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April-June 2020
Volume 12 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 95-205

Online since Monday, May 18, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

High-performance thin-layer chromatography analysis of gallic acid and other phytoconstituents of methanolic extracts of Myrica nagi fruit Highly accessed article p. 95
Yash Prashar, Nilesh J Patel
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_104_19  
Background: Myrica nagi Thunb. (family: Myricaceae) is effective against gastric, metabolic, and hepatic disorders. The therapeutic effect of its fruit, which is consumed in North India, has not been confirmed, and detailed chemical profiling of the fruit is thus required. Objectives: The study objective was to develop and optimize a high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the characterization of gallic acid, quercetin, myricetin, and caffeic acid in the methanolic extract of M. nagi fruit and the quantification of gallic acid. Materials and Methods: Analyses were performed using HPTLC, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. HPTLC experiments were carried out using an optimized solvent mixture, which enabled the separation and detection (at 254 and 366 nm) of four flavonoid compounds in the dried M. nagi extract. Gallic acid was quantified using calibration curves. Results: The proposed method enabled the detection of gallic acid, quercetin, myricetin, and caffeic acid. Validation took into account the estimation of linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, and recovery of gallic acid. Gallic acid was quantified at 12.93 μg/mg of dry plant concentrate. Conclusion: This study describes the development of an HPTLC method for the analysis and characterization of phytoconstitutents in the methanolic solution of a dried M. nagi fruit extract. The method was successfully validated for the analysis of gallic acid.
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Inhibitory actions of lupinifolin isolated from Derris reticulata stem against carbohydrate-digesting enzymes Highly accessed article p. 102
Pawitra Pulbutr, Pichnatcha Nantana, Surabot Suksabai, Chawannuch Mudjupa, Rattazart Denchai, Sakulrat Rattanakiat, Taweesak Dhammaraj
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_117_19  
Background: Postprandial hyperglycemia is linked with the development of diabetic complications. Inhibition against the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, specifically pancreatic α-amylase and intestinal α-glucosidase, delays carbohydrate digestion and subsides postprandial plasma glucose (PPG) levels. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effects of lupinifolin, purified from Derris reticulata stem, a medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, on in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme activities and enzyme kinetics. Subjects and Methods: The identification of the isolated phytochemical was performed using nuclear magnetic resonance–mass spectrometry (NMR-MS) spectrometry.In vitro pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities and enzyme kinetics were determined using the enzymatic colorimetric methods. Results: The purified phytochemical was identified as lupinifolin from the NMR-MS spectrometry. The isolated lupinifolin produced a significant α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory actions with the median inhibitory concentrations of 3.43 ± 0.77 and 56.29 ± 11.64 μg/mL, respectively. The study of enzyme kinetics showed that lupinifolin exhibited the mode of non-competitive and mixed enzyme inhibitions against α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively. Conclusion: The potent α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory actions of lupinifolin derived from D. reticulata stem evidently suggest its potential use as an alternative for the control of PPG.
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Development and validation of veratric acid in Tabebuia avellanedae using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry-multiple reaction monitoring-based assay coupled with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method p. 107
Puttaswamy Naveen, Harakanahalli Basavegowda Lingaraju, Siddappa Chandrappa, Srikant Anitha, Kodimule Shyam Prasad
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_77_19  
Objective: The aim of the present study is to develop a new simple, precise, and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of veratric acid in Tabebuia avellanedae Linn. Materials and Methods: The quantification of veratric acid was done using collision-induced dissociation multiple reaction monitoring scan of mass spectrometry technique. The developed method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The free radical scavenging activity was performed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Results: The ion transitions of the precursor to the productions were principally protonated ion [M + H]+ at m/z 182.8 >139.20, 124.20, and 77.0 for veratric acid. The proposed method was validated for linearity with an excellent correlation coefficient of 0.9978. The intraday and intermediate precisions and repeatability showed the percentage relative standard deviation was <2%. The accuracy for the determination of veratric acid was within 82.20%–97.65%. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.66 and 2.21 ppm, respectively. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration value for the DPPH radical scavenging activity of ascorbic acid and quality control sample (hydroalcoholic extract of T. avellanedae) was found to be 17.79 and 36.44 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The developed LC-MS/MS method is a simple, rapid, precise, accurate, and it is recommended for efficient assays in routine work. T. avellanedae exhibited strong DPPH radical scavenging activity.
