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SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 202-205

Croton grewioides Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) shows antidiarrheal activity in mice


1 Postgraduate Program in Natural Products and Synthetic Bioactive, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58051-900, PB, Brazil
2 Institute of Biological Sciences and Health, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió 57020-720, AL, Brazil
3 Institute for Research on Drugs and Medicines, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58051-900, PB, Brazil
4 Department of Molecular Biology, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58051-900, PB, Brazil
5 Postgraduate Program in Natural Products and Synthetic Bioactive; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58051-900, PB, Brazil
6 Postgraduate Program in Natural Products and Synthetic Bioactive; Department of Physiology and Pathology, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58051-900, PB, Brazil

Correspondence Address:
Fabiana de Andrade Cavalcante
Postgraduate Program in Natural Products and Synthetic Bioactive, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58051-900, PB, Brazil. Department of Physiology and Pathology, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58051-900, PB
Brazil
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.181465

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Based on chemotaxonomy, we decided to investigate the possible antidiarrheal activity in mice of a crude ethanolic extract obtained from aerial parts of Croton grewioides (CG-EtOH). We tested for any possible toxicity in rat erythrocytes and acute toxicity in mice. Antidiarrheal activity was assessed by determining the effect of CG-EtOH on defecation frequency, liquid stool, intestinal motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females. CG-EtOH produced a significant and equipotent antidiarrheal activity, both in defecation frequency (ED50 = 106.0 ± 8.1 mg/kg) and liquid stools (ED50 = 105.0 ± 9.2 mg/kg). However, CG-EtOH (125 mg/kg) decreased intestinal motility by only 22.7% ±4.4%. Moreover, extract markedly inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal contents (ED50 = 34.6 ± 5.4 mg/kg). We thus conclude that CG-EtOH is not orally lethal and contains active principles with antidiarrheal activity, and this effect seems to involve mostly changes in intestinal secretion. SUMMARY
  • CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females.
  • CG-EtOH probably contains active metabolites with antidiarrheal activity.
  • CG-EtOH reduced the frequency and number of liquid stools.
  • Metabolites presents in the CG-EtOH act mainly by reducing intestinal fluid and, to a lesser extent, reducing intestinal motility.
Abbreviations Used: CG-EtOH: crude ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of C. grewioides; WHO: World Health Organization; ED50: dose of a drug that produces 50% of its maximum effect; Emax: maximum effect


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