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April-June 2017
Volume 9 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 121-220

Online since Tuesday, April 18, 2017

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REVIEW ARTICLE  

Honey and health: A review of recent clinical research Highly accessed article p. 121
Saeed Samarghandian, Tahereh Farkhondeh, Fariborz Samini
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.204647  
Honey is one of the most appreciated and valued natural products introduced to humankind since ancient times. Honey is used not only as a nutritional product but also in health described in traditional medicine and as an alternative treatment for clinical conditions ranging from wound healing to cancer treatment. The aim of this review is to emphasize the ability of honey and its multitude in medicinal aspects. Traditionally, honey is used in the treatment of eye diseases, bronchial asthma, throat infections, tuberculosis, thirst, hiccups, fatigue, dizziness, hepatitis, constipation, worm infestation, piles, eczema, healing of ulcers, and wounds and used as a nutritious supplement. The ingredients of honey have been reported to exert antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anticancer, and antimetastatic effects. Many evidences suggest the use of honey in the control and treatment of wounds, diabetes mellitus, cancer, asthma, and also cardiovascular, neurological, and gastrointestinal diseases. Honey has a potential therapeutic role in the treatment of disease by phytochemical, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Flavonoids and polyphenols, which act as antioxidants, are two main bioactive molecules present in honey. According to modern scientific literature, honey may be useful and has protective effects for the treatment of various disease conditions such as diabetes mellitus, respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and nervous systems, even it is useful in cancer treatment because many types of antioxidant are present in honey. In conclusion, honey could be considered as a natural therapeutic agent for various medicinal purposes. Sufficient evidence exists recommending the use of honey in the management of disease conditions. Based on these facts, the use of honey in clinical wards is highly recommended.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Pharmacognostic specification, chlorogenic acid content, and In vitro antioxidant activities of Lonicera japonica flowering bud p. 128
Chayanon Chaowuttikul, Chanida Palanuvej, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_117_16  
Background: Lonicera japonica Thunb. or Japanese Honeysuckle has been widely used in traditional medicine for antipyretic. Objective: To establish the pharmacognostic specification of L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand and to determine its chlorogenic acid content and in vitro antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Dried L. japonica flowering bud from 15 various herbal drugstores throughout Thailand were investigated for pharmacognostic specification. Their chlorogenic acid contents were quantitatively analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) densitometry with winCATS software. The mobile phase for TLC development consisted of ethyl acetate: formic acid: acetic acid: water (10:1.1:1.1:2.6). Antioxidant activities were investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay, nitric oxide scavenging assay, and β-carotene bleaching assays. Results: Qualified L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand was presented that the contents of loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and water should not be >10.11%, 6.59%, 1.14%, and 10.82% by weight, respectively. The ethanol and water soluble extractive values should not be <16.46% and 28.88% by weight, respectively. Chlorogenic acid content in L. japonica flowering bud was found to be 2.24 ± 0.50 g/100 g of crude drug. L. japonica flowering bud showed DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging activities as well as reducing power property. Conclusion: This pharmacognostic specification with special reference to the chlorogenic acid content can be used for quality control of L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand. The potential antioxidant of this crude drug was demonstrated in vitro.