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Chemical composition, antioxidant, and anticholine esterase activities of essential oil of xylopia aethiopica seeds p. 112
Lateef Adegboyega Sulaimon, Rahmat Adetutu Adisa, Efereo Martins Obuotor, Modinat Olasunkanmi Lawal, Abdullahi I Moshood, Nura H Muhammad
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_47_19  
Background: Xylopia aethiopica is well known to treat neurodegenerative diseases in traditional medicine and there is no scientific evidence for this claim. Objective: The current research aimed at investigating chemical characterization, antioxidant, and anticholine esterase activity of the essential oil from X. aethiopica. Materials and Methods: Essential oil extraction was carried out by the use of the steam distillation method in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil from seeds of X. aethiopica (African pepper) was determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and its potentials as antioxidant and anticholine esterase were evaluated for the first time. Results: The oil yield was 5.2% (v/w) in X. aethiopica. The GC-MS analysis identified a total of 52 compounds corresponding to 100% of the total oil in X. aethiopica. The major constituents of X. aethiopica essential oil are terpinen-4-ol (11.88%), α-terpineol (5.93%), cyclohexane methanol (4.79%), and β-copaene (4.74%). The most abundant classes of compounds from the essential oil were oxygenated monoterpenes (MT) which amounted to (37.6%), followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (29.61%), sesquiterpenes (14.67%), oxygenated diterpenes (9.05%), nonterpenoid aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (4.81%), diterpenes (3.8%), and MT (0.47%) of all the identified constituents. A significant antioxidant (IC50value of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl = 2.19 ± 0.09 mg/mL) and anticholine esterase activity (IC50 =1.21 ± 0.06 mg/mL) was obtained for the essential oil of X. aethiopica. Conclusion: The study established the chemical composition, antioxidant, and anticholine esterase activities of the essential oil of the plant seeds.
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Neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of fraction isolated from methanolic extract of Sapindus laurifolia on scopolamine induced dementia p. 119
Nagaraju Bandaru, A Ramu, S Vidhyadhara
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_50_19  
Background: Phytotherapy is considered a complementary approach for preventing and treating many diseases. Plants are rich source of bioactive secondary metabolites of a wide variety such as saponins, tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids. Sapindus laurifolia (fam: Sapindaceae), well known as soapnuts, are used medicinally as an expectorant, emetic, contraceptive, and for treatment of excessive salivation, epilepsy, chlorosis, and migraines. Objective: To isolation of fractions, estimation of total flavonoid content, in vitro antioxidant and in vivo neuroprotective activity of S. laurifolia fruit kernel. Materials and Methods: In this study, in vitro antioxidant activity is estimated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay method. Neuroprotective activity is estimated by scopolamine-induced dementia method. In neuroprotective method, behavioral parameters were checked by escape latency (EL) time (s) by using the Morris water maze, active avoidance testing using elevated plus maze, and neurochemicals such as glutathione, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Cholinesterase were estimated. Results: In scopolamine-induced dementia, increased EL time, active avoidance and neurochemicals such as glutathione, CAT, SOD and cholinesterase decreased. Whereas standard and Fraction S-treated animals decreased in EL time, active avoidance and increased locomotor activity, neurochemicals such as glutathione, CAT, SOD, and cholinesterase also increased. Conclusion: The present study clearly demonstrates that methanolic extract of S. laurifolia Fraction A (50 and 100 mg/kg) kernel significantly attenuate scopolamine-induced dementia by improving the learning, memory, antioxidant potentiality, and anti-acetyl cholinesterase activity. Therefore, this Fraction A can be a potential novel therapeutic strategy for controlling neurodegenerative dementia especially Alzheimer's disease. Yet, advance studies are needed to characterize the active compound(s) and expose the possible mechanism of action.
