Home | About PR | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |   Login 
Pharmacognosy Magazine
Search Article 
  
Advanced search 
 


 
 Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 47-50  

Phytochemistry in medicinal species of Solanum L. (Solanaceae)


Department of General Biology, Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Campus Professor Darcy Ribeiro, Montes Claros, MG 39401-089, Brazil

Date of Web Publication20-Feb-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vanessa de Andrade Royo
Department of General Biology, Laboratory of Natural Products, State University of Montes Claros, Avenida Dr. Ruy Braga, S/N - Vila Mauriceia, 39401-089, Montes Claros - MG
Brazil
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_148_18

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 


Background: The genus Solanum L. is the largest of the family Solanaceae; it has used in food, ornamentation, and medicinal. Objective: This work had as objective to perform the phytochemical screening secondary metabolites: saponins, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and anthraquinones by means of colorimetric and precipitation analyzes of root bark, stem, leaf, and epicarp of the following species of Solanum genus: Solanum agrarium, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum palinacanthum, Solanum paniculatum, and Solanum stipulaceum. The species are found in areas of the Cerrado Biome of Northern Minas Gerais state for initial evaluation of the possibility of cultivation for medicinal use. Materials and Methods: The following qualitative tests were performed: Liebermann–Burchard reaction for steroids/triterpenoids; foam persistence test for saponins; Bertrand and Dragendorff reagents for alkaloids; reactions with lead neutral acetate at 10% and ferric chloride at 2% for tannins; reactions with ferric chloride at 2% and Shinoda reaction for flavonoids; reaction of Bornträeger and reaction with sodium hydroxide at 0.5% for anthraquinones. Results: Plants of the Solanum L. genus, occurring in Cerrado areas in the city of Montes Claros, have considerable amounts of secondary metabolites, varying between the different species and in different structures analyzed. Conclusion: It is important to continue the study evaluating whether in species from planting occurs production of the secondary metabolites identified in wild plants.
Abbreviations Used: FAPEMIG: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais, CNPq: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, BHCB: Herbarium of the Department of Botany, from Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais.

Keywords: Solanum agrarium, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum palinacanthum, Solanum paniculatum, Solanum stipulaceum


How to cite this article:
Matias Ld, Rocha JA, Royo Vd, Menezes EV, Júnior AF, de Oliveira DA. Phytochemistry in medicinal species of Solanum L. (Solanaceae). Phcog Res 2019;11:47-50

How to cite this URL:
Matias Ld, Rocha JA, Royo Vd, Menezes EV, Júnior AF, de Oliveira DA. Phytochemistry in medicinal species of Solanum L. (Solanaceae). Phcog Res [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Aug 21];11:47-50. Available from: http://www.phcogres.com/text.asp?2019/11/1/47/252564





SUMMARY

  • The genus Solanum L. is the largest of the family Solanaceae; it has uses in food, ornamentation, and medicinal. Phytochemical screening allowed the identification of secondary metabolites such as saponins, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and anthraquinones. Plants of the Solanum L. genus, occurring in Cerrado areas of the city of Montes Claros, have considerable amounts of secondary metabolites, varying among the different species and in the different structures analyzed.



   Introduction Top


Solanaceae is a particularly interesting angiosperm family, has about 98 genera and 3000 species, and makes the members of this family having morphological and ecological characteristics diversified and cosmopolitan distribution, being that many of which are used in food, in ornamentation, and as a medicinal resource.[1],[2]

The genus Solanum L. is the largest of the Solanaceae family with approximately 1500 species, found in tropical and subtropical regions of the planet. In Brazil, they are found especially in the south and southeast region.[3],[4]

For the Solanum agrarium species, previous studies indicated antispasmodic activity of the ethanol extract of the aerial parts.[5] For the leaves of Solanum lycocarpum was identified antibacterial activity, by the presence of tannins,[6],[7] tthe antihelmintic action was attributed to the presence of steroidal alkaloids [8],[9] and trypanosomicidal action was attributed to the ethanol extracts fruits of Solanum lycocarpum and Solanum palinacanthum.[10]

Extracts from the leaves of Solanum paniculatum promote anticancer activity,[11] and the aqueous fraction of the ethanol stratum of Solanum stipulaceum stem has hypotensive activity.[12]

The cultivation of wild plants represents an artifice for the maintenance of biodiversity. To initiate this activity, on a larger scale, when it comes to a medicinal plant, it is fundamental to know its medicinal potential and which compounds are involved in its biological activities.[13],[14]