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Antiprotozoal activities of tiliroside and other compounds from Sphaeralcea angustifolia (Cav.) G. don p. 133
Fernando Calzada, Jose Correa Basurto, Elizabeth Barbosa, Claudia Velázquez, Normand García Hernández, RM Ordoñez Razo, David Mendez Luna, Lilian Yepez Mulia
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.204644  
Background: Sphaeralcea angustifolia (Malvaceae) is extensively used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and dysentery. Objective: The current study was to validate the traditional use of S. angustifolia for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery on biological grounds using in vitro antiprotozoal activity and computational experiments. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extract, subsequent fractions, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and a sterol were evaluated on Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia trophozoites. Moreover, molecular docking studies on tiliroside were performed; it was tested for its affinity against pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (G/FBPA), two glycolytic enzymes of anaerobic protozoa. Results: Bioassay-guided fractionation of extract of the aerial parts of S. angustifolia gives tiliroside and apigenin, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, and β-sitosterol. The in vitro antiprotozoal assay showed that tiliroside was the most potent antiprotozoal compound on both protozoa with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 17.5 μg/mL for E. histolytica and 17.4 μg/mL for G. lamblia. Molecular docking studies using tiliroside showed its probable antiprotozoal mechanism with PFOR and G/FBPA. In both cases, tiliroside showed high affinity and inhibition constant theoretic for PFOR (lowest free binding energy from −9.92 kcal/mol and 53.57 μM, respectively) and G/FBPA (free binding energy from −7.17 kcal/mol and 55.5 μM, respectively), like to metronidazole, revealing its potential binding mode at molecular level. Conclusion: The results suggest that tiliroside seems to be a potential antiprotozoal compound responsible for antiamoebic and antigiardial activities of S. angustifolia. Its in vitro antiprotozoal activities are in good agreement with the traditional medicinal use of S. angustifolia in gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and dysentery.
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Preclinical toxicological evaluation of IDM01: The botanical composition of 4-Hydroxyisoleucine- and trigonelline-based standardized fenugreek seed extract p. 138
Pallavi O Deshpande, Vishwaraman Mohan, Prasad Arvind Thakurdesai
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.204649  
Objective: To evaluate acute oral toxicity (AOT), subchronic (90-day repeated dose) toxicity, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity potential of IDM01, the botanical composition of 4-hydroxyisoleucine- and trigonelline-based standardized fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L) seed extract in laboratory rats. Materials and Methods: The AOT and subchronic (90-day repeated dose) toxicity were evaluated using Sprague-Dawley rats as per the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines No. 423 and No. 408, respectively. During the subchronic study, the effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weights with hematology, clinical biochemistry, and histology were studied. The mutagenicity and genotoxicity of IDM01 were evaluated by reverse mutation assay (Ames test, OECD guideline No. 471) and chromosome aberration test (OECD guideline No. 473), respectively. Results: The IDM01 did not show mortality or treatment-related adverse signs during acute (limit dose of 2000 mg/kg) and subchronic (90-day repeated dose of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg with 28 days of recovery period) administration. The IDM01 showed oral median lethal dose (LD50) >2000 mg/kg during AOT study. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of IDM01 was 500 mg/kg. IDM01 did not show mutagenicity up to a concentration of 5000 μg/plate during Ames test and did not induce structural chromosomal aberrations up to 50 mg/culture. Conclusions: IDM01 was found safe during preclinical acute and subchronic (90-day repeated dose) toxicity in rats without mutagenicity or genotoxicity.
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The mealiness and quality of herbal medicine: Licorice for example p. 151
Xueying Liu, Weilong Hou, Deqiang Dou
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.204642  
Background: The morphological identification is an effective and simple quality evaluation method in Chinese drugs, and the traits of mealiness and color were widely used in the commercial market of Chinese drugs. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the correlation between mealiness of herbal drugs and its quality; licorice was selected as an example. Materials and Methods: The mealiness of licorice was graded by its weight; meanwhile, the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection method; the content of polysaccharides, soluble sugars, pectin, total starch, amylose, and amylopectin was measured by colorimetric method; and the number and diameter of starch granule were observed by microscope. Results: The results showed that the mealiness of licorice which collected from wild and cultivated plants is positively correlated with the content of glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, the ratio of amylose to total starch, and the number of starch granules whose diameter was over 5 μm. However, the mealiness is negatively correlated with the total starch. Further, the formation mechanism of starch granule was discussed. Conclusion: It is for the first time to report the positive correlation between the mealiness and the starch granule size, the ratio of amylose to total starch, which can provide rationality for the quality evaluation using the character of mealiness in herbal medicine. It is a convenient method to justify the quality of herbal medicine. To explore the correlation between mealiness of herbal drugs and its quality, licorice was selected as an example. The result indicated that the effective constituent is correlated with mealiness of licorice.
