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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 333-338

Pharmacognostic evaluation of Carapa guianensis Aubl. leaves: A medicinal plant native from Brazilian Amazon


1 Biological and Health Sciences Center, Program in Health Sciences, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, MA, Brazil
2 Biological and Health Sciences Center, Program in Biotechnology, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, MA, Brazil
3 Department of Pharmacy, Biological and Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, MA, Brazil
4 Biological and Health Sciences Center, Program in Health Sciences; Department of Pharmacy, Biological and Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, MA, Brazil
5 Biological and Health Sciences Center, Program in Health Sciences; Biological and Health Sciences Center, Program in Biotechnology; Department of Pharmacy, Biological and Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, MA, Brazil

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Tássio Rômulo Silva Araújo Luz
Av. Dos Portugueses, 1966, Vila Bacanga, Federal University of Maranhão, Laboratory of Pharmacognosy II, São Luís, MA, 65080-805
Brazil
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_41_19

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Background: Carapa guianensis Aubl., known as crabwood, has been used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and for the treatment of flu and colds. Objective: The present study aimed to establish the pharmacognostic features of C. guianensis leaves. Materials and Methods: The leaves were investigated according to the World Health Organization guideline on the pharmacognostic specification, which comprised macroscopic and microscopic assessment, phytochemical screening, and physicochemical characterization of the leaves, besides the microscopic analysis of the powder. Results: Leaves were characterized as a compound, coriaceous with elliptic shape, entire margin, acuminate apex, obtuse base, and opposite phyllotaxis. The epidermis has straight periclinal and anticlinal walls. Calcium oxalate crystals were observed in druses, anomocytic stomata just on a lower side (hypostomatic), and dorsiventral mesophyll. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, triterpenes, and steroids in the crude extract. The values of the physicochemical parameters such as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and loss on drying are 7.16%, 1.03% and 7.93%, respectively; the ethanol and water-soluble extractive values are 19.47% and 15.97%, respectively. Conclusions: The information obtained with botanical, physicochemical, and phytochemical studies could be used to identify C. guianensis and to certify the authenticity of commercial samples.


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