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January-March 2020
Volume 12 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-94

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

“Haripriya” god's favorite: Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq. - At a glance Highly accessed article p. 1
Sumanta Mondal, Kausik Bhar, Ashes Sinha Mahapatra, Joy Mukherjee, Prasenjit Mondal, Syed Tazib Rahaman, Aishwarya P Nair
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_102_19  
The Kadam tree is highly regarded as religiously and culturally in India being sacred to Lord Krishna, and hence, the tree is also known as Haripriya, God's favorite. This article provides a detailed review of Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb) Miq. (family – Rubiaceae) that covers taxonomical classification, vernacular names, geographical distribution, botanical description, ethnobotanical information, pharmacological studies, and phytochemistry. Several parts of this plant have a number of traditional applications for treating humanity, which includes mouth ulcer, subdermal inflammatory deposits, stomatitis, fever, gastric disturbance, astringent, febrifuge, antiseptic, diuretics, anemia, uterine complaints, increase breast milk in lactating women, improvement of semen quality in men, nanotechnology, and agroforestry. The plant parts produce various pharmacological activities such as antidiabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, nephrotoxicity, diuretic and laxative, antihepatotoxic, hypolipidemic, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antifilarial antimalarial, sedative, antiepileptic, urolithiatic, immunomodulatory, antivenom, gastroprotective, anthelminthic, wound healing, antimicrobial, geranyl acetate esterase inhibition along with toxicological studies, nanotechnology, and agroforestry, which are newly added applications. Many phytoconstituents were isolated using various solvents and obtained compounds, such as cadambine, 3α-dihydrocadambine, isodihydrocadambine, β-sitosterol, amygdalin, phelasin, ursolic acid, linalool, and geraniol that belong to alkaloids, coumarins, terpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenes glycosides, sterols, flavonoids, amides, and fatty acids. Various solvent extracts and their gas chromatography–mass spectrometry studies have confirmed structures of some important phytoconstituents. Hence, this review can be a good reference for researchers who are willing to continue further research about A. cadamba.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Vitamin D3, L-Arginine, L-Citrulline, and antioxidant supplementation enhances nitric oxide bioavailability and reduces oxidative stress in the vascular endothelium – Clinical implications for cardiovascular system p. 17
Hazem Dawoud, Tadeusz Malinski
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_79_19  
Background: Nitric oxide (NO) is a crucial signaling molecule which regulates the blood flow and prevents the adhesion of blood components to the vascular wall. A deficiency in bioavailable NO concentration is associated with the dysfunction of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and/or an increase in oxidative stress. The deficiency of bioavailable NO is a common denominator of several cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. Materials and Methods: We used a nanomedical technology to elucidate the balance between bioavailable NO and oxidative stress (peroxynitrite ONOO) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with a supplement containing L-arginine, L-citrulline, Vitamin D3, and antioxidants. Nanosensors, with a diameter of 200–300 nm, are capable of measuring in situ NO and peroxynitrite (ONOO) concentrations produced by single endothelial cells. Results: The ratio of the concentration of cytoprotective NO [NO] to the concentration of cytotoxic peroxynitrite [ONOO] was used to estimate the efficiency of eNOS. HUVECs incubated with L-citrulline, L-arginine, and Vitamin D3increased the [NO]/[ONOO] ratio by 25%, while in the presence of antioxidants, the increase was 15%. The synergistic effect between the mix of L-arginine, L-citrulline, Vitamin D3, and antioxidants was a favorable increase of the overall [NO]/[ONOO] ratio by 50%. Conclusion: The findings of the study presented here clearly indicate that L-arginine, L-citrulline, and Vitamin D3can significantly alter the function of the endothelium and NO production, in a favorable manner, while pointedly reducing ONOO – the main component of oxidative stress. This effect can be significantly potentiated in the presence of antioxidants.
