Home | About PR | Editorial board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact us |   Login 
Pharmacognosy Magazine
Search Article 
  
Advanced search 
 


 
 Table of Contents 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 16-21  

Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.


Department of Botany, Parvatibai Chowgule College of Arts and Science, Margao, Goa, India

Date of Web Publication7-Dec-2015

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sangeeta Sankhalkar
Department of Botany, Parvatibai Chowgule College of Arts and Science, Margao, Goa
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.171095

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance.

Keywords: Antioxidants, Flavonoids, Ocimum, Phenolics, Phytochemicals, Qualitative analysis


How to cite this article:
Sankhalkar S, Vernekar V. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Phcog Res 2016;8:16-21

How to cite this URL:
Sankhalkar S, Vernekar V. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Phcog Res [serial online] 2016 [cited 2019 May 26];8:16-21. Available from: http://www.phcogres.com/text.asp?2016/8/1/16/171095

Summary

  • Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.
  • Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones revealed that both the plant extracts were rich sources of secondary metabolites and thus tested positive for the above tests. Various flavanoids and Phenolics were identified by paper chromatography based on their Rf values and significant colors. From the above study we conclude that Moringa and Ocimum are rich in natural antioxidants hence are potent source in pharmaceutical industry.


Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones revealed that both the plant extracts were rich sources of secondary metabolites and thus tested positive for the above tests. Various flavanoids and Phenolics were identified by paper chromatography based on their Rf values and significant colors. From the above study we conclude that Moringa and Ocimum are rich in natural antioxidants hence are potent source in pharmaceutical industry.




   Introduction Top


A wide variety of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids and flavones are known for their antioxidants and antiradical scavenging properties. [1] Most of the phenolic and flavonoid compounds includes polyphenols such as tocopherols, flavonoids, derivatives of cinnamic acid, and other organic acids. [2] Recently, these polyphenols are gaining interest as antioxidants with potential to reduce free radical induced tissue injury. [3] Phenolics and flavonoids are the active phenolic compounds isolated from higher plants. [4] Wide range of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial properties, etc., are shown by these polyphenols. [4],[5],[6]

Moringa Oleifera Lam. belonging to the family Moringaceae is a widely cultivated shrub known for its medicinal and industrial uses. [7] All the aerial parts of the plant are edible, and are consumed by human beings. [8] Leaves are used as animal forage, manure, domestic cleansing agent, and a source of biopesticide. [7] Seed oil is nonsticking, good machine lubricant and used as a source in perfumery, skin and health care. [9] The plant is also known for its antioxidant nature. [9] In our recent report increased antioxidant enzyme activity in M. oleifera Lam. was observed. [10] Antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antiulcer properties are also reported in Moringa plant. [8],[11],[12],[13],[14] Leaves of M. oleifera contain essential amino acids, carotenoids, Vitamin C, and calcium. [15],[16] It is hence a source of valuable nutritional supplement in food preparations. [14] Ocimum tenuiflorum L. belongs to the family Lamiaceae and is commonly called as Tulsi. It is known for hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoid glycosides. [17],[18]

Although native to India, Ocimum species are widely cultivated in parts of Asia, Africa, and parts of the Mediterranean region. [19] Sweet basil (Shama tulsi) is known for its medicinal uses in India from ancient times. [20] O. tenuiflorum L. is used for treatment against a headache, constipation, kidney infections, cough, cold, and diarrhoea. [21] The medicinal properties in Tulsi are mainly due to the presence of a variety of phenolic acids such as caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, flavonoids, and essential oils. [22] Chavicol methyl ether (estragol), linalool, eugenol, 1, 8-cineole, and methyl cinnamate are the main compounds responsible for the typical aroma in the basil plant. [23]

Considering the medicinal importance of these widely available plant species, the work was planned with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare total phenolic and flavonoid content using spectrophotometric and paper chromatographic methods. Attempt was also made to identify the active metabolites in methanolic extracts of M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L.


