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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 199-201

In vivo toxicity studies on gall extracts of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (combretaceae)


1 Department of Chemistry, School of Graduate Studies; Research Unit in Vrukshayurveda, A Division of Centre for Advanced Studies in Biosciences, Jain University, Chamrajpete, Bengaluru; Department of PG Studies and Research in Biotechnology, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Mysore, Karnataka, India
2 Department of PG Studies and Research in Biotechnology, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta, Mysore, Karnataka, India
3 Research Unit in Vrukshayurveda, A Division of Centre for Advanced Studies in Biosciences, Jain University, Chamrajpete, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Biochemistry, University of Mysore, Mysore, Karnataka, India
5 Toxinology/Toxicology and Drug Discovery Unit, Centre for Emerging Technologies, Jain University, Ramanagara, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Bhadrapura Lakkappa Dhananjaya
Jain University, Bengaluru, Karnataka
India
Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa
Jain University, Bengaluru, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.182914

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The galls of Terminala chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae) are used for the treatment of various diseases in folk medicine and has been found to posses anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-helmintic, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-aging activities. Considering the ethano-botanical and diverse pharmacological applications of galls of T. chebula, in this study, we investigate the possible toxic effects of different gall extracts of T. chebula by Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity assay. The cytotoxicity test of leaf gall extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and aqueous) of T. chebula was evaluated by Brine shrimp (A. salina) toxicity assay, which is based on the ability to kill laboratory cultured Artemia nauplii (animals eggs) and also total content of polyphenols, flavonoids with other qualitative phytochemical analysis of the extract were determined. It was observed that the petroleum ether extract was virtually nontoxic on the shrimps, and exhibited very low toxicity with LC50value of 4356.76 μg/ml. Furthermore, the chloroform extract exhibited very low toxicity, giving LC50value of 1462.2 μg/ml. On the other hand, the ethanol extract was very toxic to brine shrimps with LC50value of 68.64 μg/ml. The ethanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content of 136 ± 1.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g d.w and 113 ± 1.6 mg of quercetin equivalent/g d.w, respectively. The higher toxicity effect was positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids in the extract. This significant lethality of different extracts to brine shrimp is an indicative of the presence of potent cytotoxic components which warrants further investigation. SUMMARY
  • The present study investigates the toxicity effect of different extracts of galls of T. chebulla, which would serve as an index for formulation of drugs for treatment of various diseases. Presumably, these activities could be attributed in part to the polyphenolic features of the extract, as there was a strong correlation of higher toxic effect with that of high total phenolic and flavonoids content in the ethanolic leaf gall extracts of T. chebula.


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