CCl4, ethanol, and paracetamol. When compared between groups, no statistically significant difference was observed. It can be concluded that AHPL/AYTAB/0613 possesses hepatoprotective activity in CCl4, ethanol, and paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Conclusion: AHPL/AYTAB/0613 can be effectively used as a hepatoprotective agent in the management of hepatitis caused due to various toxins.
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Gas chromatography mass spectrometry profiling in methanolic and ethyl-acetate root and stem extract of Corbichonia decumbens (Forssk.) exell from Thar Desert of Rajasthan, India p. 48
Sunita Arora, Manju Saini
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_62_17  
Background: Corbichonia decumbens (Forssk.) Exell (Molluginaceae), recently has moved to Lophiocarpaceae as per angiospermic plant group (APG) III system, is an annual or short-lived, dwarf, glabrous subshrub, prefers to grow on rocky places and on sand-stones in dry, hot areas of Rajasthan. This is the potential plant with medicinal properties. Vegetative organs under study show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial, and antinociception activity. Objective: This study was carried out to identify the phytoconstituents present in the methanolic and ethyl-acetate extract of root and stem of C. decumbens by GC-MS analysis. Materials and Methods: Powdered test samples were sequentially extracted with methanol and ethyl-acetate. The compounds obtained as a result of GC-MS screening were identified on the basis of their retention time, peak area and compared with that of literature available and by interpretation of mass spectra. Results: GC-MS analysis of a methanolic extract of root detected mome-inositol (49.53%), guanosine (20.91%), and cis-vaccenic acid (9.25%). While ethyl-acetate extract of root analyzed pentadecanoic acid (17.91%), octadecanoic acid (15.01%) and cis-vaccenic acid (12.04%). Methanolic extract of stem detected mome-inositol (75.47%), pentadecanoic acid (6.04%), and 7-tetradecenal, (Z) (4.54%) while ethyl-acetate extract of stem revealed the presence of 1-heptacosanol (17.35%), hexadecanoic acid (17.17%), and octadecanal (12.64%). Conclusion: The results suggest that C. decumbens (Forssk.) Exell is a plant of potential medicinal value, yielding various bioactive compounds that confirm the application of this plant as a plant-based drug in pharmacy-industry.
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Picroside I and picroside II from tissue cultures of Picrorhiza kurroa p. 53
Yamjala Ganeshkumar, Ajmera Ramarao, Ciddi Veeresham
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_89_17  
Background: Picrorhiza kurroa (PK) belongs to Scrophulariaceae family and is a representative endemic, medicinal herb, widely distributed throughout the higher altitudes of alpine Himalayas from west to east, between 3000 and 4500 m above mean sea level. Objective: The objective of the present study is to assess the production of picroside I and picroside II from tissue cultures of PK. Materials and Methods: Auxiliary shoot tips of PK were incubated in Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with indole-3-butyric acid and kinetin phytohormones. The callus produced was collected at different time intervals and was processed for extraction of picroside I and picroside II followed by thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC analysis. Results: The maximum growth index was found to be 5.109 ± 0.159 at 16-week-old callus culture. The estimation of picroside-I and picroside-II was carried out by (HPLC) analysis; quantity of secondary metabolite found to be 16.37 ± 0.0007 mg/g for PK-I and 6.34 ± 0.0012 mg/g for PK-II. Conclusion: This is the first attempt to produce the Picroside-I and II in large amount by the tissue culture technique. It can be observed that the method of callus culture can be used in production of secondary metabolites Picroside-I and II from PK
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Antiplasmodial activity of isolated polyphenols from Alectryon serratus leaves against 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum p. 57
Uswatun Khasanah, Aty WidyaWaruyanti, Achmad Fuad Hafid, Mulyadi Tanjung
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_39_17  
Background: Alectryon serratus was selected from a screening program devoted to search naturally occurring antimalarial compound from plants in Alas Purwo National Park, Banyuwangi, East Java, Indonesia. The previous studies showed that ethanol extract of A. serratus leaves contains some polyphenol compounds. Objective: This study was designed to isolate and investigate antiplasmodial activity of polyphenol compounds. Material and Methods: The ethanol extract of A. serratus leaves was fractioned using liquid–liquid fractionation and column chromatography. Isolated compounds were identified using High-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet-visible, nuclear magnetic resonance, and compared with references. The isolates were tested in vitro for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Thin blood smears were used to assess the levels of parasitemia and growth inhibition of the isolates. Result: Half maximal Inhibitory concentration of Gallic acid (1), methyl gallate (2), and kempferol-3-O-rhamnoside (3) were 0.0722 μM, 0.0128 μM, and 3.4595 μM, respectively. Conclusion: The results suggest that gallic acid, methyl gallate, and kempferol-3-O-rhamnoside isolated from A. serratus leaves have antiplasmodial activity and are potential to be developed as antimalarial drugs.
