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LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 146  

Monograph: Ochrocarpus longifolius


School of Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Gandhi Nagar, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication8-Jun-2011

Correspondence Address:
Roopesh Jain
School of Biotechnology, Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Airport Bypass Road, Gandhi Nagar, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh - 462 036
India
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DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.81965

PMID: 21772761

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How to cite this article:
Jain R, Tiwari A. Monograph: Ochrocarpus longifolius. Phcog Res 2011;3:146

How to cite this URL:
Jain R, Tiwari A. Monograph: Ochrocarpus longifolius. Phcog Res [serial online] 2011 [cited 2014 Dec 22];3:146. Available from: http://www.phcogres.com/text.asp?2011/3/2/146/81965

Sir,

Ochrocarpus longifolius Benth and Hook f. is commonly known as Nagappu, Nagesarpu (Siddha/Tamil) and Laal-Naagakeshar, Surangi (Folk). Ochrocarpus longifolius is also sometimes referred to as Nagakesara [1] and belongs to family Clusiaceae and is found in the evergreen Western Ghats southwards from Konkan to Malabar and Coimbatore. [2]

Ochrocarpus longifolius is a big tree with very pretty and glossy foliage. Tiny flowers are borne in clusters on the tree trunk and mature branches. Flowers have a very pleasant scent, which lasts even when the flowers dry up. The flowers appear in the hot weather and the fruits ripen during the rainy season. The flower buds of Ochrocarpus longifolius have been reported to contain 0.50-1.5% volatile oil and 5-6% oleoresins. Thirty-five chemical constituents of the oil have already been identified by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. Sesquiterpenes are the predominant constituents of the oil, while major compounds are b-caryophyllene (28.25%), d-cadinene (14.22%), a-copaene (5.24%), linalool (3.46%), a-humulene (4.63%), and a-muurolene (3.35%). Leaves gave amentoflavone, quercetin and vitexin as major constituents. [3]

Fresh flowers of the tree are used for worship in temples and for personal adornment such as " Gajara". Dried flowers retain their fragrance for a long time, and could be extracted for perfume. Flower buds contain a coloring matter which dyes silk red. The dried flower buds are light brown in colour and round in shape. Foreign matter (0.29%), loss on drying (13.16%), total ash (6.30%), acid-insoluble ash (0.43%), water-soluble ash (1.97%), alcohol-soluble extractive (16.03%), water-soluble extractive (12.57%), volatile oil (0.10%), foaming index 200 and swelling index 0.36 ml of the crude drug (flower buds) have been obtained. Phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of the crude drug (flower buds) identified presence of glycosides, reducing sugars, phenolics, tannins, coumarins, sterols, flavanoids, saponins and volatile oil. Total phenolics (138.30 ± 4.58), total tannins (133.0 ± 1.52), total flavonoids (41 ± 1.28) and total flavonol (0.56 ± 0.04) content in mg/g of plant extract have been estimated. [4]

Ochrocarpus longifolius exhibits antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. Vitexin (8-ί-D-glucopyranosyl-apigenin) (VT), isolated from Ochrocarpus longifolius is known to have potent hypotensive, anti-inflammatory and anti-spasmodic (nonspecific) properties, [5] while vitexin and meso-inositol exhibited positive effect on treatment of leprosy. [6] The hypotensive effect of VT was attributed to its ganglion-blocking properties, and anti-inflammatory effects to its anti-histaminic, anti-bradykinin and anti-serotonin properties. Surangin B, a coumarin isolated from Ochrocarpus longifolius was shown to have antifungal and anthelmintic activity. [7] The buds possess mild stimultant, carminative and astrigent properties and are used in dyspepsia and hemorrhoids. They are also used for gastritis, leucoderma, headache and snake and scorpion-bite.

 
   References Top

1.Dobriyal RM, Ananthanarayana DB. Controversial nomenclature of Ayurvedic drugs: Challenges for scientists. Phcog Rev 2009;3:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
  Medknow Journal  
2.Khare CP. Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2007. p. 443.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Sastri N. The Wealth of India (Raw material). Vol 6, L-M. New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; 1962. p. 252.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Sahu AN, Hemalatha S, Sairam K, Laloo D, Patra A. Vol Quality Control Studies of Ochrocarpus longifolius Flower Buds. Phcog J 2010;2:118-23.   Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Prabhakar MC, Bano H, Kumar I, Shamsi MA, Khan MS. Pharmacological investigations on vitexin. Planta Medica 1981;43:396-403.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.Khan MS, Kumar I, Khan NU, Ilyas M. Chemical investi­gation of Indian medicinal plants used for leprosy. Constituents of the flowers of Ochrocarpus longifolius Benth. and Hook. f. (Guttiferae). Curr Sci 1978;47:414-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Deng Y, Nicholson RA. Antifungal properties of surangin B, a coumarins from Mammea longifolia. Planta Medica 2005;71:364-5.  Back to cited text no. 7
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