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Effects of Ligusticum porteri (Osha) root extract on human promyelocytic leukemia cells p. 156
Khanh Nguyen, Jean Sparks, Felix Omoruyi
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.204641  
Background: Ligusticum porteri roots have been traditionally used in folk medicine, but the scientific basis is unclear. Objective: To investigate the cytotoxicity, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of L. porteri root extract on human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells and H2O2-induced oxidative damaged HL-60 cells. Materials and Methods: HL-60 cells were incubated with different concentrations of root extract, and cells were harvested for viability assays on day 3 and 7. Cytokine levels (interferon-gamma [IFN-γ], interleukin-2 [IL-2], and interleukin-10 [IL-10]) and antioxidant indexes (malondialdehyde [MDA], reduced glutathione [GSH], superoxide dismutase [SOD], and catalase [CAT]) in H2O2-induced-stressed HL-60 were measured after 2 days. Results: The viability of HL-60 challenged with H2O2declined by 42% compared to unstressed cells. After 7 days of incubation with 200 or 400 μg/mL L. porteri, the viability of HL-60 cells was two-fold higher than the control. Stressed HL-60 cells treated with 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL L. porteri reduced the lipid peroxidation by 12%–13%. We noted an increase in GSH levels, SOD and CAT activities in stressed HL-60 supplemented with 400 μg/mL root extract. Treatment with 400 μg/mL L. porteri significantly (P < 0.05) increased IFN-γ and IL-2 in H2O2-challenged cells. Conclusion: Our data do not support the use of the extract as an antiproliferation and differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia. The protective function of L. porteri root extract against oxidative stress could occur through increasing GSH and higher expression of antioxidant enzymes.
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Evaluation of antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiatherogenic property of lycopene and astaxanthin in atherosclerosis-induced rats p. 161
Rajesh Kumar, Kartik Janardan Salwe, Manimekalai Kumarappan
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.204654  
Background: Atherosclerosis is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Antioxidants play a major role in prophylaxis and prevention of progression and complications of atherosclerosis. Objective: In this study, we are evaluating the antiatherosclerotic effect of two antioxidants such as astaxanthin and lycopene. Materials and Methods: After acclimatization, 24 male SD rats, 8–10 weeks old, 150 ± 10 g, maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines were divided into four groups of six rats each. Baseline values of weight lipid profile and 2-Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay were taken. All the rats were fed with high cholesterol diet (HCD). HCD only, HCD + atorvastatin (50 mg/kg), HCD + lycopene (50 mg/kg), and HCD + astaxanthin (50 mg/kg) were given to control, standard, lycopene, and astaxanthin groups, respectively, through oral gavage for 45 days. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the study, blood sample collected from aorta, and then aorta was dissected for histopathology. Results: The lipid profile showed lycopene and astaxanthin decreased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very LDL-C, and triglycerides and increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control but less than atorvastatin. The TBARS value of lycopene was significantly lower compared to HCD and atorvastatin groups, whereas astaxanthin was significantly less than HCD group only. The histopathology showed only Type I lesions, no naked fatty streaks, few foam cells in lycopene, and astaxanthin groups compared to control where we observed Type II and III lesions, visible fatty streaks and many foam cells with intimal thickening in HCD group. Conclusion: In this study, lycopene and astaxanthin showed antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, and antiatherosclerotic property. This warrants further study for including them in the treatment of atherosclerosis.
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Potential roles of Kleinhovia hospita L. leaf extract in reducing doxorubicin acute hepatic, cardiac and renal toxicities in rats p. 168
Yulia Yusrini Djabir, M Aryadi Arsyad, Sartini Sartini, Subehan Lallo
DOI:10.4103/pr.pr_129_16  
Background: Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapy agent; however, its use may lead to cardiac, hepatic, and renal dysfunction. Kleinhovia hospita L extract contains antioxidant compounds that have been shown to reduce chemical-induced hepatotoxicity. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the protective effects of Kleinhovia sp. extract to reduce DOX acute toxicities. Materials and Methods: Thirty male rats were assigned to the following groups: Group I as controls, Group II was given DOX i.p. injection (25 mg/kg); Groups III, IV, and V were treated with Kleinhovia sp. extract 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg orally for 5 days, respectively, prior to DOX i.p. injection. After 24 h, blood and organs were analyzed for biomarker levels and histopathological changes. Results: DOX treatment in Group II significantly increased creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and urea levels compared to controls. Kleinhovia sp. extract at any given dose significantly improved ALT and AST; yet, CK-MB levels only reduced with 250 mg/kg dose (Group IV). Urea and creatinine levels in Kleinhovia sp. groups were also lower compared to DOX-treated rats, but it was not significant. Histopathological analysis showed improved liver, heart, and renal tissue structures in Kleinhovia sp-treated rats, especially at higher doses. Conclusion: Kleinhovia sp. extract at any dose given protected the rats from liver toxicity, but only at dose 250 mg/kg reduced cardiac toxicity. Although renal biomarkers were insignificantly lower, renal architecture was improved with Kleinhovia sp. treatment.
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Neutralization of inflammation by inhibiting In vitro and In vivo secretory phospholipase A2by ethanol extract of Boerhaavia diffusa L. p. 174
Aladahalli S Giresha, Siddanakoppalu N Pramod, AD Sathisha, KK Dharmappa
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.204650  
Background:Inflammation is a normal and necessary prerequisite to healing of the injured tissues. Inflammation contributes to all disease process including immunity, vascular pathology, trauma, sepsis, chemical, and metabolic injuries. The secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is a key enzyme in the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and asthma. The sPLA2also contribute to neuroinflammatory disorders such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Crohn's disease. Aims: The present study aims to investigate the inhibition of human sPLA2by a popular medicinal herb Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. as a function of anti-inflammatory activity. Materials and Methods: The aqueous and different organic solvents extracts of B. diffusa were prepared and evaluated for human synovial fluid, human pleural fluid, as well as Vipera russelli and Naja naja venom sPLA2 enzyme inhibition. Results: Among the extracts, the ethanol extract of B. diffusa (EEBD) showed the highest sPLA2inhibition and IC50values ranging from 17.8 to 27.5 μg. Further, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation activities of B. diffusa extract were checked using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, thiobarbituric acid, and rat liver homogenate. The antioxidant activity of EEBD was more or less directly proportional to in vitro sPLA2inhibition. Eventually, the extract was subjected to neutralize sPLA2-induced mouse paw edema and indirect hemolytic activity. The EEBD showed similar potency in both the cases. Conclusions: The findings suggest that the bioactive molecule/s from the EEBD is/are potentially responsible for the observed in vitro and in vivo sPLA2inhibition and antioxidant activity.
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Hepatoprotective, antihyperlipidemic, and anti-inflammatory activity of Moringa oleifera in diabetic-induced damage in male wistar rats p. 182
Elizabeth I Omodanisi, Yapo G Aboua, Novel N Chegou, Oluwafemi O Oguntibeju
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.204651  
Background: The number of individuals with diabetes is increasing daily, and diabetes is presently estimated to affect about 422 million adults worldwide. Conventional drugs used to treat diabetes are not without severe side effects, accessibility, and affordability. This study elucidates the potential effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves extract to manage and treat diabetes induced in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 12/group): NC – nondiabetic rats (positive control), MO – nondiabetic-treated rats, DM – diabetic rats (negative control), DM + MO – diabetic-treated rats. Hepatic enzymes and biochemical parameters as well as antioxidant capacity and inflammatory cytokine levels were assessed. Levels of low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol were evaluated. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of MO (250 mg/kg) to diabetic rats for 42 days showed a significant reduction in hepatic enzyme markers and normalized lipid profile parameters in the serum compared to normal control group. Treatment also increased the level of antioxidant capacity and alleviated inflammatory biomarkers of the liver. Histology sections of the liver tissue showed protective effect of MO in treated rats. Conclusions: MO showed hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and lipid-lowering effects against streptozotocin-induced hepatotoxicity. Histological section demonstrated specific alterations in the liver of the diabetic and nondiabetic male Wistar rats while MO treatment revealed improvement in liver alterations.