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Cytotoxic and antimigratory effects on michigan cancer foundation-7 cells of Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract and formulation of tablets from extract p. 24
Supavadee Boontha, Benjaporn Buranrat, Tasana Pitaksuteepong
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_66_19  
Background: Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases known to man. Efforts to combat the disease remain ongoing. Morinda citrifolia L. is a medicinal plant which is gaining interest as a natural chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer treatment. Objective: This study aimed to determine the anticancer activity of M. citrifolia leaf extract on Michigan cancer foundation 7 (MCF-7) breast cancer cells as well as formulate tablets containing the extract to assess their viability. Materials and Methods: M. citrifolia leaf extract was prepared using the maceration method. Cytotoxicity and cell migration suppression, representing anticancer activity, were also assessed in MCF-7 cells by the sulforhodamine B assay and wound-healing assay. Tablets containing the extract were formulated using the wet granulation method. The prepared tablets were then evaluated regarding their physical properties and scopoletin content, a marker in the extract, before and after stability testing. Results: The extract showed cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 39.9 ± 3.5 μg/mL for 48 h. In addition, it showed an antimigratory effect on MCF-7 cells with a significant effect at 25 μg/mL. The prepared tablets had good characteristics and were found to meet the requirements of the United States Pharmacopeia. Moreover, they could maintain their physical properties and scopoletin content over a 2-month period. Conclusion: This study showed that M. citrifolia leaf extract exhibited potential anti-breast cancer activity. The prepared tablets containing the extract could be a potential formulation for breast cancer treatment. However, the underlying mechanism of the extract as an antibreast cancer agent requires further investigation in subsequent study.
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High-performance liquid chromatography analysis and antioxidant activities of extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves p. 29
Emmanuel Ekow Biney, Matthew Nkoom, Williams Kweku Darkwah, Joshua Buer Puplampu
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_14_19  
Background: Extracts from Azadirachta indica (A. indica) tend to provide numerous health benefits including antioxidant activity. The main objectives for this research were to use standard procedures to determine total phenols, total alkaloids, total flavonoid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH)-scavenging activity, ferric reducing power, and total antioxidant capacity and analyze active components of the extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Materials and Methods: In vitro antioxidant potential of the A. indica extract was evaluated using DPPH and total antioxidant ability assays. Ferric reducing power ability of the extract was also examined using tannic acid and ascorbic acid as standard. Concentrations of plant extracts ranging from 0.02 to 0.10 mg/ml were prepared and mixed with appropriate volumes of reagents. Results: Methanol extract of A. indica exhibited higher content of phytochemical compounds (alkaloid = 1.9 mg QE/g; flavonoids = 3.5 mg QE/g; and phenols = 4.9 mg QE/g) at concentration 0.1 mg/ml compared to the acetone/water extract (alkaloid = 1.7 mg QE/g; flavonoids = 1.4 mg QE/g; and phenols = 2.6 mg QE/g). An overall trend found in the present study highlights the fact that the methanol extracts have better antioxidant capacities (DPPH, total antioxidant ability, and ferric reducing antioxidant property) than the acetone/water extract. HPLC analysis conducted also reveals seven peaks for methanol extract and six for acetone–water extract with different heights. Conclusion: HPLC analysis of A. indica extracts exhibited the presence of azadirachtin compound. The study showed that the extracts can competently protect the body against oxidative stress and therefore can be used as a source of potent natural antioxidant compounds.
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Phytochemical screening and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of ethanol extract of Scambiosa Columbabria L. p. 35
Idowu Jonas Sagbo, Ayuk Elizabeth Orock, Elizabeth Kola, Wilfred Otang-Mbeng
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_59_19  
Background: Scambiosa columbabria L. is commonly known as the wild scabious and is used in South Africa to treat various ailments such as wound bruises, painful menstruation, heartburn, and colic. Despite its extensive traditional usage, the bioactive constituents of this plant are yet to be explored. Objective: The present study was carried out to identify the bioactive constituents of the ethanol extract of S. columbabria by phytochemical screening and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Materials and Methods: Sixty grams of the powdered leaves was sequentially extracted by ethanol and later tested for preliminary phytochemical screening and further subjected to GC-MS analysis. Results: The results showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, and saponins in the extract. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 16 major compounds, with flavonoids (40.84%) being the most represented chemical class. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the plant possesses compounds with biological activities and therefore justifies its traditional usage in the treatment of skin and other diseases. Scambiosa columbabria L. is commonly known as the wild scabious and is used in South Africa to treat various ailments such as wound bruises, painful menstruation, heartburn, and colic. The result generated from the study reveals the presence of various bioactive compounds which are known to exhibit various biological activities and therefore validates the reports of therapeutic importance of this plant in the treatment of skin and other diseases, and it may therefore be recommended as plant of pharmaceutical importance.