Based on an assumption, the qualitative phytochemical analysis is of great importance for the preliminary evaluation of plant species that do not yet have studies of the chemical profile. This technique allows to identify the presence of groups of secondary metabolites that may be of interest for the development of new drugs, to suggest which plant structure that the compounds of interest are found in greater quantity and could thus be candidates for the production of phytotherapeutic medicine, besides to indicate species with potential for use by the pharmaceutical industry and can be grown.[15],[16] Studies about the structure and histochemistry of these species have been described by Matias et al.[17]

This work aimed to identify the classes of secondary metabolites by phytochemical tests in species of the genus Solanum: S. agrarium, S. lycocarpum, S. palinacanthum, S. paniculatum, and S. stipulaceum, wild plants occurring in Cerrado areas, in the city of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil (16°52'15” S, 44°00'58”W). Exsicates were deposited in the BHCB Herbarium, of the Department of Botany, from Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil (Mercadante-Simões 10-14, registration number 116081 and 168587-168590 respectively, identified by LL Giacomin).


   Materials and Methods Top


Samples (root bark, stem, leaf, and pericarp) were collected from three individuals of each one of the species studied. The vegetable material was dried at room temperature and pulverized in TE-648 knife mill (Tecnal, Ourinhos, Brazil). The following tests qualitative were performed: Liebermann–Burchard reaction for steroids/triterpenoids; foam persistence test for saponins; Bertrand and Dragendorff reagents for alkaloids; reactions with lead neutral acetate at 10% and ferric chloride at 2% for tannins; reactions with ferric chloride at 2% and Shinoda reaction for flavonoids; reaction of Bornträeger and reaction with sodium hydroxide at 0.5% for anthraquinones; following protocols established by Mouco et al.[18] and Silva et al.[19] modified.


   Results and Discussion Top


Tannins are present in the root barks of all species in moderate amounts [Table 1]. This group of metabolites is related to activities such as antidiarrheal, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antioxidant, and hemostatic.[6],[20] In addition to acting regulating enzymes, stimulating the phagocytic cells involved in wound-healing processes.[21]
Table 1: Phytochemical profile in root bark of Solanum agrarium, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum palinacanthum, Solanum paniculatum, and Solanum stipulaceum

Click here to view


These compounds are also related to actions: antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral, which may be due to the ability of tannins to complex macromolecules, such as proteins and polysaccharides.[7]

Flavonoids were detected in the root bark of all species, except in S. agrarium. It can be verified also alkaloids in S. agrarium and S. palinacanthum, and this last one highlighted by the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids [Table 1]. The presence of these three groups of metabolites together is associated with the potential antibacterial activity of medicinal plants.[22]

The species S. agrarium and S. palinacanthum besides presenting alkaloids in the root bark also have them in the stem as can be observed in [Table 2]. There are reports of several activities for these compounds, such as antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antimalarial, anticancer, and analgesic properties. These activities are related to the presence of quinidine, quinine, vincristine, and vinblastine.[17] Some species of the Solanaceae family produce tropanic alkaloids of relevant pharmacological importance such as atropine (Atropa belladonna), scopolamine, and hyoscyamine (Hyoscyamus niger).[23]
Table 2: Phytochemical results in stem of Solanum agrarium, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum palinacanthum, Solanum paniculatum, and Solanum stipulaceum

Click here to view


Flavonoids were found in the stem of all species studied [Table 2], which are the most frequent class of phenolic compounds in species of the genus Solanum, being that the flavonoids most reported for these plants are kanferol, quercetin, and myricetin.[3]

The antioxidant capacity of these substances eliminates free radicals and thus exerts biological activities to prevent diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative; these activities are attributed mainly to flavonoid quercetin,[24] besides hepatoprotective properties, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral mainly related to the compounds: catechin, apigenin, quercetin, naringenin, rutin, hesperidin, and luteolin.[25]

Several of the studied metabolites were observed in the stem of S. paniculatum: alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and anthraquinones. Steroids/triterpenoids were found only in S. agrarium, S. paniculatum, and S. stipulaceum. These last two were the only ones that had saponins in the stems [Table 2].

