Home | About PR | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |   Login 
Pharmacognosy Magazine
Search Article 
  
Advanced search 
 


 
 Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 123-127  

Evaluation of In Vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of Datura metelLinn. and Cynodon dactylon Linn. extracts


1 Department of Virology, Haffkine Institute for Training, Research and Testing, Parel, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, The Institute of Science, Fort, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication3-Feb-2016

Correspondence Address:
Soumen Roy
Department of Virology, Haffkine Institute for Training, Research and Testing, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.175610

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Aim:To evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity of Datura metel L. and Cynodon dactylon L. extracts. Materials and Methods: The extraction of plants parts (datura seed and fruit pulp) and areal parts of durva was carried out using soxhlet and cold extraction method using solvents namely methanol and distilled water. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) was determined by established methods. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed in vero cell line by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay method. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was performed by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. Results: We found that the highest amount of TPC and TFC in methanolic extracts of seed (268.6 μg of gallic acid equivalence/mg of dry plant material) and fruit pulp (8.84 μg of quercetin equivalence/mg dry plant material) of D. metel, respectively prepared by Soxhlet method. The methanolic extract of C. dactylon prepared using soxhlation has shown potent free radical scavenging activity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 100 μg/ml. The IC50of a methanolic cold extract of datura fruit was found to be 3 mg/ml against vero cell line. Conclusion: We observed that plant parts of C. dactylon and D. metel have a high antioxidant activity. Further research is needed to explore the therapeutic potential of these plant extracts.

Keywords: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, Antioxidant, Cytotoxicity, Total phenolic content, Total flavonoid content


How to cite this article:
Roy S, Pawar S, Chowdhary A. Evaluation of In Vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of Datura metelLinn. and Cynodon dactylon Linn. extracts. Phcog Res 2016;8:123-7

How to cite this URL:
Roy S, Pawar S, Chowdhary A. Evaluation of In Vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of Datura metelLinn. and Cynodon dactylon Linn. extracts. Phcog Res [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 Jun 20];8:123-7. Available from: http://www.phcogres.com/text.asp?2016/8/2/123/175610

Summary

  • In the present study we observed a positive correlation was between the phenolic and flavanoid content of the Datura metel and cynodon doctylon (durva) extracts with the free radical scavenging activities. Both were found to have a high antioxidant activity.


Abbreviations used: BHA: Butylated hydroxyanisole, BHT: Butylated hydroxytoluene, CC50: 50% cell cytotoxic concentration, CNS: Central nervous system, DPPH: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, IC50: 50% inhibitory concentration, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), TFC: Total flavonoid content, TPC: Total phenolic content.


   Introduction Top


Biological combustion involved in various processes produces free radicals which lead to oxidative damage to the body. Many human diseases are caused by oxidative stress that results from an imbalance between the formation and neutralization of pro-oxidants.[1] Such conditions are considered to be important causative factors in the development of diseases such as diabetes, stroke, arteriosclerosis, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases.[2],[3] Studies show that these radicals also affect the equilibrium between pro-oxidants and antioxidants in biological systems, leading to modifications in genomes, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and lipid peroxidation,[4] thus, inactivating antioxidant defense. Plant and its products are rich sources of phytochemicals and have been found to possess a variety of biological activities including antioxidant potential. Natural antioxidants are in high demand for application as nutraceuticals, bio-pharmaceuticals, as well as a food additive.[5]

Cynodon dactylon traditionally known as durva, is a medicinal plant used as a folk remedy for anasarca, alaculus, cancer, convulsions, epilepsy, hypertension, bronchitis, cough, and diarrhea. According to Ayurvedic system of medicine, it acts as an appetizer, antihelminthic, antipyretic, alexiteric agent and has a wound healing activity. In homeopathic system of medicine, it is used to treat all types of bleeding and skin diseases. It, also, has a central nervous system depressant activity.[6],[7] Another less studied Indian medicinal plant is datura, botanical name: Datura metel, although known for its toxicity, also contains medicinal properties. Datura intoxication typically produces delirium (as contrasted to hallucination), hyperthermia, tachycardia, bizarre behavior, and severe mydriasis with resultant painful photophobia that can last several days. However, datura also has medicinal properties. Datura has long been used as an extremely effective treatment for asthma symptoms. The active anti-asthmatic agent is atropine, which causes paralysis of the pulmonary branches of the lungs, eliminating the spasms that cause the asthma attacks. The leaves are generally smoked either in a cigarette or a pipe. This practice of smoking datura to relieve asthma has its origins in traditional Ayurvedic medicine in India.[8],[9]

Several synthetic antioxidant agents including butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene are commercially available, however, are reported to be toxic to animals including human beings.[10] Furthermore, natural products of plant origin have been proposed as a potential source of natural antioxidants with strong activity. This activity is mainly due to the presence of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, phenols, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins.[11]

D. metel has long been known for its sedative action and known to cure hydrophobia in Ayurveda and C. dactylon is known to possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. In the present work, the polyphenolic content of these two medicinal plants were quantified, and their antioxidant and cytotoxic potential was evaluated.