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Biological effects of hesperetin on Interleukin-6/phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway signaling in prostate cancer PC3 cells p. 188
Moein Shirzad, Esfandiar Heidarian, Pezhman Beshkar, Mostafa Gholami-Arjenaki
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.204655  
Background: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional glycoprotein that regulates the growth of some tumors, including prostate carcinomas due to signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), and AKT signaling pathways. Hesperetin, as a flavanone, has several biological properties such as antitumor and anti-inflammatory. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the biological effects of hesperetin on the IL-6 gene expression and phosphorylated STAT3, AKT, and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in PC3 prostate cancer (PC) cells. Materials and Methods: In this study, we used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and ELISA to evaluate IL-6 gene expression and IL-6 protein secretion, respectively, in the treated PC3 cells with 0, 400, 450, and 500 μM of hesperetin. Cell survival studies were done by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay after 48 h treatment with hesperetin, and cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. The protein levels of activated signaling molecules (pSTAT3, pAKT, and pERK1/2) analyzed by immunoprecipitation technique. Results: Hesperetin-treated PC3 cells resulted in reduction of cell viability. Hesperetin led to the elevation of phosphorylated STAT3, ERK1/2, and AKT signaling proteins after 48 h in a dose-dependent manner as compared to the control cells. IL-6 gene expression, as well as protein level, significantly increased (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent pattern in treated PC3 with hesperetin compared to the control cells. Further, hesperetin exposure resulted in the induction of cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Conclusion: Hesperetin in PC3 cells led to elevation IL-6 gene expression, IL-6 protein secretion, pSTAT3, pERK1/2 and pAKT intracellular signaling proteins. Our results indicate that hesperetin treatment leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase. Hesperetin can be considered a potent agent which synchronizes and stops cell cycle at G0/G1 phase to apply suitable chemotherapeutic agents and radiotherapy in PC cells.
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Effect of Tamarindus indica L. and Manihot esculenta extracts on antibiotic-resistant bacteria p. 195
Zenon Machado Lima, Lenilson Santos da Trindade, Genelane Cruz Santana, Francine Ferreira Padilha, Marcelo da Costa Mendonça, Luiz Pereira da Costa, Jorge A López, Maria Lucila Hernández Macedo
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.204648  
Background: The chemical composition of plants used in traditional medicine exhibits biologically active compounds, such as tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids and becomes a promising approach to treat microbial infections, mainly with drug-resistant bacteria. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hydroethanolic leaf extracts of Tamarindus indica (tamarind) and Manihot esculenta (cassava) as antimicrobial potential against Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolated and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Materials and Methods: Hydroethanolic leaf extracts were prepared and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection, Fourier transform infrared, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, and ultraviolet-visible methods. The antimicrobial activity against four strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the microdilution method at minimum inhibitory concentrations. Results: Phenolic compounds such as flavonoids were detected in the plant extracts. T. indica extract at 500 μg/mL showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa; however, M. esculenta showed only activity against P. aeruginosa in this concentration. Conclusions: Our results suggested that polyphenols and flavonoids present in T. indica leaf extracts are a potential source of antimicrobial compound. The T. indica extract showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa while M. esculenta had effect only on P. aeruginosa meropenem resistant.
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Protective effect of sorrel extract on adult rats treated by carbon tetrachloride p. 200
Abdullah Glil Alkushi
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.204653  
Context: Heart, kidneys, and liver are the vital organs present in vertebrates and some other animals. They have a wide range of functions, such as maintaining homeostasis, detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemical, that are necessary for digestion and maintaining circulation. These organs are necessary for the survival, and currently, there are no means to compensate for the absence of their functionalities in a long term. The damage of liver can affect other vital organs, including kidneys and heart. Aims: This study aimed at investigating the effect of sorrel extract in the treatment of some of the diseases of liver, kidneys, and heart using experimental animals. Settings and Design: This study is a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Forty mature male albino rats, weighing 150–160 g, were used and divided into four equal groups. One group was kept as negative control (C −ve) group whereas the other three groups were injected subcutaneously (s/c) with carbon tetrachloride in 50% V/V paraffin oil (2 ml/kg b.wt.). Tissue specimens were obtained from all the groups and fixed in 10% formalin for histopathological examination. Statistical Analysis Used: The obtained data were statistically analyzed using computerized Superior Performing Statistical Software (SPSS) at SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA. Effects of different treatments were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance test using Duncan's multiple range test, and P < 0.05 was also used to indicate the significance level between different groups (Snedecor and Cochran, 1967). Results: The resulting data showed that the sorrel extract demonstrated a significant enhancement in liver intoxication and all other tested parameters. In addition, it also helped in minimizing the structural tissue damages in the vital organs. Conclusions: According to these results, sorrel can impair the liver function and maintain the functions of the vital organs.
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Botanical and chemical fingerprinting of medicinal roots of Justicia gendarussa burm f. p. 208
Deepa Yadav, Mohd Salim Reshi, Chhavi Uthra, Sadhana Shrivastava, Nalini Srivastava, Sunil Kumar Koppala Narayana, Sangeeta Shukla
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.204643  
Background: Justicia gendarussa Burm f. of family Acanthaceae is medicinally important herb used in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, asthma, hepatic injuries, pathogenic infection and also shows antiproliferative activity against various cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostical evaluation (macro-microscopy, physicochemical analysis and preliminary phytochemical analysis), high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting and chemical profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) of dried roots of J. gendarussa were done according to quality standard procedures. Results: Microscopic analysis revealed the compact arrangement of cells in cork region and thin-walled cortex beneath epidermis. Parenchymatous cells with xylem vessel were observed in the roots of J. gendarussa. Physicochemical studies revealed loss on drying (10.474%), total ash (2.990%), acid-insoluble ash (0.099%), water-soluble ash (1.528%), alcohol-soluble extractive value (0.564%) and water-soluble extractive value (4.11%) of the raw drug. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of J. gendarussa showed the presence of alkaloid, steroid, flavonoid, phenol, carbohydrate, saponin and quinone. Rf, color of the spots and densitometric scan were recorded by HPTLC fingerprinting using toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid (5.0:4.0:1.0). On photodocumentation, six spots were visualized under 254 nm, nine spots under 360 nm and six spots at 620 nm. Identification of components in ethanolic extract of J. gendarussa was done by GC-MS. GC-MS results in the presence of oleic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, 6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid and estra-1, 3,5 (10)-trein-17-β-ol in ethanolic extract of J. gendarussa. Conclusion: These specific identities will be useful in identification and authentication of the raw drug in dried form.
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SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

Rapid development and validation of improved reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for the quantification of mangiferin, a polyphenol xanthone glycoside in Mangifera indica p. 215
P Naveen, HB Lingaraju, K Shyam Prasad
DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.204652  
Mangiferin, a polyphenolic xanthone glycoside from Mangifera indica, is used as traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. The present study was aimed to develop and validate a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the quantification of mangiferin from the bark extract of M. indica. RP-HPLC analysis was performed by isocratic elution with a low-pressure gradient using 0.1% formic acid: acetonitrile (87:13) as a mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. The separation was done at 26°C using a Kinetex XB-C18 column as stationary phase and the detection wavelength at 256 nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and robustness by the International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines. In linearity, the excellent correlation coefficient more than 0.999 indicated good fitting of the curve and also good linearity. The intra- and inter-day precision showed <1% of relative standard deviation of peak area indicated high reliability and reproducibility of the method. The recovery values at three different levels (50%, 100%, and 150%) of spiked samples were found to be 100.47, 100.89, and 100.99, respectively, and low standard deviation value <1% shows high accuracy of the method. In robustness, the results remain unaffected by small variation in the analytical parameters, which shows the robustness of the method. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of mangiferin with M/Z value of 421. The assay developed by HPLC method is a simple, rapid, and reliable for the determination of mangiferin from M. indica.
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ERRATUM Top

Erratum: Bioactivity of diterpens from the ethyl acetate extract of kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams p. 220

DOI:10.4103/0974-8490.204656  
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