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Evaluation of biochemical changes in diabetic rats treated with Aegle marmelos (L.) methanolic leaf extract p. 127
Ravi Babu Birudu, Padmavathi Pamulapati, Sathish Kumar Manoharan
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_53_19  
Background: Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa is a widely found plant in India as well as in South Asia. For more than several centuries, it is being widely used for its medicinal properties. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the biochemical changes in alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated with methanolic leaf extracts of A. marmelos. Materials and Methods: Six treatment groups, namely control, diseased, standard (glimepiride), low dose (100 mg/kg), medium dose (250 mg/kg), and high dose (500 mg/kg) of methanolic leaf extracts, were used in the study. The biochemical effects were evaluated by the determination of bodyweight, blood glucose, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), total proteins, serum albumin, serum creatinine, and alkaline phosphatase. Results: A significant increase in the bodyweight of the animals was observed in the high-dose treated animals (350.0 ± 6.15) when compared to the diseased group animals (241.0 ± 7.23). A significant decrease in the blood glucose, SGOT, and SGPT levels was observed in the high-dose treated animals (142.3 ± 20.52, 71.6 ± 4.8, and 24.5 ± 2.42) when compared to the diseased group animals (292.8 ± 29.34, 146.3 ± 11.12, and 74.5 ± 2.88), respectively. Similarly, total proteins, serum albumin, serum creatinine, and alkaline phosphatase levels of the high-dose treated animals were also significantly decreased (6.1 ± 0.26, 4.2 ± 0.22, 0.4 ± 0.18, and 109.2 ± 14.58) when compared to the diseased group animals (9.7 ± 0.27, 5.4 ± 0.26, 1.0 ± 0.22, and 257.2 ± 8.22), respectively. Conclusion: Through the biochemical changes, it is evident that the high dose of methanolic leaf extract of A. marmelos can be used in the treatment of diabetes and its complications.
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Antimicrobial activity and histopathological safety evidence of Ochradenus baccatus Delile: A medicinally important plant growing in Saudi Arabia p. 131
Mohsen S Al-Omar, Hussain M Eldeeb, Mugahid A Mobark, Hamdoon A Mohammed
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_103_19  
Background: The growing climatic condition affects plant constituents and biological activities. Ochradenus baccatus (Taily Weed) from Resedaceae family is a perennial shrub that is widely used in folk medicine in the Middle East. Aim: From the viewpoint that O. baccatus is regularly used in folk medicine, this study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and investigate the effect of O. baccatus on the biochemical and histopathological parameters of liver and kidney in experimental animals. Methods: The O. baccatus extracts were obtained by hot continuous extraction method. Agar diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration assays were used for the antimicrobial activity. O. baccatus total extracts at doses of 100 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg were given to the first and second groups of rates, respectively, whereas the third and fourth groups received the vehicle olive oil and saline, respectively. The liver and kidney functions, as well as lipid profile and glucose levels, were measured by spectrophotometric technique on obtained blood samples. The liver and kidney tissues were evaluated for histopathological effect. Results: Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts have similarly and potentially inhibited the bacterial micro-organisms, whereas Candida albicans was inhibited by n-hexane extract. O. baccatus total extract showed no significant effects on the kidney and liver functions (P > 0.05). However, it significantly reduced triglyceride level (P = 0.04). The histopathological investigation of liver and kidney tissues revealed no significant differences compared to control animals. Conclusion: The medicinally important plant, O. baccatus, growing in Saudi Arabia showed no significant toxic effects on the livers and kidneys. Moreover, it demonstrated a potential antimicrobial activity besides a significant reduction in serum triglycerides in rats. These findings are in consistent with other reported results suggesting no environmental effects on the safety of this plant.
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Banisterine alleviates morphine-based nephrotoxicity by antioxidant property: An in vivo study p. 137
Mohammad Reza Salahshoor, Cyrus Jalili, Amir Abdolmaleki, Shiva Roshankhah
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_97_19  
Background: Banisterine (BAN) as an alkaloid agent has antioxidant properties. The morphine (MOR) with the character of free radical generation has an effective role on renal pathogenesis. Objectives: This investigation critically examines the effects of the BAN against MOR-induced damage to the kidneys of rats. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four male Wistar rats were randomly assorted into 8 groups (8 rats in each), including the saline (Sal), MOR, BAN (5, 10, 15 mg/kg) and MOR + BAN treatment groups. All experimental procedures were applied by intraperitoneal injection daily for 20 days. Whole investigated values consist of total animal weight, weight of kidney, morphological criteria of kidney, antioxidant capacity and serum nitrite oxide levels. Results: Intraperitoneally MOR application significantly increased the levels of renal Malondialdehyde (MDA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood creatinine, and blood nitrite oxide and also reduced the glomerular number and tissue ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) level compared to the Sal control group (P < 0.05). Treatment of BAN and BAN + MOR in all doses significantly reduced the levels of BUN, MDA, creatinine, glomerular diameter, and nitrite oxide and also increased the glomerular number and tissue FRAP levels compared to the MOR group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings support the idea that the BAN with its antioxidant nature can eliminate MOR renal toxicity.
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Determination of free and bound amino acids in plant raw materials of zea mays L. by the method of high-performance liquid chromatography p. 143
Uliana V Karpiuk, Victoriia S Kyslychenko, Irina S Cholak, Oksana I Yemelianova
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_78_19  
Background: Plants have long been considered as a source of easily digestible forms of amino acids in combination with other biologically active compounds. Objectives: The aim of our research was to study the amino acid composition of the roots, leaves, and silk of Zea mays. Materials and Methods: The qualitative composition and the quantitative content of the free and the bound amino acids have been studied by the methods of paper chromatography and the high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: The content of the bound amino acids is significantly higher than the content of free amino acids in the studied plant material. The presence of 11 free amino acids and 16 bound amino acids has been found after the hydrolysis of aqueous solutions of the roots, leaves, and silk of Z. mays. Cysteine dominates quantitatively among the bound amino acids in all samples. The roots have the lowest amino acid content compared to other samples of raw materials. Conclusions: Results show the availability to use the Z. mays raw material for the production of complex remedies and functional food additives that contain amino acid complexes.
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Identification and characterization of polyphenols and volatile terpenoid compounds in different extracts of garden sage (Salvia officinalis L.) p. 149
Yashaswini Sharma, Ravikishore Velamuri, John Fagan, Jim Schaefer, Christoph Streicher, John Stimson
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_92_19  
Introduction: Garden sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is an important medicinal and aromatic herb, used in various food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries for its potential antioxidant properties. Leaves are the source of essential oils and polyphenols, used as a raw material in food and pharmaceutical industries. Materials and Methods: The study aimed to develop a complete phytochemical profile of S. officinalis leaves through liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Soxhlet and sonicated extract were analyzed using UHPLC, data-independent acquisition in negative electrospray ionization mode. Essential oil profiling of leaves in comparison with leaves+ stem was carried out using GC-FID. Results: Among the extraction methods, Soxhlet extraction yielded significantly high levels of caffeic acid (92.45 ± 1.92 μg/g), rosmarinic acid (18821.33 ± 150.20 μg/g), luteolin-7-glucoside (635.13 ± 11.20 μg/g), carnosic acid (27.48 ± 2.37 μg/g), carnosol (1347.67 ± 30.04 μg/g), and ursolic acid (14938.67 ± 82.20 μg/g). Among the 43 identified phenolic compounds, two flavonoids, diosmetin and pectolinarigenin and two triterpenoids benthamic and micromeric acids have been first time detected in S. officinalis leaves. The results of essential oil analysis indicated the presence of α-thujone (34.43- 38.93 %), β-thujone (6.03-7.58 %), camphor (15.77-18.12 %), 1,8-cineole (5.45-6.21 %), α-humulene (5.20 %), and camphene (4.29-5.10 %) as major volatile terpenoid components in S. officinalis. Conclusion: Soxhlet extraction found to be the best method for polyphenol extraction and the essential oil extracted only from leaves best suitable for therapeutic purposes due to less α-thujone and β-thujone content.
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Molecular identification and next-generation sequence analysis of interspecies genetic variations among three varieties of Datura p. 158
Goli Penchala Prasad, Goli Penchala Pratap, Srinivasan Marimuthu, Shyam Baboo Prasad, Gajendra Rao, Anupam Kumar Mangal, Naryanam Srikanth
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_101_19  
Background: Datura is a well-known plant used in Ayurveda. It is a widely growing plant from Solanaceae family, attributed to poisonous and medicinal values. It is used in the treatment of various skin diseases, fever, etc., It is also used for external application and rarely for oral administration. Objectives: The present study aims to compare three different varieties of Datura which include the species of Datura innoxia Mill., Datura metel L. and Datura arborea are used to study molecular marker and phylogenetic analysis. Materials and Methods: Whole-genomic DNA was isolated from the leaves of Datura and the polymerase chain reactions amplification of DNA barcoding markers are rbcl, mat k, and internal transcribed spacer-4 and 5 were analyzed by 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: The DNA barcoding markers and next-generation sequencing are able to identify the interspecies genetic variations among these closely related plant varieties of Datura. Conclusion: The interspecies genetic variations among these closely related three species of D. innoxia, metel, and arborea was closely related with Datura stramonium isolate NN003 chloroplast genome similarity of 98%, 99%, and 99%, respectively.