   Materials and Methods Top


Reagents and chemicals

Gallic acid and quercetin were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (USA). HPLC grade ethanol, methanol, Folin Ciocalteu's Phenol reagent, sodium carbonate, and aluminum chloride were purchased from Merck (Germany). 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and dimethyl sulfoxide (Himedia, India).

Collection of plant material

Datura fruit and durva plant was collected from the phool market, Dadar, Mumbai. Plant specimen was authenticated and deposited in Blatter Herbarium, Department of Botany, St. Xavier's College, Mumbai.

Preparation of plant extracts

The extraction of plants parts (datura seed and fruit pulp) and areal parts of durva was carried out using soxhlation and cold extraction method. The solvents used for extraction method were methanol (MeOH) and distilled water (D/W). In brief, plant material was thoroughly washed with water, shade dried on a clean filter paper and grinded to a fine powder. A total of 25 g of powder of fruit and seed was wrapped in a thimble made of Whatman filter paper No. 1 and placed into the soxhlet apparatus containing 300 ml solvent. The temperature of the heating mantle was adjusted to the boiling point of the solvent. The extraction process is stopped once the solvent in the side arm flask becomes colorless. For cold extraction, a total of 25 g of powder of datura fruit and seed is soaked in 300 ml solvent (methanol and water) for overnight. The extracts were then filtered and concentrated to dryness using a rotary evaporator to remove the solvent. The dried plant extracts obtained was weighed and stored in the refrigerator until in vitro assays.[12]

Determination of total phenolic content

The total phenolic content (TPC) of Soxhlet and cold extracts of datura (fruit and seed) and durva were determined by using the Folin–Ciocalteu method.[13],[14] Standard solutions of gallic acid of concentration 1.56–100 µg/ml were prepared in water. 50 µl of extracts or standard solution were added to 50 µl of distilled water. 50 µl of 10% Follin–Cicocalteu's phenol reagent and 50 µl of 1 M sodium carbonate solution were added to the mixture in a 96-well plate. Distilled water was used as blank. The reaction mixture was incubated for 60 min at room temperature and protected from light. The absorbance was measured at 750 nm with a Microplate Reader (Biotek, USA.). TPCs were expressed as µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mg of dry plant material.

Determination of total flavonoid content

Total flavonoid content (TFC) and cold extracts of datura (fruit and seed) and durva were determined by the aluminum chloride colorimetric assay.[14],[15] Standard solutions of quercetin of concentration 1.56–100 µg/ml were prepared in 80% ethanol. 50 µl of extracts (1 mg/ml) or standard solution was added to 10 µl of 10% the aluminum chloride solution and followed by 150 µl of 95% ethanol. 10 µl of 1 M sodium acetate was added to the mixture in a 96-well plate. 80% ethanol was used as the reagent blank. All reagents were mixed and incubated for 40 min at room temperature protected from light. The absorbance was measured at 415 nm with a Microplate Reader (Biotek, USA.). TFCs were expressed as µg quercetin equivalents (QE)/mg dry of plant material.

In vitro cytotoxicity assay

The cytotoxic activity of datura fruit and seed extracts was carried out using MTT assay. Vero cells (NCCS, Pune) were trypsinized and cultured onto a 96-well plate at the density of 0.2 × 106 cells/ml. Once the monolayer is formed after 24 h, different concentrations (0.1–4 mg/ml) of datura fruit and seed extracts were serially diluted and added to each culture wells in triplicate and incubated at 37°C with 5% CO2 for 24 h. After incubation, the medium with extracts was removed and 10% of 5 mg/ml MTT (100 μl) was added to each well and incubated for 4 h at 37°C. After incubation, MTT (100 μl) was removed and the crystal formed (formazan) was solubilized by adding DMSO to each well. The absorbance was read at 550 nm with a Microplate Reader (Biotek, USA). The cytotoxic effect (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50]) was measured using following equation.[16]

% Cytotoxic effect = [(Absorbance of control − Absorbance of sample)/(Absorbance of control)] ×100.

2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity

The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity was performed by reported method.[17] 20 µl of extracts (1 mg/ml) in respective solvents was added to 180 µl of DPPH (2 mg/100 ml) reagent prepared in methanol in the 96-well plate. Absolute methanol was used as the reagent blank. The reaction mixture was incubated for 30 min at room temperature, protected from light. The absorbance was measured at 517 nm with a Microplate Reader (Biotek, USA). The percentages of the DPPH free radical scavenging activity were calculated as follows.[15],[18]

% Scavenging effect = [(Absorbance of control − Absorbance of sample)/(Absorbance of control)] ×100.

Statistical analysis

Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation from three separate experiments. The cytotoxicity assay and antioxidant assay was calculated using GraphPad Prism version 5.0 software (California corporation, USA).


   Results Top


Determination of total phenolic acid content

The amount of phenolic acid content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu method and was found to be higher in methanolic extract of D. metel seed (268.6 µg GAE/mg of dried sample), extracted with soxhlation. In the C. dactylon (244.6 µg GAE/mg of dried sample), high amount of phenolic acid content was observed in cold methanolic extract [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Total phenolic content of both Soxhlet and cold extracts of datura (fruit and seed) and durva were calculated by using a standard curve of gallic acid (y = 0.004× , R2 = 0.996) and the absorbance is read at 750 nm

Click here to view


Determination of total flavonoid content

The TFC was determined by using aluminum chloride method. The higher amount of flavonoid content was found in methanolic extract of D. metel fruit (8.84 µg QE/mg of dried sample), extracted by soxhlation method [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Total flavonoid content of both Soxhlet and cold extracts of datura (fruit and seed) and durva were calculated by using a standard curve of quercetin (y = 0.013×, R2 = 0.998)

Click here to view


In vitro cytotoxicity assay

Different concentrations (0.1–10 mg/ml) of soxhlet and cold extracts of datura seed, fruit and durva were added onto vero cell line (0.2 × 106 cells/ml) in the 96-well plate and were analyzed by MTT based cytotoxicity assay. The IC50 of Soxhlet extracts of datura seed (water and methanol) was found to be 7.5 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml, respectively. Whereas, IC50 of cold extracts of datura seed (water and methanol) was found to be 3.5 mg/ml and 5.5 mg/ml, respectively. The IC50 of soxhlet extract of datura fruit (water and methanol) was found to be 5 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml, respectively whereas of cold extracts of datura fruit (water and methanol) was found to be 7 mg/ml and 3mg/ml, respectively [Figure 3]. The durva (water and methanol) soxhlet extracts was not found to be cytotoxic whereas the IC50 of durva (water and methanol) cold extract was found to be 8.17 mg/ml and 9.20 mg/ml, respectively. The IC50 was calculated and the percent cytotoxicity was represented by using GraphPad Prism version 5.0 software [Figure 4].
Figure 3: In vitro cytotoxicity assay of datura (fruit and seed) extracts of different concentration (0.6–10 mg/ml) was performed in vero cell line by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay

Click here to view
Figure 4: In vitro cytotoxicity assay of durva extracts of different concentration (0.6–10 mg/ml) was performed in vero cell line by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay

Click here to view


2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity

Datura fruit and seed (Soxhlet and cold) extracts of different concentration (50–800 µg/ml) were used for antioxidant assay by DPPH radical scavenging method. The ascorbic acid was used as a standard for DPPH scavenging assay and the absorbance was read at 517 nm [Figure 5]. The IC50 of datura fruit (water and methanol) soxhlet extracts were found to be 650 ± 22.21 µg/ml and 600 ± 23.71 µg/ml, respectively and of datura fruit (water and methanol) cold extracts were found to be 800 µg/ml [Figure 6], whereas the IC50 of datura seed (water and methanol) Soxhlet extracts were found to be 600 µg/ml, whereas of datura seed (water and methanol) cold extracts were found to be 700 ± 19.08 µg/ml and 600 ± 18.71 µg/ml, respectively. The IC50 was calculated, and the percent inhibition was represented by using GraphPad Prism version 5.0 software [Figure 7].
Figure 5: The ascorbic acid was used as a standard for 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay and read at absorbance of 517 nm (R2 = 0.976)

Click here to view
Figure 6: In vitro antioxidant activity of datura fruit (Soxhlet and cold) extracts was performed by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method

Click here to view
Figure 7: In vitro antioxidant activity of datura seed (Soxhlet and cold) extracts was performed by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method

Click here to view


Durva (Soxhlet and cold) extracts of different concentration (50–800 µg/ml) was also used for antioxidant assay by DPPH radical scavenging method. The absorbance is read at 517 nm. The IC50 of durva (water and methanol) Soxhlet extracts was found to be 150 ± 18.42 µg/ml and 100 ± 18.18 µg/ml, respectively; whereas, of durva (water and methanol) cold extracts were found to be 200 ± 15.53 µg/ml. The IC50 was calculated and the percent inhibition was represented by using GraphPad Prism version 5.0 software [Figure 8]. We found higher free radical scavenging potential in methanolic extract of C. dactylon, extracted with soxhlation method.
Figure 8: In vitro antioxidant activity of durva (Soxhlet and cold) extracts was performed by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


Free radicals are known as major contributors to several clinical disorders such as diabetes mellitus, cancer, liver diseases, renal failure, and degenerative diseases as a result of deficient natural antioxidant defense mechanism. A systematic search for useful bioactivities from medicinal plants is now considered to be a rational approach in pharmaceutical and drug research.

In vitro antioxidant activity of D. metel (seed and fruit) and Cynodon doctylon (durva) were estimated by DPPH radical scavenging method and the absorbance is read at 517 nm. The IC50 of datura fruit (water and methanol) soxhlet extracts were found to be 650 ± 22.21 µg/ml and 600 ± 23.71 µg/ml, respectively and of datura fruit (water and methanol) cold extracts were found to be 800 µg/ml. Whereas the of datura seed (water and methanol) Soxhlet extracts (IC50) were found to be 600 µg/ml and of datura seed (water and methanol) cold extracts were found to be 700 ± 19.08 µg/ml and 600 ± 18.71 µg/ml, respectively. The IC50 of durva (water and methanol) Soxhlet extracts were found to be 150 ± 18.42 µg/ml and 100 ± 18.18 µg/ml, respectively; whereas, of durva (water and methanol) cold extracts were found to be 200 ± 15.53 µg/ml. The IC50 was calculated and the percent inhibition was represented by using GraphPad Prism version 5.0 software [Figure 8]. We found higher free radical scavenging potential in methanolic extract of C. dactylon, extracted with soxhlation method [Table 1].
Table 1: TPC, TFC, free radical activity, and cytotoxic activity of Datura metel L. and Cynodon doctylon extracts

Click here to view


In the study it was observed that durva extracts showed a higher DPPH scavenging activity than datura extracts and overall durva extracts had a higher TPC and TFC than datura extracts and within the datura fruit and seed extracts it was found that datura seed extracts had a higher phenolic content (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) than datura fruit extracts. Thus in the present study, a correlation was obtained between antioxidant activity and phenolic content indicating that phenolic compounds contribute to the antioxidant activity.

It was reported that the antioxidant activity of the extracts might be due to the presence of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Flavonoids are naturally occurring in plants and are thought to have positive effects on human health. Studies on flavonoidic derivatives have shown a wide range of antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and anti-allergic activities.[19],[20]

In a study by Sharma and Vig, the methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Parkinsonia aculeata. L. was evaluated by DPPH assay by and was found to inhibit 57.82% and 41.9%, respectively at the concentration of 1000 µg/ml.[13]

In a study by Naima Saeed, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and TFCs of whole plant extracts Torilis leptophylla L. was evaluated and the IC50 value based on DPPH assay was found to be 41 µg/ml.[14]

In a study by Rahmat Ali Khan, the phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts of Sonchus asper (L.) showed DPPH radical scavenging activity at 4 µg/ml (IC50).[17]

Many plant extracts have been reported to have multiple biological effects, including antioxidant properties due to their phytoconstituents including phenolics. The antioxidant activity of phenolics is mainly due to their redox properties, which can play an important role in adsorbing and neutralizing free radicals, quenching singlet and triplet oxygen, or decomposing peroxides.[21],[22] The solvents and methods of extraction are an important factor to consider in drug discovery. In the present investigation, we found methanol and Soxhlet method as a suitable solvent and extraction method, respectively for the extraction of plant polyphenols.


   Conclusion Top


The study has explored the potential in vitro antioxidant activity of D. metel and Cynodon doctylon extracts by means of DPPH radical scavenging activity. Further, in vivo toxicity and immunomodulatory studies are required to elucidate the biological property of these medicinal plants.