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In vitro antiproliferative effect of earthworm coelomic fluid of Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia foetida, and Perionyx excavatus on squamous cell carcinoma-9 cell line: A pilot study p. 61
Dominic Augustine, Roopa S Rao, Jayaraman Anbu, KN Chidambara Murthy
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_52_17  
Introduction: The earthworm coelomic fluid (ECF) has shown proven antiproliferative effect against breast, liver, gastrointestinal, and brain cancer, but it is least explored in oral cancer. The present in vitro study is an attempt to investigate the antiproliferative activity of ECF on oral cancer cell line squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)-9. Materials and Methods: ECF was collected from the species Eudrilus eugeniae (EE), Eisenia foetida (EF), and Perionyx excavatus (PE) stored at −80°C. Percentage inhibition of ECF on squamous cell carcinoma-9 cells in vitro was recorded at 24 h. Protein estimation was done using Bradford protein assay validated by the biuret method. Cytotoxicity was tested at 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μg/ml concentrations by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay in SCC-9 cells in vitro. GraphPad Prism 7.0 software was used to calculate the inhibitory concentration (IC50). Chi-square test was used to analyze the difference between samples. Results: The test samples EE, EF, and PE inhibited the growth of SCC-9 cells significantly in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC50values were found to be 4.6, 44.69, and 5.27 μg/ml, respectively. The antiproliferative effect was found to be variable among the three earthworm species with EE showing the most promising effect followed by PE and EF. Conclusion: Establishing the antiproliferative effect of ECF on oral cancer cells could be an initial step toward drug development and future anticancer research. The preliminary investigation has shown that ECF has a promising antiproliferative effect on oral cancer cells in vitro.
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Development and validation of high-performance thin-layer chromatography method for simultaneous determination of polyphenolic compounds in medicinal plants p. 67
CV Jayachandran Nair, Sayeed Ahamad, Washim Khan, Varisha Anjum, Rajani Mathur
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_122_16  
Context: Quantitative standardization of plant-based products is challenging albeit essential to maintain their quality. Aims: This study aims to develop and validate high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous determination of rutin (Ru), quercetin (Qu), and gallic acid (Ga) from Psidium guajava Linn. (PG) and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa. (AM) and correlate with antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: The stock solution (1 mg/mL) of standard Ru, Qu, and Ga in methanol: Water (1:1) was serially diluted and spotted (5 μL) on slica gel 60 F254thin-layer chromatography plates. Toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid: Methanol (3:4:0.8:0.7, v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase for analysis at 254 nm. Hydroalcoholic (1:1) extracts of leaves of PG and AM were fractionated and similarly analyzed. Antioxidant activity was also determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results: The developed method was robust and resolved Ru, Qu, and Ga at Rf0.08 ± 0.02, 0.76 ± 0.01, and 0.63 ± 0.02, respectively. The intra-day, interday precision, and interanalyst were <2% relative standard deviation. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for Ru, Qu, and Ga were 4.51, 4.2, 5.27, and 13.67, 12.73, 15.98 ng/spot, respectively. Antioxidant activity (Log 50% inhibition) of PG and AM was 4.947 ± 0.322 and 6.498 ± 0.295, respectively. Conclusion: The developed HPTLC method was rapid, accurate, precise, reproducible, and specific for the simultaneous estimation of Ru, Qu, and Ga.
