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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 173-175  

Evaluation of efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion uterofix liquid in treatment of various reproductive disorders in Cows: A field study


1 Veterinary Officer, Veterinary Hospital, Dulehar, Dist. Una, Himachal Pradesh, India
2 Clinical Research Department-R&D, Ayurvet Limited, Baddi, Himachal Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication24-May-2016

Correspondence Address:
Adarsh Choudhary
Clinical Research and Development, Ayurvet Limited, Baddi, Himachal Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.181459

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   Abstract 


Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid in the treatment of various reproductive disorders in cows. Materials and Methods: Based on symptoms of endometritis, anestrous, metritis, and repeat breeders, 28 cows were selected to study the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid (M/S Ayurvet Limited) in uterine infections study. Group T0 (n = 8) cows served as control group, no treatment was given to this group, Group T1 (n = 5) repeat breeder cows, Group T2 (n = 5) endometritis effected cows, Group T3 (n = 5) anoestrus cows, and Group T4 (n = 5) metritis suffered cows were treated with Uterofix liquid (25 ml as intrauterine infusion once a day for 3–5 days). Total observational period was 60 days. Number of treatments needed, nature of discharge in first posttreatment estrus (physical examination), after treatment number of animal showing heat/estrus out of total treated, and posttreatment conception rate were used as criteria to judge the success or failure of treatment. Results: Results revealed that 18 out of 20 animals (90%) showed signs of heat with clear discharge, recovered completely without causing any irritation, or severe irritation/sloughing of genital mucous membrane after Uterofix liquid treatment. Conclusion: Herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid significantly treated the uterine infections in cows.
SUMMARY


  • Uterine infection is a major problem in reproductive management. A wide variety of genital tract diseases of female domestic animals are known to produce significant losses and responsible for poor fertility. Amongst these highly prevalent are metritis and repeat breeding in high-producing dairy cows which if remains untreated are associated with low conception rate per artificial insemination (AI), extended interval to pregnancy, increased culling, and economic losses. As herbal remedy the Uterofix liquid (Ayurvet Limited, India) was highly efficacious as an intrauterine infusion to treat different reproductive disorders.

Keywords: Anoestrus, endometritis, metritis, repeat breeder, Uterofix liquid


How to cite this article:
Verma S, Choudhary A, Maini S, Ravikanth K. Evaluation of efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion uterofix liquid in treatment of various reproductive disorders in Cows: A field study. Phcog Res 2016;8:173-5

How to cite this URL:
Verma S, Choudhary A, Maini S, Ravikanth K. Evaluation of efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion uterofix liquid in treatment of various reproductive disorders in Cows: A field study. Phcog Res [serial online] 2016 [cited 2020 Jan 20];8:173-5. Available from: http://www.phcogres.com/text.asp?2016/8/3/173/181459




   Introduction Top


The uterine environment promotes the normal embryonic development but cattle reproductive system is exposed to the external environment and thus highly prone to the uterine infection and reproductive disorders.[1] Sub-clinical, clinical and chronic metritis, endometritis, cervicitis, and vaginitis are frequently diagnosed disease conditions in dairy cows due to uterine infection.[2] The postpartum environment of the uterine lumen supports the growth of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria viz. Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Prevotella species. Uterine defense mechanisms help to eliminate these bacterial contaminants.[3] These pathogenic bacteria adhere to the mucosa, colonize, or penetrate the epithelium and/or release bacterial toxins that lead to the establishment of uterine disease.[4] Cows with uterine infection in the early postpartum period generally have lower conception rates at subsequent breeding. Uterine infections usually increase herd health costs, often reduce feed consumption, cause an appreciable reduction in milk production, and increase culling rate.[5] The reduced fertility in dairy herds is one of the most important factors affecting farm profitability. In order to treat and to quantify the severity of the disease, it is crucial to diagnose uterine problems as soon as possible to have a good subsequent fertility. According to Viegi et al.,[6] about 70% of the animals (cattle, horses, sheep, goats, and pigs) treated with herbal remedies, followed by poultry (9.1%), dogs (5.3%), and rabbits (4.3%). Herbs with anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and uterine stimulant properties can be utilized for treatment of uterine infection in animals.[7] The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion of Uterofix liquid in the treatment of these reproductive disorders in dairy cows.