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Anticancer activity of ethyl acetate extract from lethariella cladonioides in vitro and in vivo p. 40
Wen-Jing Lian, Xiao-Qiong He, Qian Yao, Zhong-Yu Song, Jing Wang
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_70_19  
Background: Lethariella cladonioides, also known as Red Snow Tea and Golden Silk Tea, mainly grows in Tibet, Sichuan and Yunnan of China. Its medicinal value has been gradually discovered. Objectives: This study mainly evaluated the anti-cancer effect of AMH-L extracted from L. cladonioides in vitro and in vivo and to explore its anticancer mechanism. Materials and Methods: MTT assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of AMH-L to human cancer cells A-549 and HCT-116 in vitro. Sarcoma S-180 and human lung cancer NCL-H460 cells were implanted into Kunming mice and Balb/C nude mice, respectively, anti-cancer activity in vivo was assessed by recording body weight, organ coefficient and tumor inhibition rate. Flow cytometry and western blotting were used to preliminarily explore the anticancer mechanism. Results: AMH-L, the active component of Red Snow Tea, had strong anticancer activity against A-549 and HCT-116, and IC50was 26.17 ± 3.54 and 16.21 ± 0.83. When the dosage was 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg, the inhibition rates of S-180 in Kunming mice were 36.04%, 43.14%, and 50.45% in turn, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the dose was 150, and the relative proliferation inhibition rate of Balb/C nude mice NCI-H460 tumor was 50.36%. Cell cycle and apoptotic results showed that AMH-L could block A-549 at G2/M phase and promote apoptosis of HCT-116 by inducing poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase lysis. Conclusion: L. cladonioides extract AMH-L exhibits strong anticancer activity in vivo and in vitro and can be used as a potential anticancer drug for further study.
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Inhibitory effect on human platelet aggregation, antioxidant activity, and phytochemicals of Canna warszewiczii (A. Dietr) Nb. tanaka p. 47
Le Hong Luyen, Vu Thi Thom, Le Thi Thanh Huong, Duong Thi Ly Huong, Nguyen Thi Van Anh
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_72_19  
Background: Canna warszewiczii (A. Dietr) Nb. Tanaka has been traditionally used to treat heart diseases in Vietnam, but there is a lack of scientific evidence. Objectives: This study investigated the inhibitory effect on human platelet aggregation, antioxidant activity, and main phytochemicals of fractions from the aerial and rhizome parts of the plant. Materials and Methods: Human platelets were prepared and incubated with different fraction doses (0.33, 0.75, and 1.5 mg/mL). Platelet aggregation was triggered by different agonists (adenosine diphosphate [ADP], collagen, and ristocetin). 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays were done to test the free-radical scavenging activities. Spectrophotometry assays using Folin–Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride were used to determine total flavonoid content (TFC) and total polyphenol content (TPC). The phytochemical screening was also implemented. Results: The n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions from both the rhizome and aerial parts significantly inhibited ADP-, collagen-, and ristocetin-platelet aggregations and decreased significantly the area under the platelet aggregation curve and aggregation velocity in a concentration-dependent manner, but the water fractions did not. The EA fractions showed the strongest DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity and highest TPC and TFC. Organic fractions contained variable bioactive compounds: flavonoids, polyphenols, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, steroids, emodols, tannins, and cholesterols. Conclusion: The plant extracts or fractions could be used in the preparation of functional foods or supplements with antioxidant and antiplatelet activity. It is also a good candidate for searching novel bioactive compounds used in pharmaceutical industries for the development of antiplatelet and antioxidant agents to prevent and/or treat heart and oxidative stress-related diseases.
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Novel phytocompounds from vernonia amygdalina with antimalarial potentials p. 53
InnocentMary IfedibaluChukwu Ejiofor, Aparoop Das, Showkat R Mir, Mohammed Ali, Kamaruz Zaman
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_81_19  
Background: Malaria, one of the diseases predominant in the African continent, has been reported to be treated with plants and also some in vitro and in vivo tests have supported this. Vernonia amygdalina belonging to the family of Asteraceae is one of the plants widely used in Nigeria and studied for treatment of malaria and some scientific researchers have validated this claim. Objectives: In the present study, we aimed at isolation of possible compounds from the methanolic stem-bark of V. amygdalina, elucidation and characterization of the isolated compounds, and carry out antimalarial evaluations of the isolated compounds. Materials and Methods: Isolation of compounds was done using column chromatography technique, elucidation and characterization were done based on infrared, Mass,1H, and13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The in vitro antimalarial activity was carried out on the ring stage of the malaria parasite cycle of chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine-resistant (Dd2) strains. Results: Five novel compounds were isolated; 4α-Hydroxy-n-pentadecanoic acid (CC7), 11α- Hydroxyurs-5,12-dien- 28-oic acid-3α, 25-olide (CC10), 1-Heneicosanol-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (CC19), 10-Geranilanyl-O-β-D-xyloside (AC2A), 6β,10β,14β-Trimethyl heptadecan-15α-olyl-15-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-1,5β-olide (CC14), and one new compound; Glucuronolactone (CC3). The compounds CC10, CC19, AC2A, CC14, and CC3 recorded schizont inhibition at different percentages. Compounds CC19, AC2A, and CC14 recorded half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 10.55 μg/ml, 12.56 μg/ml, and 11.68 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The IC50values obtained are much higher than that of chloroquine, which is 0.02 μg/ml. These compounds showed antimalarial activity at different levels. The presence and effect of these compounds validate the use of this plant for the treatment of malaria in the traditional medicinal practice of Nigeria.
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Phytochemical screening, acute and sub-acute toxicity of aqueous extract from a mixture of some recipe of Herniaria glabra L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Zea mays L. and Zizyphus lotus L. used traditionally against renal lithiases p. 60
Noufissa Touiti, Dalila Bousta, Smahane Boukhira, Mohamed Chebaibi, Sanae Achour
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_89_19  
Introduction: Antiurolithiatic plants are used since ancient times, in the form of decoction, infusion, or juice, to eliminate kidney stones and to prevent their recurrence. On the basis of the available ethnopharmacological information, more scientific studies are needed to explore natural and safe antiurolithiatic compounds. Materials and Methods: The present work showed phytochemical screening, acute and sub-acute toxicity of aqueous extract of four plant's mixture: Aerial part (branches, flowers and leaves) of Herniaria glabra, flowers of Opuntia ficus-indica, Zea mays styles and fruits of Zizyphus lotus used traditionally against renal lithiases. Phytochemical screening was performed using qualitative methods. To measure acute toxicity, rats were administered orally by single doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 2.0 g/kg body weight (b. w.) of extract of plant's mixture. General behavior adverse effects and mortality were determined during 15 days. For sub-acute study, the aqueous extract was administered at 100 mg/kg b. w. for 28 days to Wistar rats. Animals were monitored daily after an oral administration of aqueous extract of the mixture to detect any changes in b. w., behavior, autonomic profiles, or mortality. Calculation of relative organ weight (ROW) and biochemical analysis were carried out. Results: The acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality and no statistically significant decrease in b. w. and ROW of the treated groups of rats when compared to the control group was observed. In biochemical analysis, there was a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Conclusion: This study found that aqueous extract of traditional recipe used against renal lithiasis in Fes-Meknes region containing: Flavonoids, tannins, catechic tannins, coumarins and the glycosides. The results of the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies indicated that the recipe extracts induce a slight hepatotoxic effects in rats treated orally with 100 mg/kg (b. w.).
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Evaluation of the chemical composition and oral antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Gomes) landrum p. 65
Leila Teresinha Maranho, Elaine Cristina Rosas, Thaís Andrade Costa, João Luiz Coelho Ribas, Flares Baratto-Filho, Marilisa Carneiro Leão Gabardo
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_83_19  
Background: Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus is a native species from Brazil, whose leaves are used in the traditional culture as medicinal plants, being reported with antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Objectives: The aim of this study is to analyze and characterize the chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) extracted from the leaves of P. pseudocaryophyllus, as well as to evaluate its potential for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria inhabiting the human oral cavity. Materials and Methods: The extraction was performed by steam distillation and the chemical composition was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antimicrobial potential of the EO against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis was evaluated by agar well diffusion method. Different dilutions of the EO (10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625, 0.312, 0.156, 0.078, and 0.039%, v/v) were tested against the micro-organisms in disk diffusion tests to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration. Results: The extraction yielded 0.65% of EO in relation to fresh leaves of P. pseudocaryophyllus. GC-MS analysis identified eugenol, eucalyptol, and limonene as the major compounds of its. The material showed antimicrobial activity, especially against E. faecalis, with moderate activity against S. aureus, both at concentrations from 1.25% to 10%. Conclusion: The results suggested that this EO presents potential of activity against the oral micro-organisms here evaluated.
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Ghanaian herbal medicines for malaria: An Evaluation of the Clinical Safety and Effectiveness of “Time Herbal Mixture” in uncomplicated malaria p. 71
Andrews W. Tetteh, Kwesi P. Thomford, Merlin L. Mensah, Kwame O. Boadu, Ama K. Thomford, Isaac K. Amposah, Godfred Amofa, Benard K. Turkson, Michael O. Agyemang, Emmanuel D. J. Owusu-Ansah
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_23_19  
Background: Herbal antimalarials have become a popular source of treatment for most Ghanaians. The significant increase in patronage is of public health concern due to the lack of quality, safety, and efficacy data. Aim: In this report, we evaluated the clinical safety and effectiveness of a Ghanaian commercial product named “Time Herbal Mixture” (THM). The product is formulated from the leaves of Solanum torvum and Vernonia amygdalina and the stem bark of Spathodea campanulata and Bombax buonopozense. Methods: Participants of 40 patients diagnosed with uncomplicated malaria were recruited, treated, and followed up for a period of 28 days. This population comprised 25 (62.50%) females and 15 (37.50%) males, with a mean age of 42.29 (12.35) years. Outcome of primary interest was the ability of the product to clear blood parasites by day 7 of the study, resolution of cardinal symptoms of malaria, and an absence of adverse effects from the use of the product. Results and Discussion: A total of 33 (82.50%) participants achieved clearance of all parasites by day 7 (complete cure). Partial clearance was attained by 6 (15.0%) and treatment failure in 1 (2.50%). Resolution of the cardinal symptoms was also observed in most participants by day 7. The product also had a good safety profile as none of the participants reported any adverse effects. Liver, kidney, and hematological profiles were also normal after the study. Conclusion: THM,” therefore, has the potential to be used in cases of uncomplicated malaria.