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Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry elucidation and antipsoriatic activity on developed herbal formulations from Carissa congesta, Catharanthus roseus, Annona squamosa, and Polyalthia longifolia Plant Extracts p. 163
Bernadette Donald Matthews, Ankita Sajeev Patil, Gaurav Mahesh Doshi
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_110_19  
Background: Annonaceae and Apocynaceae families are known for their plethora of pharmacotherapeutic potential. Objectives: To evaluate antipsoriatic potential (ultraviolet [UV]-induced photodermatitis and tail model) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) studies on developed formulations from the plant extracts. Materials and Methods: Formulations of ethanolic extracts of Carissa congesta and Catharanthus roseus and petroleum ether extracts of Annona squamosa and Polyalthia longifolia were evaluated for antipsoriatic activity (UV-induced photodermatitis and tail model) at 250 and 500 mg/kg. GC-MS studies were done subsequently after 6 months. Formulation batches were tested by different tests, viz., pH, viscosity, spreadability, washability, homogeneity, grittiness, drug content, Sudan red, bleeding, and sensitivity tests. Results: Histopathology studies indicated the absence of Munro's microabscess, regular elongation of rete ridges, capillary loop dilatation, granular cell layer, and prominent parakeratosis at 500 mg/kg. Formulations of the plant extracts did not reveal toxic components by GC-MS interpretation. No greasiness was observed during washing. Uniform homogeneity was observed with neither clumps nor large aggregates. The dispersed globules appeared red against colorless water background. Bleeding time was found to be stable during the experimentation.Conclusion: Developed topical plant formulations showed antipsoriatic potential on selected models. The GC-MS studies confirmed the presence of no drastic changes in the quantity of active constituents assuring its stability.
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Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies of majun brahmi and itrifal muqawwi dimagh (traditional unani formulations) in rats p. 169
Monika Kumari, Amjad Saifi, Mahmood A Khan, Vinod Kumar Arora, Yasmeen Shamsi, Sumita Halder, Rafat Sultana Ahmed
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_93_19  
Background: Majun Brahmi (MB) and Itrifal Muqawwi Dimagh (IMD) are polyherbal Unani formulations traditionally used for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment and memory enhancement. Although they are widely used, there is no particular scientific evidence regarding the toxicity of these medicines. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the safety of MB and IMD polyherbal Unani formulation. Materials and Methods: Wistar albino rats of both genders were treated with three doses of each drug – MB and IMD, i.e., 513.88, 1027.77, and 2055.54 mg/kg body weight (bwt) orally for 14 days for acute and 90 days for subchronic oral toxicity studies. At the end of the study, bwt gain, hematology, clinical biochemistry, and histopathological examination were performed. Although no significant changes in biochemical parameters occurred at the highest dose, mild damage to the liver, kidney, and spleen was observed. Results: At the lowest dose and at the dose of 1027.77 mg/kg bwt (therapeutic effective dose [TED]) of both the drugs, no abnormalities were observed in the biochemical and hematological parameters as well as histopathological findings. Conclusion: None of the rats exhibited apparent toxicity or mortality. The results of the present study provide evidence that both the formulations are not toxic at the TED dose and hence are clinically safe.
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Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of piperine: An experimental study p. 176
Nikhil Dhargawe, Sunil Mahakalkar, Bhagyashree Mohod, Jeffrey Pradeep Raj
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_94_19  
Background: Narcotics (e.g., opioids) or non-narcotics (e.g., salicylates and corticosteroids) are used in the management of pain and inflammation, both of which have side effects, thereby emphasizing the search for natural substances. Piperine found naturally in plants of the Piperaceae family has shown inhibitory activity against 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-1 in in vitro studies. Objectives: To evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity of piperine in comparison to aspirin. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats of either sex weighing 180–200 g and Swiss mice weighing 25–30 g were used. The tail-flick method and hot plate method in rats and acetic acid-induced writhing method in mice were used for the evaluation of analgesic activity. The carrageenan-induced paw edema method, cotton pellet-induced granuloma method, and formalin-induced arthritis method were used for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity. Baker's yeast-induced pyrexia model was used to evaluate antipyretic activity. Results: Piperine showed significant analgesic effect of 40%–55% in tail-flick method, 58% in hot plate method, and 54% in acetic acid-induced writhing model, when compared to negative controls. The percentage inhibition of inflammation, in comparison to controls, was significant at 56% for carrageenan-induced paw edema model and 40% for formalin-induced arthritis model. In the cotton pellet-induced granuloma model, however, it was only 10%. In the yeast model of pyrexia, piperine significantly reduced rectal temperature at 4 h. However, aspirin had better effect than piperine in all these models. Conclusion: Piperine exhibits significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic activity though not comparable to aspirin.