   Materials and Methods Top


Sample collection

Fresh sample of leaves and flowers of M. oleifera Lam. belonging to the family Moringaceae and O. tenuiflorum L. (Krishna or Shama tulsi) belonging to the family Lamiaceae were collected from Chowgule College botanical garden. M. oleifera Lam. was authenticated by the Department of Botany, Chowgule College, Margao, Goa while, O. tenuiflorum L. was authenticated by Botanical Survey of India (BSI), Pune. The voucher specimens in the form of the herbarium are maintained in the Botany Department of Chowgule College (SPCC/BOT/H-438) and BSI, Pune (SS01) respectively.

Extraction of the sample

Plant material (500 g) was sun dried and homogenized overnight in 1 L of methanol. The extract was then filtered through Whatman filter paper No. 1. The filtrate was then subjected to evator rotary vaccum evaporator for evaporating the solvent. [24] The residues obtained were then dissolved in 5 mL methanol and stored at 4°C for further use. This extract was used for the analysis of phenolics and flavonoid content.

Quantitation of total phenolic and flavonoid content

Total phenolic content

Total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent. [25] The plant extract (0.5 mL) was mixed with 0.5 mL of FC reagent (1:1 diluted with distilled water) and incubated for 5 min at 22°C followed by addition of 2 mL of 20% Na 2 CO 3. The mixture was then incubated further at 22°C for 90 min and the absorbance was measured at 650 nm. The total phenolic content (mg/mL) was calculated using gallic acid as standard.

Total flavonoid content

The total flavonoid content (mg/mL) was determined using aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) method. [26],[27] The assay mixture consisting of 0.5 mL of the plant extract, 0.5 mL distilled water, and 0.3 mL of 5% NaNO 2 was incubated for 5 min at 25°C. This was followed by addition of 0.3 mL of 10% AlCl 3 immediately. Two milliliters of 1 M NaOH was then added to the reaction mixture, and the absorbance was measured at 510 nm. Quercetin was used as a standard.

Separation of flavonoids by paper chromatography

Sample preparation for flavonoids

Extraction of flavonoids for paper chromatography was based on the standard procedures. [28],[29] Freshly weighed 2 g of the tissue (leaf and flower) was thoroughly homogenized in a mortar and pestle with 20 mL of 80% methanol in 1% HCl. The total volume of the extract was made to 25 mL using 80% methanol in 1% HCl. For the complete extraction of the flavonoids, the homogenate was then dark adapted for 24 h. The extract was then centrifuged at 4,000 rpm for 20 min. The supernatant was collected in a test tube and concentrated in a water bath to a final volume of 5 mL. The samples were then stored in vials at −20°C for chromatography analysis.

Separation of flavonoids by paper chromatography

Ascending paper chromatography was performed with n-butanol/acetic acid/water (4:1:5) as the solvent system. [26] Flavonoids were detected using ultraviolet transilluminator. For a better resolution of the separated flavonoids and for photography records the chromatogram was then exposed to ammonia fumes overnight.

Phytochemical screening

Active constituents in the plant extract of M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. were identified and detected by performing chemical tests. Phytochemicals such as tannins, phobatannins, saponin, terpenoids such as flavonoids and alkaloids were detected based on standard tests.

Test for tannins

About 0.1 g of dried powder plant sample was boiled in 4 mL of water in a test tube and then filtered. Few drops of 0.1% ferric chloride were added to observe brownish green or blue-black coloration indicative of the presence of tannins. [30]

Test for phlobatannins

An aqueous extract of the plant sample was boiled with 1% aqueous HCL. Deposition of red precipitate was taken as an evidence for the presence of phlobatannins. [30]

Test for saponins

Powdered plant sample (0.5 g) was boiled in 10 mL of distilled water and filtered. The filtrate (5 mL) was mixed with 2.5 mL of distilled water and shaken vigorously for stable, persistent frothing. Frothing was mixed with three drops of saturated oil and was vigorously shaken again. The emulsion formed indicated the presence of saponins. [30]

Test for flavonoids

About 3 mL of dilute ammonia was added to 2 mL aqueous filtrate of each plant extract. This was followed by addition of 1 mL concentrated sulphuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ). Yellow coloration in each extract showed the presence of flavonoids. [31],[32]

Test for terpenoids (Salkowski test)

The plant extract in a final volume of 3 mL was mixed with 1 mL of chloroform and 1 mL of conc. H 2 SO 4 to observe the intense red-brown coloration indicative of the presence of terpenoids. [30]

Test for reducing sugars (Fehling's test)

About 0.2 g of powdered plant samples in 1 mL ethanol was added to 3 mL of distilled water and mixed. One milliliter of Fehling's solution A and B was taken in a test tube and heated to boiling and then poured in the aqueous ethanolic plant extract. Change in color reaction detected the presence of reducing sugars. [33]

Test for alkaloids

Powdered plant sample (0.1 g) was added to 2 mL of hexane, shaken well and filtered. This was followed by addition of 3 mL 2% HCL to the above extract. The mixture was then heated and filtered. A drop of picric acid was added to the filtrate to develop yellow precipitate indicative of the presence of alkaloids. [31],[32]

Test for anthraquinones

Aqueous plant extract (2 mL) was boiled with 4 mL concentrated H 2 S0 4 and shaken well. Three milliliters of chloroform was then added to the mixture. The chloroform layer was then pipetted out in another test tube containing 1 mL of diluted ammonia (1:1). Anthraquinones were detected with a change in color. [33]

Statistical analysis

All experiments were repeated thrice independently with similar results. Data shown are expressed as mean ± standard deviation with readings of three samples per tissue. Data analysis was based on one-way analysis of variance. All statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel Version 2007.


   Results Top


Total flavonoid content

The results of total flavonoid content are shown in [Table 1]. Our results with methanolic leaf and flower extract in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. showed a significant increase in total flavonoid content (#P < 0.001). Total flavonoid in Ocimum leaf and flower was 4.47 mg/mL and 4.54 mg/mL and that in Moringa was 4.44 mg/mL and 4.41 mg/mL respective. The flavonoid content in Ocimum flower was 1.56% more compared to the leaf extract, whereas M. oleifera leaf extract showed 0.68% increase in flavonoid content. Our results indicated higher total flavonoid content in Ocimum plant extract than in Moringa plant extract.
Table 1: Total flavonoid content in Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

Click here to view


Total phenolic content

The results of total phenolic content in Moringa and Ocimum leaf and flower extracts are shown in [Table 2]. Our results with the methanolic extract showed significantly (#P < 0.001) higher phenolic content in the leaf extract of Moringa and Ocimum than in its flower extract. We observed 60.18% increase in the phenolic content of Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa flower extract. The phenolic content in Moringa leaf was 111% more compared to its flower extract while in Ocimum leaf we observed 26.01% increase in phenolic content compared to its flower. Total phenolic content in a leaf of M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. was 2.28 and 2.18 mg/mL while flower extract of the same plants showed 1.08 and 1.73 mg/mL total phenolic content.
Table 2: Total phenolic content in Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

Click here to view


Phytochemical tests

Our results with various phytochemical tests are shown in [Table 3]. The results showed that both Moringa and Ocimum are rich in tannin, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, anthraquinone, and reducing sugars. Terpenoids were found to be present only in Moringa leaf and flower extract and were absent in Ocimum plant extract. Phobatannins test showed negative results with both the plant extracts tested. The various test results are also shown in the [Figure 1]a and b.
Figure 1: (a) Preliminary phytochemical analysis of two screened plant species Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. A = Test for tannins, B = test for phlobatannins, C = test for saponins, D = test for flavonoids, E = test for terpenoids. (b) Preliminary phytochemical analysis of two screened plant species Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. A = Test for reducing sugar, B = test for alkaloids, C = test for anthraquinones

Click here to view
Table 3: Preliminary phytochemical analysis of two screened plant species of Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

Click here to view


Chromatographic separation of flavonoids

Results of paper chromatography are shown in [Table 4]. Flavonoids were identified based on the standard retention factor (Rf) values. The flavonoid compounds identified in Moringa and Ocimum plant extract included Flavonols (myrcetin) (Rf-47), flavones (Rf-73), biflavonyl (kayaflavone) (Rf-98), kaempferol (Rf-84), delphinidin (Rf-45), triglycosides (Rf-27), and glycosylflavones with (Rf-32). [Figure 2] shows the chromatographic separation of flavonoids with and without ammonia.
Figure 2: Paper chromatogram of Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. showing seperation of flavonoids with and without ammonia

Click here to view
Table 4: Rf values of flavonoid compounds showing respective coloration with and without ammonia in Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


High antioxidant activity is reported from various medicinal plants. [34],[35],[36] Phenolics and flavonoids are the common antioxidants known in plants. [10],[16] The present work was carried out to compare the phenolics and flavonoid content in medicinal plants such as M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. The study showed more phenolic content in leaves of Moringa and Ocimum. However, flavonoid content was more in leaf and flower extracts of Ocimum. Various reports also exist that indicate M. oleifera as a rich source of phenolic compounds. [37] Similarly, genus Ocimum is also known to be rich in phenolic compounds and thus is widely used in traditional systems of medicine. [18] Phenolics and flavonoids have at least one hydroxyl ion substituted with aromatic ring and can form chelate complexes with the metal ions thereby getting easily oxidized and are the means for donating electrons to scavenge free radicals. [16],[38] Higher phenolic content in M. oleifera Lam. is also correlated with increased antioxidant activity. [39] Good amount of total flavonoid and phenolic content has been reported in methanolic crude extracts of Thymus vulgaris. [40] The linear correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity has also been reported. [41],[42] In our earlier report in Moringa, we have also shown the correlation of increased antioxidant activity with increasing phenolic and flavonoid content. [10]

Variation in antioxidant properties in relation to leaf position is seen in Ocimum. [43] Similar observation is shown by no of reports. [39] In the present study, chromatographic separation of flavonoids in extracts of Moringa and Ocimum (leaf and flower) showed the presence of flavones, flavonols, biflavonyl, kaempferol, delphinidin, triglycosides and glycosylflavones. Flavonoids like quercetin and kaempferol are reported in ethanolic leaf extracts of M. oleifera. [16] Reports are available that show the presence of flavones, flavonols, flavonoid aglycone, tannins, polyphenols, etc., in Ocimum species. [44] Myrecetin and kaempferol are the major flavonoid observed in Cyprus rotundus.[45] Leaves of Cistus salvifolius showed the presence of kaempferol, quercetin and Myricetin. [46] Flavonoids such as luteoline, kaempferol and quercetin are found in the bark and leaves of Terminalia arjuna. All these flavonoids are known for their strong antioxidant properties. [47] Antioxidant activity of M. oleifera plant extract is correlated with the presence of flavonoid such as kaempferol. [48] Our results are thus in accordance to the above findings.

Phytochemicals are the chemical constituents in plants with distinct physiological action on the human body. [49] Alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, terpenoids, and essential oils are some of the important bioactive phytochemicals. [11] It is observed that the geographic location of the plant and the solvent system used in the extraction process may act as determining a factor for the distribution of these phytochemicals. [50] A number of reports are available that shows the presence of phytochemicals such as quercetin, glycosides, rutin, kaempferol glycosides, tannins, and chlorogenic acids. [51],[52],[53] Major phytochemicals reported in M. oleifera are quercetin, glycosides, rutin, kaempferol glycosides and chlorogenic acids. [54] Rosmarinic acid is the predominant phytochemical reported in the flower and leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum.[55] In the present study with Moringa and Ocimum, we report the presence of flavonoids, phenolics and antioxidants. Like earlier reports, we also hypothesize that antioxidant nature of M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. may be due to the increase in phenolic and flavonoid content. However, further quantitation and identification of the chemical structure of these phytochemicals need to be undertaken by high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Identification of active constituent in these medicinal plants is thus highly significant in food and pharmaceutical industry because the natural antioxidants are less harmful than synthetic antioxidants. However, physicochemical evaluation of the drug is a very important parameter to study the quality of the plant material for future research applications.


   Conclusions Top


From the present study, we conclude that the methanolic leaf and flower extract of M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. exhibit high antioxidant and phytochemical potential. The plant extracts contains large amounts of flavonoids, phenolics, and tannins. The study showed that both the plants are a source of significant natural antioxidants and may be useful in protection against oxidative stresses. O. tenuiflorum L. shows more antioxidant activity in comparison to M. oleifera Lam. Thus, there exist a strong correlation between the increase in phenolics and flavonoid content with increased antioxidant enzyme activity in both the plant species studied.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to University Grants Commission-WRO (F.47/149/10/WRO) Pune for the financial assistance. We would also like to acknowledge BSI, Pune for authentication of the plant specimen.

Financial support and sponsorship

The authors are grateful to University Grants Commission-WRO (F.47/149/10/WRO) Pune for the financial assistance. We would also like to acknowledge BSI, Pune for authentication of the plant specimen.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Makari HK, Haraprased N, Patil HS, Ravikumar S. In vitro antioxidant activity of the hexane and methanolic extracts of Cordial wallichi and Celastrus peniculata. Internet J Aesthet Antiaging Med 2008;1:1-10.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Saboonchian F, Jamei R, Hosseini Sarghein S. Phenolic and flavonoid content of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (leaf and flower). Avicenna J Phytomed 2014;4:231-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Kumar S, Kumar D, Manjusha V, Saroha K, Singh N, Vashishta B. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. methanolic fruit extract. Acta Pharm 2008;58:215-20.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Modnicki D, Balcerek M. Estimation of total polyphenols content in Ocimum basilicum L., Orgianum vulgare L., and Thymus vulgaris L. commercial samples. Herba Polinica 2009;55:35-42.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Min BR, Pinchak WE, Merkel R, Walker S, Tomita G, Anderson RC. Comparative antimicrobial activity of tannin extract from perennial plants on mastitis pathogens. Sci Res Essay 2008;3:066-73.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Wong W. Some folk medicinal plants from Trinidad. Econ Bot 1976;30:104-2.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Fuglie LJ. The Miracle Tree: Moringa oleifera: Natural Nutrition for the Tropics. Dakar: Church World Service; 1999. p. 68.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Fahey JW. Moringa oleifera: A review of the medical evidence for its nutritional, therapeutic, and prophylactic properties: Part 1. Trees Life J 2005;1:1-15.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Raw Materials Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. The Wealth of India: A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. New Delhi: Raw Materials Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; 1962. p. 425-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Sankhalkar S. Antioxidant enzyme activity, phenolics and flavonoid content in vegetative and reproductive parts of Moringa oleifera Lam. Am J Pharmatech Res 2014;4:255-70.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Anwar F, Jamil A, Iqbal S, Sheikh MA. Antioxidant activity of various plant extracts under ambient and accelerated storage of sunflower oil. Grassay Aceites, International Journal of Fats and Oils 2006;57:189-97.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Goyal BR, Agarwal BB, Goyal RK, Mehta AA. Pyto-pharmacology of Moringa oleifera Lam. An overview. Nat Prod Radiance 2007;4:347-53.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Chumark P, Khunawat P, Sanvarinda Y, Phornchirasilp S, Morales NP, Phivthong-Ngam L, et al. The in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant properties, hypolipidaemic and antiatherosclerotic activities of water extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;116:439-46.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Peixoto JR, Silva GC, Costa RA, de Sousa Fontenelle JR, Vieira GH, Filho AA, et al. In vitro antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf extracts. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2011;4:201-4.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Dillard CJ, German JB. Phytochemicals: Neutraceuticals and human health. A review. J Sci Food Agric 2000;80:1744-56.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Siddhuraju P, Becker K. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:2144-55.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Bruneton J. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. 2 nd ed. London, New York: Andover: Intercept; 1999.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Wang H, Provan GJ, Helliwell K. Determination of rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid in aromatic herbs by HPLC. Food Chem 2004;87:307-11.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Mukherjee M, Datta AK. Secondary associations in Ocimum spp. Cytologia 2006;71:149-52.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Prakash P, Gupta N. Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: A short review. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2005;49:125-31.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Simon JE, Chadwick AF, Craker LE. Herbs: An Indexed Bibliography, The Scientific Literature on Selected Herbs, and Aromatic and Medicinal Plants of the Temperate Zone. Hamden, CT: Archon Books; 1984. p. 1971-80.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Zgórka G, Glowniak K. Variation of free phenolic acids in medicinal plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2001;26:79-87.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Lawrence BM. A further examination of the variation of Ocimum basilicum L. In Lawrence BM, Mookerjee BD, Willis BJ, editors. Flavors and Fragrances: A World Perspective. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publisher BV; 1988. p. 161-70.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Kosem N, Han YH, Moongkarndi P. Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of methanolic extract from Garcinia mangostana hulls. Sci Asia 2007;33:283-92.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Mallick EP, Singh MB. Plant Enzymology and Histoenzymology. 1 st ed. New Delhi: Kalyan Publisher; 1980. p. 280.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Kariyone T, Hashimoto Y, Kimura M. Microbial studies of plant components. IX. Distribution of flavonoids in plants by paper chromatography. J Pharm Soc 1953;73:253-6.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Naghski JS, Fenske CS Jr, Couch IF. Use of paper chromatography estimation of quercetin in rutin. J Am Pharm Assoc 1951;40:613.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Subramanian SS, Nagarajan S. Flavonoids of the seeds of Crotlaria retusa and C. striata. Curr Sci 1969;38:65-8.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Sharma V. Biochemical changes accompanying petal development in Rosa damascene. Plant Biochem J 1981;8:13-6.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Edeoga HO. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal Plants. Afr J Biotechnol 2005;4:685-8.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Sofowara A. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books Ltd.; 1993. p. 289.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Harborne JB. Phytochemical Methods. London: Chapman and Hall; 1973.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Ayoola GA. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activities of some selected medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in southwestern Nigeria. Trop J Pharm Res 2008;7:1019-24.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.
Lachance PA, Nakat Z, Jeong WS. Antioxidants: An integrative approach. Nutrition 2001;17:835-8.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Zakaria Z, Lachimanan YL, Sreenivasan S, Rathinam X. Antioxidant activity of Coleus blumei, Orthosiphon stamineus, Ocimum basilicum and Mentha arvensis from Lamiaceae family. Int J Nat Eng Sci 2008;2:93-5.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Zivcovic J, Cebovic T, Maksimovic Z. In vivo and in vitro antioxidant effects of three Veronica species. Cent Eur J Biol 2012;7:559-68.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.
Alhakmani F, Kumar S, Khan SA. Estimation of total phenolic content, in-vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers of Moringa oleifera. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013;3:623-7.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.
Sreedam CD, Kaiser H, Jahan BI, Sultana S, Md. Islam S. In vitro antioxidant activity of different parts of the plant diospyros discolor. Res J Agric Biol Sci 2010;6:472-5.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.
Kostyuk VA, Potapovich AI, Vladykovskaya EN, Korkina LG, Afanas'ev IB. Influence of metal ions on flavonoid protection against asbestos-induced cell injury. Arch Biochem Biophys 2001;385:129-37.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.
Hossain MA, AL-Raqmi KA, AL-Mijizy ZH, Weli AM, Al-Riyami Q. Study of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of various leaves crude extracts of locally grown Thymus vulgaris. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013;3:705-10.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.
Borneo R, Leon EA, Aguirre A, Ribotta, P, Cantero JJ. Antioxidant capacity of medicinal plants from the Province of Cordoba (Argentina) and there in vitro testing in model food system. Food Chem 2008;112:664-70.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.
Katalinic V, Milos M, Kulisic T, Jukic M. Screening of 70 medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant capacity and total phenols. Food Chem 2004;94:550-7.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.
Wongsen W, Bodhipadma K, Noichinda S, Leung DWM. Relationship between leaf position and antioxidant properties in three Basil species. Int Food Res J 2013;20:1113-7.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.
Saito Y, Asari T. Studies on the antioxidant properties of spices. Total tocopherol content in spices. J Jpn Soc Food Nutr 1976;29:289-92.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.
Krishna S. Isolation and identification of flavonoids from Cyperus rotundus linn. in vivo and in vitro. J Drug Deliv Therapeutics 2013;3:109-13.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.
Agati G, Matteini P, Goti A, Tattini M. Chloroplast-located flavonoids can scavenge singlet oxygen. New Phytol 2007;174:77-89.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.
Sharma P. Production of flavonoids from Terminalia arjuna (ROXB) in vivo and in vitro tissue culture. Int J ChemTech Res 2014;6:881-5.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.
Bajpai M, Pande A, Tewari SK, Prakash D. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of some food and medicinal plants. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2005;56:287-91.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.
Vimala A, Thamizharasi T, Sathish SS, Palani R, Vijayakanth P. Phytochemical studies on selective medicinal plants. Int J Res Eng Biosci 2013;1:57-62.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.
Deshpande SN, Kadam DG. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of some medicinal plants. DAV Int J Sci 2013;2:61-5.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.
Kiranmai M, Mohammed I. Anti bacterial potential of different extracts of Tagetes erecta Linn. Int J Pharm 2012;2:90-6.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.
Sharma V, Paliwal R. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and thin layer chromatography profiling of sequential extracts of Moringa oleifera pods. Int J Green Pharm 2013;7:41-5.  Back to cited text no. 52
  Medknow Journal  
53.
Nagaveni P, Kumar KS, Rathnam G. Phytochemical profile and antipyretic activity of Mangifera indica. JITPS 2011;2:167-73.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.
Ndong M, Uehara M, Katsumata S, Suzuki K. Effects of oral administration of Moringa oleifera Lam on glucose tolerance in goto-kakizaki and wistar rats. J Clin Biochem Nutr 2007;40:229-33.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.
Javanmardi J, Khalighi A, Kashi A, Bais HP, Vivanco JM. Chemical characterization of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) found in local accessions and used in traditional medicines in Iran. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:5878-83.  Back to cited text no. 55
    