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to thank NCCS, Pune for providing cell line and Blatter Herbarium, Department of Botany, St. Xavier's College, Mumbai for authenticating the plants for research work.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Hazra B, Santana B, Nripendranath M. Antioxidant and free radicals scavenging activity of Spondias pinnata. J BMC 2008;8:63.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Prior RL, Cao G, Prior RL, Cao G. Analysis of botanicals and dietary supplements for antioxidant capacity: A review. J AOAC Int 2000;83:950-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Yamaguchi F, Saito M, Ariga T, Yoshimura Y, Nakazawa H. Free radical scavenging activity and antiulcer activity of garcinol from Garcinia indica fruit rind. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:2320-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Romero FJ, Bosch-Morell F, Romero MJ, Jareño EJ, Romero B, Marín N, et al. Lipid peroxidation products and antioxidants in human disease. Environ Health Perspect 1998;106 Suppl 5:1229-34.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Craig WJ. Health-promoting properties of common herbs. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70 3 Suppl: 491S-9S.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Thakare VM, Chaudhari RY, Patil RV. Potential medicinal plant Cynodon doctylon (L.) Pers. Asian J Pharm Sci Res 2011;1:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Pal D. Evaluation of CNS activities of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. in mice. Acta Pol Pharm 2008;65:37-43.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Barceloux DG. Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances: Foods, Fungi, Medicinal Herbs, Plants, and Venomous Animals. General and Introductory Medical Science: John Wiley and Sons, Los Angeles, California; 2008. p. 1877-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Pennachio M, Jefferson L, Havens K. Uses and Abuses of Plant Derived Smoke: Ethnobotany as Hallucinogen, Perfume, Incense, and Medicine. 198 Madison Avenue, New York: Oxford University Press; 2010. p. 6-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Madhavi DL, Salunkhe DK. Toxicological aspects of food antioxidants. In: Madhavi DL, Deshpande SS, Salunkhe DK, editors. Food Antioxidants. New York: Dekker; 1995. p. 267-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Bolwell PG, Bramley PM, Pridham JB. The relative antioxidant activities of plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoids. Free Radic Res 1995;22:375-83.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Patil D, Roy S, Dahake R, Rajopadhye S, Kothari S, Deshmukh R, et al. Evaluation of Jatropha curcas Linn. leaf extracts for its cytotoxicity and potential to inhibit hemagglutinin protein of influenza virus. Indian J Virol 2013;24:220-6.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Sharma S, Vig AP. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant properties of methanol and aqueous extracts of Parkinsonia aculeata L. leaves. Scientific World Journal 2013;2013:604865.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Saeed N, Khan MR, Shabbir M. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of whole plant extracts Torilis leptophylla L. BMC Complement Altern Med 2012;12:221.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Di Carlo G, Mascolo N, Izzo AA, Capasso F. Flavonoids: Old and new aspects of a class of natural therapeutic drugs. Life Sci 1999;65:337-53.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: Application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 1983;65:55-63.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Khan RA, Khan MR, Sahreen S, Ahmed M. Evaluation of phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts of Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. Chem Cent J 2012;6:12.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Montoro P, Braca A, Pizza C, De Tommasi N. Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids isolated from different plant species. Food Chem 2005;92:349-55.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Shah R, Kathad H, Sheth R, Sheth N.In vitro antioxidant activity of roots of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. Int J Pharm Sci 2010;2:30-3.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Raghavendra M, Reddy AM, Yadav PR, Raju AS, Siva Kumar L. Comparative studies on the in vitro antioxidant properties of methanolic leafy extracts from six edible leafy vegetables of India. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6:96-9.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Chang LW, Yen WJ, Huang SC, Duh PD. Antioxidant activity of sesame coat. Food Chem 2002;78:347-54.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Moragot C, Anchalee C. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activities of orange baby carrot and carrot (Daucus carota Linn.) root crude extracts. J Chem Pharm Res 2013;5:97-102.  Back to cited text no. 22
    

 
   Authors Top

Dr. Soumen Roy, Department of Virology, Haffkine Institute for Training, Research and Testing, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. E-mail: soumenroy118@gmail.com


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]


This article has been cited by
1 Steroidal saponins from Datura metel
Nguyen Thi Mai,Nguyen Thi Cuc,Hoang Le Tuan Anh,Nguyen Xuan Nhiem,Bui Huu Tai,Chau Van Minh,Tran Hong Quang,Kwan Woo Kim,Youn-Chul Kim,Hyuncheol Oh,Phan Van Kiem
Steroids. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Two new guaiane sesquiterpenes from Datura metel L. with anti-inflammatory activity
Nguyen Thi Mai,Nguyen Thi Cuc,Hoang Le Tuan Anh,Nguyen Xuan Nhiem,Bui Huu Tai,Pham Hai Yen,Tran Hong Quang,Chau Van Minh,Kwan Woo Kim,Youn-Chul Kim,Hyuncheol Oh,Phan Van Kiem
Phytochemistry Letters. 2017; 19: 231
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Comparison of Different Solvents for Phytochemical Extraction Potential from Datura metel Plant Leaves
Dixon Dhawan,Jeena Gupta
International Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2016; 11(1): 17
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
  
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Authors
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2809    
    Printed82    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded16    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 3    

Recommend this journal