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Pharmacognostical standardization, phytochemical investigation, and anthelminthic activity of Arisaema propinquum Schott rhizomes p. 181
Prince Ahad Mir, Roohi Mohi-ud-din, Mohd Akbar Dar, Ghulam Nabi Bader
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_106_19  
Ethnopharmacology: Arisaema propinquum Schott (Araceae) is commonly known as cobra lily. Traditionally, the rhizomes were used as vermifuge, in rheumatism, as stomachache, and in snake bites. Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the pharmacognostical parameters and anthelminthic activity of A. propinquum rhizomes. Materials and Methods: The rhizomes of A. propinquum Schott was collected, shade dried and then powdered, and then evaluated for pharmacognostic parameters such as macro- and microscopical characters, physico-chemical parameters, and phytochemical analysis using standard procedures. Anthelminthic activity of the extracts was elevated against Pheretima posthuma. Results: The rhizomes are light brown in color with pungent odor and astringent taste. Transverse section of rhizomes showed intercellular schizogenous cavities, xylem vessels, phloem vessels, and parenchymatous cells. Phytochemical screening of the extracts reveals the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, proteins, amino acids, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, and terpenoids. Physiochemical parameters including ash values showed 6.32% total ash, 1.77% acid insoluble ash, 5.15% water-soluble ash, and 8.55% sulfated ash. Other parameters such as extractive value, foreign matter, moisture content, swelling index, foaming index, pH of different solvents, and fluorescence analysis were also determined. Both the methanolic and aqueous extracts of A. propinquum showed dose-dependent anthelminthic activity against P. posthuma compared to standard albendazole. Conclusion: This is the first report on the pharmacognostic studies and anthelminthic activity of A. propinquum Schott. Data composed from such studies can be used as a standard in the quality control of this plant used as an herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases.
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Genetic, chemical, and biological diversity in Mangifera indica L. cultivars p. 186
Seham S El-Hawary, Rehab M. S. Ashour, Sabah H El-Gayed, Haidy A Gad, Gehad A . Abdel Jaleel
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_99_19  
Context: Mango is a valuable plant with vital economic importance; the leaves of its cultivars show several morphological similarities. Aims: Full differentiation of the leaves of eight Mangifera indica L. cultivars depending on genetic, chemical, and biological bases. Settings and Design: Chemometric analysis was applied to fully distinguish the diversity among cultivars; also, their gastroprotective activity was studied. Subjects and Methods: DNA fingerprinting of eight mango cultivars using random amplified polymorphic DNA–polymerase chain reaction technique and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of phenolic compounds and flavonoids were compared using chemometric analysis. Furthermore, estimation of total polyphenolics and flavonoids and gastroprotective activity was studied.Statistical Analysis Used: One-way analysis of variance was used, followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Results: Primers OPA-O7 and OPA-O8 showed 100% polymorphism. Total polyphenolics and flavonoids concentrations varied greatly (14.58 in Tommy atkins to 29.54 in Fagrklan g gallic acid equivalent/100 g extract and 22.49 in Tommy atkins to 93.40 in Fagrklan g rutin equivalent/100 g extract, respectively). HPLC quantification revealed that Kent had relatively high mangiferin content (732.446 mg/kg), and caffeic acid was recorded in the tested cultivars (2266.66 in Keitt to 1106.94 mg/kg in Naaomy). Pylorus ligation model in rats was used to assess gastroprotective potential at a dose of 200 mg/kg using standard ranitidine. High percentage protection was observed in Kent (65.62%), whereas Keitt showed the lowest percentage protection (45.31%). No direct correlation could be deduced between concentration of detected metabolites and the gastroprotective effect, so this activity might be attributed to synergistic effect between all secondary metabolites. Conclusions: This study spots the light on the great variation among the tested extracts; in addition, it provides effective techniques that pave the way for complete discrimination of these mango cultivars.
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In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of leaf and flower extracts from Bombax ceiba p. 194
Nurarat Kriintong, Teeraporn Katisart
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_116_19  
Context: Bombax ceiba is belonging to the family Bombacaceae. Dried stamen of this plant is used as vegetable and food ingredients for people in the Northern part of Thailand. There are very few reports on the biological activities in this plant, especially the flower parts. Objectives: The present study aimed to demonstrate the phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of crude extracts from B. ceiba. Materials and Methods: The leaf and flower part of B. ceiba were extracted using different solvents including water, 50% ethanol, and 95% ethanol. The phytochemical constituents were determined using standard qualitative methods. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were analyzed by colorimetric methods. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothaizoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS) assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay were used to investigate the in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of the extracts. For in vitro antidiabetic activities, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory effects were tested. Results: Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, and cardiac glycosides in this plant. The highest TPC and TFC were found in 95% ethanol flower extract (2.73 ± 0.064 mg gallic acid equivalent/g and 28.25 ± 2.33 mg quercetin equivalent/g, respectively.). However, the highest antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS + assay) was found in 95% ethanol leaf extract (0.012 ± 0.0003, 0.009 ± 0.0005 mg/mL, respectively.) and FRAP assay was found in 95% ethanol flower extract (349.27 ± 35.16 mg trolox equivalent/g). The highest α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities were found in 95% ethanol flower extract (0.001 ± 0.0012 and 0.0002 ± 0.0001 mg/mL, respectively). Conclusion: The crude extracts from B. ceiba showed the potent in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities, especially the flower extracts. These findings confirm the ethnobotanical uses of B. ceiba as food and medicinal plants. Further studies on biological and pharmacological activities of this plant in the animal model and clinical trials must be carried out to confirm the use in medical aspects.
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Antidepressant-like effects of barley (Hordeum vulgare) in a mouse model of reserpine-induced depression p. 199
Hamad Rashdan Ali Al-Harbi, Sameer Al Harthi, Mansour Suliman, Omar Saadah, Ahmed Esmat, Lateef M Khan, Shahid Karim
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_105_19  
Background: Depression is a mental disorder characterized by low mood and loss of pleasure or interest in usual activities and often results in cognitive dysfunction such as impairment of learning and memory. For most of the synthetic antidepressants, severe defects such as narrow spectrum, adverse reactions, high drug price, and easy recurrence exist. Barley is one of the richest sources of antioxidants; therefore, we examined whether barley has an effect on depression, learning, and memory in a mouse model of reserpine-induced depression. Methods: Mice were individually acclimated for 1 week and then treated with barley (200 mg/kg, p. o.) or/and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i. p.) for 4 weeks prior to reserpine treatment. Mice were then injected with a single dose of reserpine (2 mg/kg, i. p.) or vehicle (20 mg/kg, i. p.) and assessed for mouse behaviors 1 h prior to tests. Mouse behavior was examined in the forced swimming test, tail suspension test, hole-board test, novel place/object recognition, social interaction test, spontaneous locomotor movement (SLMA), and stereotype movement following completion of the treatment protocol. Results: There was a significant antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test among the barley group than in the reserpine-treated group, and these decreases were significantly attenuated to a similar extent by treatment with fluoxetine. The effect of barley on the mean duration of immobility time was significantly attenuated in comparison with the reserpine group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of head pokes was significantly increased in the barley group in comparison with the reserpine or fluoxetine group. The mean duration of immobility time in the tail suspension test was significantly reduced in mice in the barley group in comparison with the reserpine group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the social behavior test indicated that mice treated with fluoxetine have a significant increase in the distance covered by the mice toward familiar ones compared to the barley group, whereas the distance measured to the stranger mice was significantly increased among those who received fluoxetine with barley in comparison with the barley group alone. Finally, novel object recognition test, spontaneous locomotor movements (SLMA), and the stereotype movements showed that barley significantly decreased time spent on exploring the novel objects as well as in stereotype movements in comparison with the reserpine group. Conclusion: We conclude that barley can ameliorate depressive-like effects. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that barley may be effective in treating patients with depression.
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ERRATUM Top

Erratum: phytochemical screening and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of ethanol extract of scambiosa columbabria L. p. 205

DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.284429  
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