   Materials and Methods Top


This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid in the treatment of various uterine infections. Total 28 cows with symptoms of endometritis, anestrous, metritis, and repeat breeders were selected for the study and were divided into respective groups. Group T0 (n = 8) cows served as control group, no treatment was given to this group, Group T1 (n = 5) cows were repeat breeder, Group T2 (n = 5) cows suffered from endometritis, Group T3 (n = 5) cows were suffered from anoestrus, and Group T4 cows (n = 5) suffered from metritis. All cows were treated with Uterofix liquid at the recommended dose of 25 ml as an intrauterine infusion once a day for 3–5 days or as required depending upon the severity of the disease condition. The treatment may be repeated after 21 days if there is no recovery (anestrous/endometritis persistence). Total observational period was 60 days. The success or failure of treatment was evaluated on the basis of following criteria viz., number of treatments needed, nature of discharge in first posttreatment estrus (physical examination), and after treatment number of animal showing heat/estrus out of total treated and posttreatment conception rate.


   Results Top


Each treated case was kept under observation for a maximum period of 23–60 days in order to record the observations on posttreatment estrus, conception rate, nature of discharge, and for bacteriological culture examination studies.

In untreated control Group T0, no animal was recovered from the various uterine infections in absence of Uterofix treatment. Whereas in Utero fix liquid (25 ml × 3 days) treated groups, the recovery rate from the uterine infections was remarkable.

The percentage of the recovered animals from repeat breeding, endometritis, anestrous, and puerperal metritis were 90% (18 out of 20 animals exhibited signs of heat) [Table 1]. Conception rate was 40% (2) in Group T1, 60% (3) in Group T2, 80% (4) in Group T3, and 60% (3) in Group T4 after Uterofix liquid treatment. Overall after artificial insemination (AI), 12 out of 20 animals successfully conceived [Table 1] indicating the efficacy of herbal intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid in the treatment of different reproductive disorders in cows by 60% for successful conception in animals in 1–2 AI.
Table 1: Clinical symptoms of different treatment groups

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Immediate observations upon infusion

To study the side effect of the therapy, immediate postinfusion observations were also made. No symptoms of indigestion or off feed or inappetence after treatment recorded in any of the treated cases. In none of the treated cases, any symptom of the bloat of tympany developed. In none of the treated cases, any irritation in mucous membrane of the uterine membrane was observed, since there were no symptoms in animal such as uneasiness. No other discomfort observed in the animal.


   Discussion Top


Repeat breeding can be a major factor involved in infertility. A “repeat breeder” defined as any cow that failed to conceive even after three or more number of services, has normal estrus cycle length.[8] Abnormal uterine environment may cause repeat breeding. According to Gani et al.,[9] from the bacterial isolates recovered from the uterus of the repeat breeders as well as from normal cyclic cows have a positive correlation (r = 0.94), which agreed with the relationship between uterine infection and repeat breeders. In current study, all animals with history repeat breeding showed signs of heat and successfully conceived after the 1st AI on herbal intrauterine Uterofix liquid infusion. This may be because of antibacterial property of Uterofix liquid constituent herbs viz. Plumbago zeylanica, Azadirachta indica, and Acacia catechu.[10],[11],[12] Endometritis is uterine lining inflammation that is commonly initiated at parturition.[13] Immunomodulators of the uterine defense mechanisms act as chemoattractants and increase the number of polymorphonuclear cells in the endometrium and help to resolve endometritis in cows.[14] On treatment of cows suffering from endometritis with herbal intrauterine liquid Uterofix, all animals exhibited signs of heat and successfully conceived after 1st or 2nd AI. The improvement was because of Uterofix liquid constituent herbs viz. Curcuma longa and Saraca indica, which possess immunomodulatory properties.[15],[16] Similarly, cows suffered from anestrous and metritis also gets recovered after intrauterine infusion of Uterofix liquid. Hence, it can be recommended that intrauterine infusion Uterofix liquid was useful for treating the animals with reproductive disorders in the field condition.