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Chemical profiling, free radical scavenging and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities of essential oil from curcuma caesia of Arunachal Pradesh, India p. 76
Sudarshana Borah, Priyanka Sarkar, Hemanta Kumar Sharma
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_84_19  
Background and Aim: The rhizomes of Curcuma caesia have traditional applications for pain healing and are an imperiled species of India. A study on investigation of in vitro anti-oxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory efficacy of essential oil from the rhizome part was carried out through extraction by hydrodistillation. Materials and Methods: The phyto components present in this volatile oil were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis and based on Spearman's correlation, the cooccurrence network of the 21 compounds were analyzed. In vitro anti-oxidant, anti-AChE activities were assessed with different concentrations of essential oil by spectrophotometric analysis, following the standard protocols. Results: The studies revealed that major compounds identified were Androsta-1,4-dien-3-one,17-(acetyloxy)-, (17.beta.)-Santanol acetate (16.11%), Eucalyptol (12.98%), Cycloprop[e]indene-1a,2(1H)-dicarboxaldehyde,3a,4,5,6,6a,6b-hexahydro-5,5,6b-trimethyl, (1a. alpha., 3a. beta., 6a. beta., 6b. alpha) (8.96%), methyl 7,12-octadecadienoate (6.75%), and (+)-2-Bornanone (6.60%). The major interactions of terpenoidal compounds with other compounds give a picture that terpenoids have a very significant role as anti-oxidants and cholinesterase inhibitors. The essential oil showed the total phenolic content of 26.72 ± 0.38 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent and total flavonoid content of 18.92 ± 0.27 mg/g of quercetin equivalent (QE). 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2, 2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of the oil were 186.33 ± 0.46 μg/mL and 109.41 ± 0.43 μg/mL. The hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging IC50swere 103.45 ± 0.58 μg/mL and 190.55 ± 0.75 μg/mL, respectively. The AChE inhibitory IC50value was 156.33 ± 0.44 μg/mL. Conclusion: The study demonstrated on essential oil extracted from rhizomes of C. caesia indigenous to Arunachal Pradesh, India, has moderate anti-oxidant property and would be a valuable non-toxic source for managing neurodegenerative diseases.
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Ulcerative colitis induced with acetic acid is ameliorated by Antrocaryon micraster through reduced serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 in sprague dawley rats p. 85
Leslie Brian Essel, David Darko Obiri, Newman Osafo, Aaron Opoku Antwi, Moses Babatunde Duduyemi
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_75_19  
Background: Antrocaryon micraster possesses significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. These properties are shared by medicinal plants that have demonstrated beneficial effects in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Objectives: To assess the effect of the total ethanol stem bark of A. micraster extract (AME) on damage to the rat colon in acetic acid-induced colitis. Materials and Methods: Rats were pretreated with sulphasalazine 500 mg/kg or AME 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg daily for 3 days after which colitis was induced in test animals with acetic acid (4% V/V). Rats were sacrificed 24 h later and blood samples were obtained for hematological and cytokine assays. Colons were dissected for assessment of macroscopic and microscopic damage. Results: AME treatment modified hematological parameters and reduced serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6. Macroscopic assessment showed that AME reduced mucosal erythema, edema, erosions, bleeding, and ulceration. Histology showed preserved mucosal architecture, reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, decreased mucosal thickening, preserved goblet cell numbers, and inhibition of mast cell proliferation and degranulation in the colons. Conclusion: Taken together, the total ethanol stem bark AME exerts ameliorative effects on damage to the rat colon in acetic acid-induced colitis.
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SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

Antilithogenic potential of green tea, oolong tea, and black tea p. 92
Shaikh I Nasrul, Amit Sehgal
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_67_19  
Background: Urolithiasis and nephrolithiasis are the commonly occurring painful diseases in most parts of the world. The number of new cases associated with lithiasis is on rise, although various therapies such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy, lithotripsy, and other surgical procedures can remove the stones, high recurrence rate is a major problem. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antilithogenic potential of green tea, oolong tea, and black tea employing chemical model. Materials and Methods: The antilithogenic action of different teas on calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated on artificial urine spectroscopically, and the modulation of crystal size and density was recorded microscopically. Results: The different tea types showed significant inhibitory action on nucleation and crystal size morphology and density. The optical and spectroscopic techniques demonstrated that standard drug cystone exhibited highest inhibition followed by green tea, oolong tea, and black tea. Conclusion: Green tea illustrated maximum antilithogenic property as compared to other tea types and can be used as a potential dietary agent for the prevention of lithiasis.
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