In leaves of all species, it is possible to observe steroid/triterpenoid, alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids [Table 3]. It is also observed that only S. paniculatum and S. stipulaceum species have saponins.
Table 3: Phytochemical results on leaf of Solanum agrarium, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum palinacanthum, Solanum paniculatum, and Solanum stipulaceum

Click here to view


With the exception of the leaves of S. agrarium, all have anthraquinones, which are a group of substances for which have already been described biological activities: laxative, diuretic, immunostimulant, antifungal, antipsoriatic, antiviral, and antitumor related to the compounds chrysophanol and emodin.[26] In addition to antioxidant properties attributed mainly to the anthrone, alizarin and aloe-emodin substances,[27] and antibacterial.[28]

The leaves and pericarp of all species have moderate amounts of steroids/triterpenoids [Table 3] and [Table 4]; the biological activities reported for these compounds include anticancer, antimalarial, diuretic, and antimicrobial, which are related to the substances artemisinin and glycyrrhizin;[17] anti-inflammatory, analgesic,[16] antispasmodic, anticariogenic, antiviral, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective.[18],[29]
Table 4: Phytochemical results in pericarp of Solanum agrarium, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum palinacanthum, Solanum paniculatum, and Solanum stipulaceum

Click here to view


The pericarps of all species had moderate amounts of tannins and flavonoids. The anthraquinones group was observed in the epicarp of the species: S. lycocarpum, S. paniculatum, and S. stipulaceum [Table 4].

Tannins were found in leaves, root bark, and pericarp of all species. With the exception of the bark of S. agrarium roots, the samples of all the other species presented flavonoids. Saponins have been observed only in the species S. paniculatum and S. stipulaceum, which also have flavonoids [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], there are reports that the use of plant extracts that contain saponins and flavonoids may induce peripheral analgesia.[30]

The group of the alkaloids was observed in the leaves of all the species, already in stem and bark of the root the only species that possess it are S. palinacanthum and S. agrarium; nevertheless, this last one was the only species in which it was not observed this group of metabolites in the pericarp. The S. agrarium species was the only one in which no saponins or anthraquinones were observed in all analyzed structures (root bark, stem, leaf, and pericarp) [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4].


   Conclusion Top


This work demonstrated that wild plants of the genus Solanum L., occurring in Cerrado areas in the city of Montes Claros, have considerable amounts of secondary metabolites, varying between the different species and in different structures analyzed, thus corroborating its medicinal use. In this way, we intend to continue the study evaluating whether in species from planting occurs production of the secondary metabolites identified in wild plants.

Acknowledgements

This work is grateful to the Postgraduate Program in Biotechnology of the University State of Montes Claros.