   Conclusion Top


As all 18 out of 20 animals (90%) recovered completely showed signs of heat with clear discharge, remained good state of health, production, and reproduction. This suggested that the product Uterofix liquid was highly efficacious as an intrauterine infusion to treat different reproductive disorders and was nonirritating, safe to genital tract.

Acknowledgment

The authors are thankful to Ayurvet Limited, Baddi, India, and Veterinary Hospital, Dulehar, Distt. Una, for providing the required facilities, guidance, and support.

Financial support and sponsorship

Ayurvet Limited, Baddi, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest

 
   References Top

1.
Azawi OI. Postpartum uterine infection in cattle. Anim Reprod Sci 2008;105:187-208.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Drillich M. An update on uterine infections in dairy cattle. Slov Vet Res 2006;43:11-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Sheldon IM, Williams EJ, Miller AN, Nash DM, Herath S. Uterine diseases in cattle after parturition. Vet J 2008;176:115-21.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Sheldon IM, Dobson H. Postpartum uterine health in cattle. Anim Reprod Sci 2004;82-83:295-306.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Garoussi MT, Sasani F, Hovareshti P. The histopathological survey of uterine tissue in holstein dairy cows with or without recorded reproductive disorders. IranJ Vet Sci Technol 2010;2:101-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Viegi L, Pieroni A, Guarrera PM, Vangelisti R. A review of plants used in folk veterinary medicine in Italy as basis for a databank. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;89:221-44.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Gilbert RO, Schwark WS. Pharmacologic considerations in the management of peripartum conditions in the cow. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1992;8:29-56.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Katagiri S, Moriyoshi M. Alteration of the endometrial EGF profile as a potential mechanism connecting the alterations in the ovarian steroid hormone profile to embryonic loss in repeat breeders and high-producing cows. J Reprod Dev 2013;59:415-20.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Gani MO, Amin MM, Alam MG, Kayesh ME, Karim MR, Samad MA, et al . Bacterial flora associated with repeat breeding and uterine infections in dairy cows. Banglad J Vet Med 2008;6:79-86.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Jeyachandran R, Mahesh A, Cindrella L, Sudhakar S, Pazhanichamy K. Anti-bacterial activity of plumbagin and root extracts of Plumbago zeylanica . Acta Biol Cracov Bot 2009;51:17-22.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Asif M. Antimicrobial potential of Azadirachta indica against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2012;1:78-83.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Lakshmi T, Ravishankar P, Anitha M. Anti-bacterial activity of Acacia catechu leaf and bark extract against E. faecalis. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2012;13:48-50.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Bretzlaff K. Rationale for treatment of endometritis in the dairy cow. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 1987;3:593-607.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Williamson P, Munyua S, Martin R, Penhale WJ. Dynamics of the acute uterine response to infection, endotoxin infusion and physical manipulation of the reproductive tract in the mare. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 1987;35:317-25.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Chandrasekaran CV, Sundarajan K, Edwin JR, Gururaja GM, Mundkinajeddu D, Agarwal A. Immune-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities of Curcuma longa extract and its polysaccharide fraction. Pharmacognosy Res 2013;5:71-9.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Ghosh S, Majumder M, Majumder S, Ganguly NK, Chatterjee BP. Saracin: A lectin from Saraca indica seed integument induces apoptosis in human T-lymphocytes. Arch Biochem Biophys 1999;371:163-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
    

 
   Authors Top


Adarsh Choudhary, Research Associate, Clinical Research Department-R&D, Ayurvet Limited, India.



 
 
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