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Assessment of nutritional quality and global antioxidant response of banana (Musa sp. CV. Nanjangud Rasa Bale) pseudostem and flower p. 74
Ramith Ramu, Prithvi S Shirahatti, KR Anilakumar, Shivasharanappa Nayakavadi, Farhan Zameer, BL Dhananjaya, MN Nagendra Prasad
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_67_17  
Background: The assessment of the nutritional composition and phytochemical screening of banana pseudostem (PB) and flower (FB) advocate this nonconventional food source for routine consumption, considering its various health benefits. Objectives: The aim is to assess the proximate nutrient composition, fatty acids, minerals, amino acid profile, and global antioxidant response (GAR) of PB and FB. Methods: Standard analytical procedures were used to determine the nutritional quality and GAR of PB and FB. Results: The chemical analysis illustrated that functional profile (water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, swelling power, and solubility), and proximate (ash, moisture, protein, fat, dietary fiber, and carbohydrate) contents were substantially high in FB than PB. With a well-proportionate amino acid profile, PB (0.56) and FB (0.54) comprised of a high ratio of essential to nonessential amino acids than those of FAO/WHO requirement (0.38). The mineral analysis revealed that PB and FB were rich in macro and micro minerals in the order K > Ca > Mg > P > Na and K > Mg > Na > Ca > P, respectively. Linoleic acid was found to be the major component in PB and FB. Besides, total antioxidant activity conducted for PB and FB by GAR method, measuring both bio-accessible and insoluble fractions, revealed that the soluble fraction fared better than the chemical extracts. Conclusion: The results revealed high nutritional qualities of the byproducts of banana and the low cost of its production promotes their use as a prospective nonconventional food resource with high nutraceutical value.
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Astaxanthin ameliorates hepatic damage and oxidative stress in carbon tetrachloride-administered rats p. 84
Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Abdullah Al Mamun, Md. Faruk, Md. Tauhid Ul Islam, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Mohammad Nazmul Alam, A. F. M. Towheedur Rahman, Hasan Mahmud Reza, Md. Ashraful Alam
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_26_17  
Background: Astaxanthin is of carotenoids group which possess strong antioxidant properties. The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of astaxanthin in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated rats. Materials and Methods: Female Long-Evans rats were administered with CCl4 orally (1 ml/kg) twice a week for 2 weeks and were treated with astaxanthin (10 mg/kg) every day for 2 weeks. Blood plasma samples were isolated from each group and were analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase activities. Oxidative stress parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and advanced protein oxidation product (APOP) were measured. Several enzyme functions such as myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities in the plasma and liver tissues were also analyzed. Moreover, inflammation and tissue fibrosis were also confirmed by histological staining of liver tissues. Results: This investigation revealed that CCl4 administration in rats increased plasma AST, ALT, and ALP activities which were normalized by astaxanthin treatment. Moreover, CCl4 administration increased as MDA, NO, and APOP level both in plasma and tissues compared to control rats. Astaxanthin also exhibited a significant reduction of those parameters in CCl4-administered rats. Astaxanthin treatment also restored the CAT and SOD activities and lowered MPO activity in CCl4-administered rats. Histological assessment also revealed that the astaxanthin prevented the inflammatory cells infiltration, decreased free iron deposition, and fibrosis in liver of CCl4-administered rats. Conclusion: These results suggest that astaxanthin protects liver damage induced by CCl4 by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and stimulating the cellular antioxidant system.
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Marine-derived fungi extracts enhance the cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin in nonsmall cell lung cancer cells A459 p. 92
Bruno Castro-Carvalho, Alice A Ramos, Maria Prata-Sena, Fernanda Malhão, Márcia Moreira, Daniela Gargiulo, Tida Dethoup, Suradet Buttachon, Anake Kijjoa, Eduardo Rocha
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_57_17  
Background: Drug resistance is a major concern in the current chemotherapeutic approaches and the combination with natural compounds may enhance the cytotoxic effects of the anticancer drugs. Therefore, this study evaluated the cytotoxicity of crude ethyl extracts of six marine-derived fungi – Neosartorya tsunodae KUFC 9213 (E1), Neosartorya laciniosa KUFC 7896 (E2), Neosartorya fischeri KUFC 6344 (E3), Aspergillus similanensis KUFA 0013 (E4), Neosartorya paulistensis KUFC 7894 (E5), and Talaromyces trachyspermum KUFC 0021 (E6) – when combined with doxorubicin (Dox), in seven human cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The antiproliferative activity was primarily assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Results: Two extracts, E1 and E2, demonstrated a significant enhancement of Dox's cytotoxicity in nonsmall cell lung cancer A549 cells. Accumulation of Dox in the nuclei increased when A549 cells were treated in combination with extracts E1 and E2, with induction of cell death observed by the nuclear condensation assay. The combination of E2 with Dox increased the DNA damage as detected by the comet assay. Ultrastructural observations by transmission electron microscopy suggest an autophagic cell death due to an increase of autophagic vesicles, namely with the combination of Dox with E1 and E2. Conclusion: These findings led to the conclusion that the fungal extracts E1 and E2 potentiate the anticancer action of Dox, through nuclear accumulation of Dox with induction of cell death mainly by cytotoxic autophagy.
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Improvement of insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with Aloe vera extract p. 99
Ayesha Noor, S Gunasekaran, MA Vijayalakshmi
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_75_17  
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Plant extracts and their products are being used as an alternative system of medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Aloe vera has been traditionally used to treat several diseases and it exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing effects. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Wistar diabetic rats were used in this study to understand the potential protective effect of A. vera extract on the pancreatic islets. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the A. vera extract on improvement of insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell function by morphometric analysis of pancreatic islets in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: After acclimatization, male Wistar rats, maintained as per the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals guidelines, were randomly divided into four groups of six rats each. Fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were assessed. The effect of A. vera extract in STZ-induced diabetic rats on the pancreatic islets by morphometric analysis was evaluated. Results: Oral administration of A. vera extract (300 mg/kg) daily to diabetic rats for 3 weeks showed restoration of blood glucose levels to normal levels with a concomitant increase in insulin levels upon feeding with A. vera extract in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Morphometric analysis of pancreatic sections revealed quantitative and qualitative gain in terms of number, diameter, volume, and area of the pancreatic islets of diabetic rats treated with A. vera extract when compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Conclusion: A. vera extract exerts antidiabetic effects by improving insulin secretion and pancreatic β-cell function by restoring pancreatic islet mass in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats.
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Therapeutic significance of Loligo vulgaris (Lamarck, 1798) ink extract: A biomedical approach p. 105
Sri Kumaran Nadarajah, Radha Vijayaraj, Jayaprakashvel Mani
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_81_17  
Background: The squid ink extract is well known for its biomedical properties. Objective: In this study, squid Loligo vulgaris was collected from Tuticorin costal water, Bay of Bengal, India. Materials and Methods: Proximate composition of the crude squid ink was studied and found to have protein as the major component over lipid and carbohydrates. Further, bioactive fractions of squid ink were extracted with ethanol, and therapeutic applications such as hemolytic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and in vitro anti-inflammatory properties were analyzed using standard methods. Results: In hemolytic assay, the squid ink extract exhibited a maximum hemolytic activity of 128 hemolytic unit against tested erythrocytes. In DPPH assay, the ethanolic extract of squid ink has exhibited an antioxidant activity of 83.5%. The squid ink was found to be potent antibacterial agent against the pathogens tested. 200 μL of L. vulgaris ink extract showed remarkable antibacterial activity as zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (28 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21 mm), and Staphylococcus aureus (24 mm). The 68.9% inhibition of protein denaturation by the squid ink extract indicated that it has very good in vitro anti-inflammatory properties. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of the ethanolic extracts of the squid ink indicated the presence of functional groups such as 1° and 2° amines, amides, alkynes (terminal), alkenes, aldehydes, nitriles, alkanes, aliphatic amines, carboxylic acids, and alkyl halides, which complements the biochemical background of therapeutic applications. Conclusion: Hence, results of this study concluded that the ethanolic extract of L. vulgaris has many therapeutic applications such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities.
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