Financial support and sponsorship

This work was supported by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais– FAPEMIG and the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico – CNPq.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Knapp S, Bohs L, Nee M, Spooner DM. Solanaceae – A model for linking genomics with biodiversity. Comp Funct Genomics 2004;5:285-91.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Kumar VS, Murugan K. Taxonomic implications with special reference to stomatal variations in Solanum species using light and scanning electron microscope. Int J Appl Biol Pharm 2015;6:112-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Silva TM, Carvalho MG, Braz-Filho R, Agra MF. Occurrence of flavones, flavonols and its glycosides in species of the genus Solanum (Solanacea e). Quím Nova 2003;26:517-22.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Agra MF, Silva KN, Berger LR. Flora da paraíba, Brazil: Solanum L. (Solanaceae). Acta Bot Brasília 2009;23:826-42.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Correia AC, Ciberio L, Monteiro FS, Oliveira GA, Santos RF, Nascimento RJ, et al. Aerial parts of Solanum agrarium Sendtn. (Solanaceae ) present the flavonoid myricetin 3, 7, 3 trimethyl ether and antispasmodic effect on guinea-pig ileum by blockade of voltage-gated calcium channels. J Med Plant Res 2013;7:2293-9.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Fernandes Júnior A, Silva GS, Barbosa LN, Alves FC, Andrade BF, Albano M, et al. Medicinal plants from the Brazilian savanna with antibacterial properties. Eur J Med Plants 2014;4:1-13.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Gallon ME, Barros BS, Silva MA, Dias SH, Alves-da-Silva G. Determination of anatomical, physico-chemical and phytochemical parameters of leaves Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hill. Rev Bras Plantas Med 2015;17:937-44.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Cruz AP, Costa DP, Valente GS, Mattos DM, Alexandre DJ, Diré GF, et al. Anthelmintic effect of Solanum lycocarpum in mice infected with aspiculuris tetráptera. J Am Sci 2008;4:75-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Borba HR, Freire RB, Albuquerque AC, Cardoso ME, Braga IG, Almeida ST, et al. Anthelmintic comparative study of Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill extracts in mice naturally infected with Aspiculuris tetraptera. Nat Sci 2010;8:94-100.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Moreira RR, Martins GZ, Magalhães NO, Almeida AE, Pietro RC, Silva FA, et al. In vitro trypanocidal activity of solamargine and extracts from Solanum palinacanthum and Solanum lycocarpum of Brazilian Cerrado. An Acad Bras Cienc 2013;85:903-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Endringer DC, Valadares YM, Campana PR, Campos JJ, Guimarães KG, Pezzuto JM, et al. Evaluation of Brazilian plants on cancer chemoprevention targets in vitro. Phytother Res 2010;24:928-33.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Ribeiro EA, Batitucci MC, Lima JA, Araújo IA, Mauad H, Medeiros IA. Cardiovascular effects induced by the aqueous fraction of the ethanol extract of the stem of Solanum stipulaceumin rats. Rev Bras Farmacognosia 2002;12:34-5.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Lubbe A, Verpoorte R. Cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants for specialty industrial materials. Indian Crops Prod 2011;34:785-801.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Resende CF, Bianchetti RE, Oliveira MA, Braga VF, Peixoto PH. In vitro propagation and acclimatization of Lippia rotundifolia , na endemic species of Brazilian Campos Rupestres. Cien Agron 2015;46:582-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Simões CM, Schenkel EP, Gosmann G, Mello JC, Mentz LA, Petrovick PR. Farmacognosia: Da Planta ao Medicamento. 6th ed. Porto Alegre/Florianópolis: Editora da UFSC; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Wadood A, Ghufran M, Jamal SB, Naeem M, Khan A, Ghaffar R. Phytochemical analysis of medicinal plants occurring in local area of Mardan. Biochem Anal Biochem 2013;2:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Matias LJ, Mercadante-Simões MO, Royo VA, Ribeiro LM, Santos AC, Fonseca JM. Structure and histochemistry of medicinal species of Solanum. Rev Bras Farmacognosia 2016;26:147-60.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Mouco GB, Bernardino MJ, Cornélio ML. Quality control of herbs medicinal products. Biotecnol Sci Desenvolv 2003;31:68-73.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Silva MA, Marques GS, Santos TM, Xavier HS, Higino JS, Melo AF. Evaluation of the chemical composition of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf cultivated in with different levels of pollution and the influence on tea composition. Acta Sci Health Sci 2010;32:67-72.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Saxena M, Saxena J, Nema R, Singh D, Gupta A. Phytochemistry of medicinal plants. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2013;1:168-82.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Bessa NG, Borges JC, Beserra FP, Carvalho RH, Pereira MA, Fagundes R, et al. Preliminary phytochemical prospecting of native plants of the cerrado of popular use Medication by the rural community of the settlement vale verde – Tocantins. Rev Bras Plan Med 2013;15:692-707.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Kaur S, Mondal P. Study of total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial properties of medicinal plants. J Microbiol Exp 2014;1:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Martinez ST, Almeida MR, Pinto AC. Natural hallucinogens: A flight from Europe to Brazil. Quím Nova 2009;32:2501-7.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Perez-Vizcaino F, Duarte J, Santos-Buelga C. The flavonoid paradox: Conjugation and deconjugation as key steps for the biological activity of flavonoids. J Sci Food Agric 2012;92:1822-5.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Kumar S, Pandey AK. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: An overview. ScientificWorldJournal 2013;2013:162750.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Macedo SE, Alan E, Silava JG, Silva MG. Quimiodiversidade e propriedades biofarmacológicas de espécies de senna nativas do nordeste do Brasil. Rev Virtual Quím 2016;8:169-95.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Dave H, Ledwani L. A review on anthraquinones isolated from Cassia species and their applications. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 2012;3:291-319.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Nejatzadeh-Barandozi F. Antibacterial activities and antioxidant capacity of Aloe vera. Org Med Chem Lett 2013;3:5.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Braz Filho R. Contribuição da fitoquímica para o desenvolvimento de um país emergente. Quím Nova 2010;33:229-39.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Alvarenga FQ, Mota BC, Leite MN, Fonseca JM, Oliveira DA, Royo Vde A, et al. In vivo analgesic activity, toxicity and phytochemical screening of the hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of Psidium cattleianum sabine. J Ethnopharmacol 2013;150:280-4.  Back to cited text no. 30
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

Top
  
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
    Results and Disc...
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed495    
    Printed28    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded0    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal