|Year : 2012 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 57-62
Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects of the hydro-methanolic extract of the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male albino rats
Kishalay Jana1, Kausik Chatterjee1, Kazi Monjur Ali1, Debasis De1, Tushar Kanti Bera2, Debidas Ghosh1
1 Department of Bio-Medical Laboratory Science and Management, Andrology, Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine Laboratory, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Bio-Medical Laboratory Science and Management, Andrology, Endocrinology and Molecular Medicine Laboratory, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore; Pharmaceutical Division, Southern Health Improvement Samity (SHIS), Bhangar, West Bengal, India
|Date of Submission||16-Jun-2011|
|Date of Decision||29-Jul-2011|
|Date of Web Publication||21-Dec-2011|
Department of Bio-Medical Laboratory Science and Management (UGC Innovative Department), Vidyasagar University, Midnapore - 721 102, West Bengal
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: No satisfactory effective treatment is available yet to cure diabetes mellitus. Though, synthetic drugs are used but there are several drawbacks. The attributed antihyperglycemic effects of many traditional plants are due to their ability for the management of diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A hydromethanolic extract was administered orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg of body weight per day for 21 days. Its effects on the fasting blood glucose (FBG) level, activities of key carbohydrate metabolic enzymes like hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and antioxidant enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase along with the effect on the lipid peroxidation level in hepatic tissues were measured. Glycogen levels were also assessed in hepatic and skeletal muscles and some toxicity parameters, such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and alkaline phosphates activities were measured. Results: Treatment of the hydromethanolic extract of the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) recovery in the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes along with correction in FBG and glycogen levels as compared with the untreated diabetic group. The extract also resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) recovery in the activities of toxicity assessment enzyme parameters. Activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase along with the lipid peroxidation levels were also recovered significantly (P < 0.05) after the treatment of the extract. The corrective effects produced by the extract were compared with the standard antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide. Conclusion: Our findings provide that the extract shows possible antihyperglycemic and antioxidative activities.
Keywords: Antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, C. bonduc, streptozotocin
|How to cite this article:|
Jana K, Chatterjee K, Ali KM, De D, Bera TK, Ghosh D. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects of the hydro-methanolic extract of the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male albino rats. Phcog Res 2012;4:57-62
|How to cite this URL:|
Jana K, Chatterjee K, Ali KM, De D, Bera TK, Ghosh D. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects of the hydro-methanolic extract of the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male albino rats. Phcog Res [serial online] 2012 [cited 2020 Aug 11];4:57-62. Available from: http://www.phcogres.com/text.asp?2012/4/1/57/91044
| Introduction|| |
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia and changed metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.  Chronic hyperglycemia during diabetes causes glycation of body proteins that in turn leads to secondary complications disturbing eyes, kidneys, nerves, and arteries.  Increasing evidences from both experimental and clinical studies propose that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of DM.  Free radicals are formed suspiciously in diabetes by glucose oxidation, nonenzymatic glycation of proteins, and the subsequent oxidative deficiency of glycated proteins.  An abnormally high level of free radicals and the simultaneous decline in antioxidant defense mechanisms may lead to the damage of cellular organelles and enzymes, increased lipid peroxidation, and the development of insulin resistance.  Several synthetic drugs used for the treatment of diabetes have various side effects and hence there is a need for alternative improved oral hypoglycemic agents. , In the indigenous system of medicine, Ayurveda, medicines have been made using a number of plants for controlling diabetes but only a few have been scientifically evaluated with the active principles isolated. , Antihyperglycemic effects of various plants are credited to their ability to restore the function of pancreatic tissues by causing an increase in the insulin output or inhibit the intestinal absorption of glucose or to the facilitation of metabolites in insulin-dependent processes. , More than 400 plant species having a hypoglycemic activity are mentioned in the literature. , Most of plants which contain glycosides, alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, etc., are frequently implicated as having an antidiabetic effect. ,
Caesalpinia bonduc (C. bonduc) is a medicinal plant belonging to the family of "Fabeaceae." It is a large, straggling, very thorny shrub; the branches are armed with hooks and straight, hard yellow prickles. In Indian traditional plant medicine, it has been considered an important remedy for the treatment of filarial infection, tumor, asthma, and diabetes.  Data on the antidiabetic activity study of this plant through scientific manners are scanty.  Hence, the present study was conducted to explore the antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effect of the hydromethanolic extract of the seeds of C. bonduc on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Collection of plant materials
The dried seeds of C. bonduc were collected from the village area of Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India, and the plant was identified by a taxonomist in Department of Botany and Forestry, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, and the voucher specimen was deposited (reference no. Bio-Med/V.U/C.B/24/10).
Preparation of the hydromethanolic extract of seeds of C. bonduc
The hydromethanolic extract of seeds of C. bonduc was prepared as per the standard method.  In brief, fresh seeds of C. bonduc were dried in an incubator for 2 days at 40°C, then crushed in an electric grinder, and pulverized. From this powder, 50 g was suspended in the mixture solvent consisting of 80 ml of water and 120 ml methanol in a container for 48 h at room temperature and then the supernatant was filtered through Whatman grade no. 3 filter paper. The filtrate was concentrated and the collected residue was preserved in a refrigerator at 2-8°C for use in the experiments.
Sigma (USA)-made STZ was used here. All other used chemicals were analytical grade purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Diagnostic Ltd., USA. For the assessment of toxicity parameters, reagents were purchased from Merck Diagnostic Ltd., India (24-26) following a spectrometric method.
Selection of animals and animal care
Wistar strain matured male albino rats 3 months of age, weighing about 120 ± 10 g with normoglycemic level (having a FBG level of 80-90 mg/dl) were used for this experiment. All the animals were acclimated for a period of 15 days under laboratory conditions prior to the experiment. Rats were kept at an ambient temperature of 25 ± 2°C with a 12-h light:12-h dark cycle. Rats were provided rich standard feed and water ad libitum. The principles of laboratory animal care and instructions given by our Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC), which are in compliance with the guidelines of Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experimental Animals (CPCSEA), were followed throughout the experiment.
Induction of diabetes mellitus
Diabetes was induced by a single intramuscular injection of STZ (Sigma-Aldrich) at a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight. STZ was dissolved in a 0.1 M citrate buffer (pH 4.5). Diabetes was confirmed 7 days after STZ injection by the FBG concentration. Only animals with FBG levels of 300-350 mg/dl were considered for the experiment. 
Measurement of fasting blood glucose level
After grouping of all the animals, the FBG level was measured. On every seventh day of treatment, FBG was further recorded for all the animals of all groups. Blood was collected from the tip of the tail vein and the FBG level was measured by a single touch glucometer (Bayer's Ascensia Entrust, Bayer, Germany).
Before the induction of diabetes the rats were divided into four groups of six animals each:
The dose of the extract used here is taken from a dose-dependent pilot study and the dose of the glibenclamide was used as per our previous report  and another study.  The extract and glibenclamide were administered orally in the respective groups of animals by an intragastric tube daily for 21 days. The FBG level was measured every seventh day of extract treatment. On day 22 of extract treatment (day 29 of STZ injection), all animals were sacrificed by cervical decapitation. Blood was collected from the dorsal aorta by a syringe and serum was separated at 3000 rpm for 10 min for the assessment of the activity of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and transaminase enzymes. Livers and skeletal muscles were dissected out and stored at −20°C for biochemical analysis of the activities of enzymes and glycogen content in the respective tissue sample.
- Control group: Rats of this group received a single intramuscular injection of the citrate buffer (1 ml/kg body weight).
- Diabetic group: Rats of this group were made diabetic by a single intramuscular injection of STZ at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight.
- Extract-treated group: Diabetic rats of this group were treated with the hydromethanolic (2:3) extract of the seeds of C. bonduc at a dose of 250 mg/kg of body weight per day for 21 days in a fasting state.
- Glibenclamide-treated group: Diabetic rats of this group were treated with glibenclamide at a dose of 0.6 mg / kg body weight per day.
Evaluation of carbohydrate metabolic enzyme markers
Activities of carbohydrate metabolic key enzymes, i.e., hepatic hexokinase,  glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase,  and glucose-6-phosphatase  were measured biochemically by recording the optical density by a spectrophotometer.
Assay of glycogen
The levels of glycogen in liver and skeletal muscles were measured biochemically  with a slight modification. 
Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), and ALP levels were measured using kits from Merck Diagnostic Ltd. (24-26) following a spectrometric method. The values were expressed in mg/dl in all the cases.
Biochemical estimation of the tissue homogenate
The liver and kidney were removed from the dissected animal, freed from adhering tissues, and washed with an ice-cold normal saline solution (0.9%). Weights of all the organs were taken only after drying the tissue using a blotting paper; 1 g tissue was homogenized in 10 ml of 0.2 M Tris-HCl with the help of a homogenizer. The homogenate was filtered and then centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 20 min at 4C. The supernatant was used for the estimation of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD)  and catalase (CAT).  The quantification of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was performed in the same tissue sample. 
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a multiple comparison two-tail t-test was used for statistical analysis of collected data.  Differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. All the values have been indicated by mean ± SEM.
| Results|| |
Fasting blood glucose level
A significant elevation was noted in FBG levels in STZ-injected diabetic rats as compared to the control group. The administration of the hydromethanolic extract for 21 days resulted in a significant decrease in the FBG level in the diabetic animals toward control levels with respect to the untreated diabetic rats. There was no significant difference in the levels of FBG between glibenclamide-treated and hydromethanolic extract-treated groups. The percentage of recovery in the extract-treated group was 73.73%, where glibenclamide showed 74.05% recovery in FBG levels with respect to the untreated diabetic group [Table 1].
|Table 1: Fasting blood glucose levels in control and different experimental groups|
Click here to view
Activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes
Hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in the liver were significantly decreased and the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase was significantly increased in the STZ-injected diabetic group with respect to the control group. After the administration of the hydromethanolic extract to the diabetic rats, a significant recovery was noted in the activities of the said enzymes. No significant difference was noted in the activities of the said enzymes between extract-treated and glibenclamide-treated groups. The percentage of recovery in the activities of hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the liver was 16.32% and 52.09%, respectively, in the hydromethanolic extract-treated group whereas the recovery of the said parameters was 15.54% and 53.37%, respectively, in the glibenclamide-treated group when compared with the untreated diabetic group. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate in the liver was recovered by 25.95% in the hydromethanolic extract-treated group whereas 28.77% recovery was noted in the glibanclamide-treated group when compared to the diabetic group [Figure 1].
|Figure 1: Activity of hepatic hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) after the administration of the hydromethanolic extract of the seeds of C. bonduc in the streptozotocin-injected diabetic group. Bars are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 6). ANOVA was followed by a multiple comparison two-tail t-test. Values with different superscripts like a, b, and c on bars differ from each other significantly, P < 0.05|
Click here to view
Glycogen levels in tissues
Glycogen levels in the liver and skeletal muscles were significantly decreased in the diabetic group compared with the control group. After the administration of the hydromethanolic extract of the seeds of C. bonduc or glibencalmide to diabetic rats, a significant recovery was noted in the levels of glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles toward the control level. After the administration of the extract to diabetic rats, the percentage of recovery in the levels of glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles was 72.10% and 77.68%, respectively, whereas it was 65.58% and 71.55%, respectively, in the glibenclamide-treated diabetic group. The level of this parameter showed no significant difference between the extract-treated and glibenclamide-treated groups [Figure 2].
|Figure 2: Levels of glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles in control and different experimental groups of rats. Bars are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 6). ANOVA was followed by a multiple comparison two-tail t-test. Values with different superscripts like a, b, and c on bars differ from each other significantly, P < 0.05|
Click here to view
Activities of antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation level in the hepatic tissue
The activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes, i.e. CAT and SOD, were decreased and quantity of TBARS was increased significantly in STZ-injected diabetic rats with respect to the control group. The administration of the hydromethanolic extract resulted in a significant recovery in the levels of these parameters with respect to the diabetic group. No significant difference was noted in the activities of CAT, SOD, and the quantity of the TBARS level between the glibenclamide-treated and hydromethanolic extract-treated groups. The percentage of recoveries in the levels of CAT and SOD was 51.08% and 44.24%, respectively, after the treatment with the hydromethanolic extract, whereas it was 54.89% and 51.76%, respectively, after the administration of glibenclamide to diabetic rats with respect to the untreated diabetic group. The percentage of recovery in the level of TBARS was 29.54% and 34.29% in the extract-treated and glibenclamide-treated diabetic groups, respectively [Figure 3].
|Figure 3: Activities of hepatic catalase (CAT) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD), and quantity of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after the administration of the hydromethanolic extract of the seeds of C. bonduc in streptozotocin-injected diabetic rats. Bars are expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 6). ANOVA was followed by a multiple comparison two-tail t-test. Values with different superscripts like a, b, and c on bars differ from each other significantly, P < 0.05|
Click here to view
Activities of GOT, GPT, and ALP in serum
Activities of GOT, GPT, and ALP in serum increased significantly in the diabetic group compared with the control group. The administration of the hydromethanolic extract to diabetic animals resulted in a significant recovery in the activities of these three enzymes toward the control level. No significant difference was noted in the activities of serum GOT, GPT, and ALP between the glibenclamide-treated and extract-treated groups. The percentage of recoveries in the levels of serum GOT, GPT, and ALP was 30.90%, 28.75%, and 12.84%, respectively, after the administration of the plant extract and 32.04%, 29.72%, and 14.92% recoveries were noted after the administration of glibenclamide to diabetic rats with respect to the untreated diabetic group [Figure 4].
|Figure 4: Activities of serum GOT, GPT, and ALP in different experimental groups compared to the control group of rats. Bars are given as mean ± SEM (n = 6). ANOVA was followed by a multiple comparison two-tail t-test. Values with different superscripts like a, b, and c on bars differ from each other significantly, P < 0.05|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Diabetes was induced by a single intramuscular injection of STZ, which is toxic to β-cells. In the present study, the administration of the hydromethanolic extract of C. bonduc effectively reduced the blood glucose level in STZ-injected diabetic rats. Since the hydromethanolic extract of C. bonduc reduced the FBG level, it may be implicit that the extract may result in stimulations of the remaining β-cells of the pancreas in diabetic rats for insulin secretion or it may help in the regeneration of pancreatic β-cells which is in agreement with other reports  as well as our previous reports on this aspect using other plant parts. 
Another view for the regenerative activities of pancreatic β-cells of this extract in STZ-induced diabetes is the improvement of activities of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphatase in the liver as well as the improvement in the levels of glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles.  As these biomarkers are under the positive control of insulin  so, it may be predicted that the extract may progress the pancreatic insulin synthesis or secretion through β-cell regeneration. In our previous work, this type of observation has been noted using other plants for this purpose.
Another view for the antidiabetic effect of the said plant extract is the antioxidative effect. The decreased activities of CAT and SOD in the diabetic group may be a response to the increased production of H 2 O 2 and O 2 by the auto-oxidation of glucose and nonenzymatic glycation.  Hepatic SOD and CAT activities were reduced during diabetes and this may result in a number of harmful effects due to the accumulation of hydrogen peroxides and superoxide radicals.  The administration of the C. bonduc extract showed decreased lipid peroxidation, which is associated with an increased activity of SOD and CAT which indicates that the extract can reduce reactive oxygen free radicals and improve the activities of the hepatic antioxidant enzymes.  The antioxidative activity of the said extract has been strengthened here from the quantification of TBARS in hepatic tissues as there is an inverse relationship between the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the quantity of free radicals, which is in agreement with previous reports. ,
In diabetes, serum GOT, GPT, and ALP activities were increased,  which may be due to the cellular damage.  The plant extract was shown to normalize the levels of these enzymes, which indicates that it has a promising antidiabetic effect without inducing toxicity.
| Conclusion|| |
On the basis of the aforementioned results, it may be concluded that the C. bonduc seed extract has significant antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects in diabetic experimental rats. Therefore, it may be useful for alternative and early treatment of diabetic disorders. Further studies are in progress to isolate, identify, and characterize the active principles.
| References|| |
|1.||Scheen JA. Drug treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in the 1990s. Achievements and future development. Drug 1997;54:355-68. |
|2.||Sharma AK. Diabetes mellitus and its complications: An update. In: Sharma AK, editor. 1 st ed. New Delhi: Macmillan India Ltd.; 1993. p. 92-205. |
|3.||Shahaboddin ME, Pouramir M, Moghadamnia AK, Lakzaei M, Mirhashemi SM, Motallebi M. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of Viscum album extract. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2011;5:432-6. |
|4.||Maritim AC, Sanders RA, Watkins JB. Diabetes, oxidative stress and antioxidants: A review. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2003;17:24-38. |
|5.||Naggar El, Bartosikova L, Zemlicka M, Svajdlenka E, Rabiskova M, Strnadova V. Antidiabetic effect of Cleome droserifolia aerial parts: Lipid peroxidation-induced oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Acta Vet Brno 2005;74:347-52. |
|6.||Kalaivanan K, Pugalendi KV. Antihyperglycemic effect of the alcoholic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla0 on streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Pharmacogn Res. 2011;3:67-71. |
|7.||Murthy PS. Medicinal plants in diabetes treatment. Indian J Clin Biochem 1995;10:52-3. |
|8.||Kumar PM, Sasmal D, Mazumder PM. The antihyperglycemic effect of aerial parts of Salvia splendens (scarlet sage) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic-rats. Pharmacogn Res. 2010;2:190-4. |
|9.||Ivorra MD, Paya M, Villar A. A review of natural products and plants as potential antidiabetic drugs. J Ethnopharmacol 1989;27:243-75. |
|10.||Ali KM, Chatterjee K, De D, Bera TK, Ghosh D. Efficacy of aqueous extract of seed of Holarrhena antidysenterica for the management of diabetes in experimental model rat: A correlative study with antihyperlipidemic activity. Int J Appl Res Nat Prod 2009;2:13-21. |
|11.||Kujur RS, Singh V, Ram M, Yadava HN, Singh KK, Kumari S, et al. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of crude extract of Stevia rebaudianain alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacogn Res. 2010;2:258-63. |
|12.||Oliver-Bever B. Oral hypoglycemic action of medicinal plants in tropical West Africa. London: Cambridge University Press; 1986. p. 245-67. |
|13.||Rai MK. A review on some antidiabetic plants of India. Ancient Sci Life 1995;14:42-54. |
|14.||Sabu MC, Ramadasan K. Antidiabetic activity of Aegle marmelos and its relationship with its anti-oxidant properties. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2004;48:81-8. |
|15.||Loew D, Kaszkin M. Approaching the problem of bioequivalence of herbal medicinal products. Phytother Res 2002;16:705-11. |
|16.||Gaur RL, Sahoo MK, Dixit S, Fatma N, Rastogi S, Kulshreshtha DK, et al. Antifilarial activity of Caesalpinia bonducella against experimental filarial infections. Indian J Med Res 2008;128:65-70. |
|17.||Chakrabarti S, Biswas TK, Seal T, Rokeya B, Ali L, Azad AK. Antidiabetic activity of Caesalpinia bonducella in chronic type 2 diabetic model in Long-Evans rats and evaluation of insulin secretagogue property of its fractions on isolated islets. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;97:117-22. |
|18.||Ali KM, Chatterjee K, De D, Jana K, Bera TK, Ghosh D. Inhibitory effect of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Holarrhena antidysenterica on alpha-glucosidase activity and postprandial blood glucose level in normoglycemic rat. J Ethnopharmcol 2011;135:194-6. |
|19.||Mallick C, Chatterjee K, Mandal U, Ghosh D. Antihyperglycemic, antilipidperoxidative and antioxidative effects of extracts of Musa paradisiaca and Coccinia indica in streptozotocin- induced diabetic Rat. Ethiop Pharm J 2007;25:9-22. |
|20.||Sellamuthu PS, Muniappan BP, Perumal SM, Kandasami M. Antihyperglycemic effect of Mangiferin in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. J Health Sci 2009;55:206-14. |
|21.||Chou AC, Wilson JE. Carbohydrate metabolism. In: Wood WA, editor. Methods in Enzymol. Vol. 13. New York: Academic Press; 1975. p. 20-1. |
|22.||Langdon RG. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from erythrocytes. In: Wood WA, editor. Methods in Enzymol. Vol. 9. New York: Academic Press; 1966. p. 126-31. |
|23.||Swanson MA. Glucose-6-phosphatase from liver. In: Colowick SP, Kaplan NO, editors. Methods in Enzymes. Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press; 1955. p. 541-3. |
|24.||Sadasivam S, Manickam A. Biochemical methods. 3 rd ed. New Delhi: New Age International Pvt. Ltd.; 1996. p. 9-10. |
|25.||Mandal S, Barik B, Mallick C, De D, Ghosh D. Therapeutic effect of ferulic acid, an ethereal fraction of ethanolic extract of seed of Syzygium cumini against streptozotocin induced diabetes in male rat. Method Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2008;30:121-8. |
|26.||Kakkar P, Das B, Viswanathan PN. A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Indian J Biochem Biophys 1984;21:130-2. |
|27.||Sinha AK. Colorimetric assay of catalase. Anal Biochem 1972;47:389-94. |
|28.||Devasagayam TP, Tarachand U. Decreased lipid peroxidation in the rat kidney during gestation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1987;56:836-42. |
|29.||Sokal RR, Rohle FJ. Introduction to analysis of variance. In: Biometry. New York: WH Freeman and Company; 1997. p. 179-206. |
|30.||Cooperstin SJ, Watkin D. Action of toxic drugs on islet cells. In the Islets of Langerhans. New York: Academic Press; 1981. p. 387-425. |
|31.||Chauhan S, Nath N, Tule V. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Picrorhiza kurrooa rhizome extracts in diabetic rats. Indian J Clin Biochem 2008;23:238-42. |
|32.||Mallick C, Suvra M, Baric B, Bhattacharya A, Ghosh D. Protection of testicular dysfunction by MTEC, a formulated herbal drug in STZ induced diabetic rat. Biol Pharm Bull 2007;30:84-90. |
|33.||Singh J, Kakkar P. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effect of Berberis aristata root extract and its role in regulating carbohydrate metabolism in diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2009;123:22-6. |
|34.||Bera TK, De D, Chatterjee K, Ali KM, Ghosh D. Effect of Diashis, a polyherbal formulation, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rats. Int J Ayurveda Res 2010;1:18-24. |
|35.||Lubec B, Hayn M, Denk W, Bauer G. Brain lipid peroxidation and hydroxyl radical attack following the intravenous infusion of hydrogen peroxide in an infant. Free Radic Biol Med 1996;21:219-23. |
|36.||Searle AJ, Wilsion RL. Gultathion peroxidase effect of super oxide, hydroxyl and bromine free radicals on enzyme activity. Int J Radiat Biol 1981;34:125-9. |
|37.||Tripathi UN, Chandra D. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidative effect of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia pulp and Trigonella foenum graecum seed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2010;47:227-33. |
|38.||Pari L, Saravanan G. Antioxidant effect of congent db, an herbal drug in alloxan induced diabetes mellitus. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2002;131:19-25. |
|39.||Balaraman AK, Singh J, Dash S, Maiti TK. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Melothria maderaspatana and Coccinia indica in Streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Saudi Pharm J 2010;18:173-8. |
|40.||McAnuff MA, Omoruyi FO, Morrison EY, Asemota HN. Hepatic function enzymes and lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats fed bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides) steroidal sapogenin extract. Diabetol Croat 2003;32:17-22. |
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
|This article has been cited by|
||Potential antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon citratus on OxLDL and H 2 O 2 LDL induced Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC)
| ||Jamuna S.,Sakeena Sadullah M.S.,Ashokkumar R.,Gokul Shanmuganathan,Senguttuvan Sivan Mozhi,Niranjali Devaraj S. |
| ||Food Science and Human Wellness. 2017; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Plants used to treat diabetes in Sri Lankan Siddha Medicine – an ethnopharmacological review of historical and modern sources
| ||Saravanan V. Sathasivampillai,Pholtan R.S. Rajamanoharan,Michael Munday,Michael Heinrich |
| ||Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2016; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Antidiabetic effects of Eugenia jambolana in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat
| ||Kishalay Jana,Tushar Kanti Bera,Debidas Ghosh |
| ||Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine. 2015; 7(3): 116 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Studies on the antioxidant activity of ethanol extract and its fractions from Pterygota alata leaves
| ||Nusrat Jahan,Mst. Shahnaj Parvin,Nandita Das,Mohammad Saiful Islam,Md. Ekramul Islam |
| ||Journal of Acute Medicine. 2014; 4(3): 103 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and fractions of crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark and the involvement of phenolic compounds
| ||das, n. and islam, m.e. and jahan, n. and islam, m.s. and khan, a. and islam, m.r. and parvin, m.s. |
| ||bmc complementary and alternative medicine. 2014; 14(45) |
||Potential Protective Effects of Nigella Sativa and Allium Sativum Against Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats
| ||Nawal Al-Rasheed,Nouf Al-Rasheed,Yieldez Bassiouni,Laila Faddah,Azza M Mohamad |
| ||Journal of Oleo Science. 2014; 63(8): 839 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Antioxidant properties and inhibitory effects of Satureja khozestanica essential oil on LDL oxidation induced–CuSO4 in vitro
| ||Shahrokh Bagheri,Hassan Ahmadvand,Ali Khosrowbeygi,Farshid Ghazanfari,Narges Jafari,Habibolah Nazem,Reza Haji Hosseini |
| ||Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2013; 3(1): 22 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||A Study of the Early Changes of the Level of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Histopathology of Penises of Rats with Experimentally Induced Type I Diabetes Mellitus by Streptozocin
| ||Abdel Aal M. El-Kamshoushi,Wafaa I. Abdallah,Suzan F. Helal,Nesrine M. El Azhary,Eman M. Hassan |
| ||Sexual Medicine. 2013; 1(1): 21 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Hypoglycemic activity of Fumaria parviflora in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
| ||Fathiazad, F. and Hamedeyazdan, S. and Khosropanah, M.K. and Khaki, A. |
| ||Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2013; 3(1): 207-210 |
||Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effect of hydro - methanolic (2:3) extract of the seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat: An approach through pancreas
| ||Bera, T.K. and Chatterjee, K. and Jana, K. and Ali, K.M. and De, D. and Maiti, S. and Ghosh, D. |
| ||Genomic Medicine, Biomarkers, and Health Sciences. 2012; 4(4): 107-117 |