 
   Authors Top


Dr. Sangeeta Sankhalkar, Associate Prof. and Head, Department of Botany has 16 yrs of teaching experience at Parvatibai Chowgule College. My research interests are abiotic stresses such as light and salinity, antioxidant enzymes quantitation. I was the recipient of DST, Govt. of India BOYSCAST FELLOWSHIP 2006-07 and worked with Prof. Nick Smirnoff, at the School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, UK. I did a short term Post Doc. Study in the year 2000 at Botanical Research Institute I, Wuerzberg, Germany and had an opportunity to work with Prof. U. Heber. My present research work involves salinity stress induced Non-enzymatic antioxidant enzyme protection in rice varieties grown in Goan Khazan fields. This research work was funded by DST (SERB) Govt. of India. Also I have been working on characterization of antioxidant molecule from medicinally important plants. The author is recognized PhD research guide in Botany.




Miss. Vrunda Vernekar, is a 'Research fellow' working with Dr. Sangeeta Sankhalkar, in the Department of Botany Parvatibai Chowgule college of Art's and Science Margao Goa.


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]


This article has been cited by
1 Multi-experimental characterization of selected medical plants growing in the Czech Republic
L. Butorová,M. Polovka,J. Porízka,E. Vítová
Chemical Papers. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 A New Concept on Quality Marker for Quality Assessment and Process Control of Chinese Medicines
Chang-xiao Liu,Yi-yu Cheng,De-an Guo,Tie-jun Zhang,Ya-zhuo Li,Wen-bin Hou,Lu-qi Huang,Hai-yu Xu
Chinese Herbal Medicines. 2017; 9(1): 3
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Evaluation of bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential of hydroethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. from Rajasthan, India
Sharad Vats,Tanya Gupta
Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
  
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusions
    References
    Authors
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed5486    
    Printed102    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded22    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 3    

Recommend this journal